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Sacret) IBoofts of tbc 3Bubbbt9ts IDoI. xxi 








Being a Translation and Edition of the Bdhiraniddna of 
Buddhaghosa' s Samantapdsddikd, the Vinaya Commentary 


B.A., Ph.D.(Lond.), Professor of Pali and Buddhist 
Civilization in the University of Ceylon 


46 Great Russell Street, London, W.C. i 




All rights reserved. 






Preface ix 

Translator's Introduction xi 

The Inception of Discipline 


1 . The Proem 1 

2. The Tabulation 2 


3. Mahakassapa kindles the Enthusiasm of the Monks 

4. The Selection of Monks for the Convocation 

5. Ananda ......... 

6. Rajagaha, the Venue of the Convocation 

7. The Monks journey to Rajagaha .... 

8. Ananda's Visit to Savatthi ..... 

9. The Repairs to the Eighteen Great Monasteries . 

10. Ajatasattu builds a Pavilion ..... 

1 1 . Ananda attains Arahatship ..... 

12. Ananda enters the Convocation Hall .... 

13. Upali elected to recite the Vinaya .... 

14. Upali recites the Vinaya ..... 

15. Ananda recites the Dhamma ..... 

16. The Classification of the Teaching : the Tabulation 

17. The Uniformity in Sentiment ..... 

18. The Division into Dhamma and Vinaya 

19. The Division into the First, Intermediate and Last Words 

20. The Division into Pitakas ...... 

21. The Definition of Vinaya ...... 

22. The Definition of Dhamma ..... 

23. The Definition of Abhidhamma ..... 

24. The Significance of the Term Pitaka .... 

25. The Content of the Three Pitakas— I .... 

26. The Content of the Three Pitakas — II : Training, Avoidance 

Profundity ........ 

27. The Fourfold Profundity 

28. The Three Modes of Learning ..... 

29. Success or Failure in the Learning .... 

30. The Division into Nikayas ..... 

























Inception of Discipline 

3 1 . The Division into Angas . 

32. The Division into Units of the Dhamma 

33. The Conclusion of the Recital . 




34. The Meaning of the Tabulation . 

35. The Succession of Teachers in Jambudipa 

36. Upali, Dasaka, Sonaka 

37. Siggava to Moggaliputta 

38. The Second Convocation 

39. The Great Brahma Tissa 

40. Siggava and Candavajji 


41. The Brahmin Moggali 

42. The Buddha-manta .... 

43. Moggaliputta Tissa learns the Dhamma vinaya 

44. Asoka's Supernatural Powers 

45. The Offering of the Gaze . 

46. The Feeding of the Mendicants . 

47. The Novice Nigrodha 

48. Asoka wins Faith in the Dhamma 

49. Asoka builds 84,000 Monasteries 

50. The Festival of Dedication 

51. An Heir of the Dispensation 

52. Mahinda and Sanghamitta ordained . 

53. The Elder Kontiputta Tissa 

54. The Entry of Heretics into the Order . 

55. The Interruption of the Uposatha 

56. The Viceroy Tissa enters the Order 

57. The Minister's misguided Act 

58. The King seeks Moggaliputta Tissa's Aid 

59. The Arrival of the Elder at Pataliputta 

60. Moggaliputta Tissa's Miracle. 

61. The Elder clears the King's Doubt 

62. The Restoration of the Purity of the Dispensation 


63. The Succession of Teachers in Tambapanni 

64. The Despatch of the Missions 

65. Majjhantika in Kasmira-Gandhara 

66. Mahadeva in Mahimsaka Mandala 

67. Rakkhita in Vanavasi 

68. Dhammarakkhita in Aparanta . 

69. Mahadhammarakkhita in Maharattah 

70. Maharakkhita in the Yona Kingdom 


71. Majjhima in the Himalayan Region . 

72. Sona and Uttara in Suvannabhumi 

73. Mahinda visits his Kinsmen 

74. Mahinda awaits his Departure to Tambapanni 

75. Mahinda arrives at the Cetiyapabbata 

76. The Succession of Rulers .... 

77. Devanampiyatissa meets Mahinda 

78. The Exchange of Gifts .... 

79. Devanampiyatissa meets Mahinda's Companions 

80. The Riddle of the Mango Tree . 

81. Devanampiyatissa wins Faith in the Dhamma 

82. Mahinda preaches the Dhamma . 

83. The Discourse in the King's Palace 

84. The Founding of the Mahavihara 

85. The First Rains-Residence 

86. Arittha (1) enters the Order 

87. The King undertakes to build a Thupa 

88. Sumana obtains Relics 

89. The King receives the Relics 

90. The Buddha Kakusandha . 

91. The Buddha Konagamana 

92. The Buddha Kassapa 

93. The Building of the Thupa 

94. The Enshrinement of the Relics, 

95. Arittha (2) despatched as Envoy to Pataliputta 

96. Sanghamitta decides to go to Tambapanni . 

97. The Golden Vase 

98. The Great Bodhi plants itself in the Vase . 

99. The Dedication of the Sovereignty of Jambudipa. 

100. The Great Bodhi reaches Tamalitti 

101. The Departure of the Great Bodhi 

102. The Great Bodhi reaches Anuradhapura 

103. The Young Bodhi Trees . 

104. Sites of Future Monuments 

105. The Roots of the Dispensation . 

106. The Vinaya Recital .... 

107. The Conclusion of the External Story of the Vinaya 




List of Abbreviations . . . , 
Notes to the Translation 

General Index 

Index of Proper Names . 

List of Untranslated Pali Words 




Inception of Discipline 

Samantapasadikaya Bahiranidanam 

Abbreviations Used in the Notes . 

I. Samvannanaya Arambho 
II. Pathamamahasangitivannana 



Index to Pali Text 





I have taken the hberty of contracting the phrase Vinayassa 
Bahiranidanam (Smp. 107) to Vinayanidana in using the title 
" Inception of DiscipKne " in this book. The text on which the 
translation is based is printed as the second part of this book. 
The text is essentially based on the Sinhalese edition of the 
Samantapasadika by Baddegama Piyaratana and Valivitiye 
Sorata Nayaka Theras, Simon Hewavitarne Bequest, 
Vol. XXVII, and the Pali Text Society's edition by Takakusu 
and Nagai. Other available printed editions of the text have 
been compared in re-editing the text. It was not considered 
necessary to go to manuscripts, as a representative number of 
them has been consulted by the previous editors and the variant 
readings noted. It has been necessary to differ from the P.T.S. 
edition in a number of instances. A minor departure from 
earlier editions is the division of the text into numbered para- 
graphs. However, it has not been possible to confine each 
numbered paragraph to a single topic as the topics themselves 
merge into one another. Even if this had been possible, it 
would have unnecessarily multiplied the paragraphs into an 
unwieldy number for a short text of this nature. It is hoped 
that this division, as well as the inclusion, in square brackets, 
both in the translation and the text, of the page numbers of 
the P.T.S. edition, will be useful to the reader for ready 

The present translation of the Bahiranidana was more or 
less completed as far back as 1956, but for various reasons its 
publication had to be delayed. I had earlier requested Dr. G. C. 
Mendis to write an historical introduction from a historian's 
point of view. His retirement from the University of Ceylon 
and the consequent departure from Peradeniya finally resulted 
in the idea being given up. He, however, made available to me 
a manuscript containing a translation to part of the Bahira- 
nidana. Wherever possible it was made use of. I thank him 
for suggesting to me to make this translation, particularly on 
account of its being a useful source-book for the early history 
of Buddhism in Ceylon. 

X Inception of Discipline 

My sincere thanks are due to Miss I. B. Horner, M.A., 
President of the PaU Text Society, for giving me every en- 
couragement and assistance and for carefully reading through 
the manuscript and making many valuable suggestions and 
supplying a good deal of information which has now been 
included in the notes to the translation. I also thank her for 
kindly agreeing to publish this work in the Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists Series. My thanks are also due to Dr. L. S. Perera 
of the University of Ceylon, and Mr. D. T. Devendra, of the 
Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, Peradeniya, who have helped me 
with some important topographical details of ancient 


The Bdhiraniddna 

The Bahiranidana is the introductory chapter to Buddha- 
ghosa's Samantapasadika, the Commentary to the Vinaya 
Pitaka. This introduction is primarily meant to explain the 
Nidana, the " inception " or " origin " of the Vinaya. The 
author is anxious that no relevant detail, however insignificant, 
is left out in his description of the Nidana. The long analysis 
of the classification of the Teachings (Smp. i6 ff.), the laborious 
details regarding Moggaliputta Tissa (Smp. 39 ff.), the Asoka 
legend (Smp. 44 ff.), the description of the missions sent out 
after the Third Convocation (Smp. 64 ff.), the Conversion of 
Ceylon (Smp. 73 ff.), and all the episodes connected with it, 
form but important links in the narrative dealing with the 
Nidana of the Vinaya. His aim is to establish the authenticity 
of the Vinaya before proceeding to compile its commentary. 
Buddhaghosa first defines the term Vinaya as the entire Vinaya 
Pitaka as known to him. He next introduces his matika, 
" tabulation " for the exposition as a preliminary step, before 
dealing with the actual text of the Vinaya : Vuttam yena 
yada yasma dharitam yena cabhatam, yatthappatitthitarn 
c'etam ..." By whom it was said, when and for what reason, 
held by whom, where it was established ..." (Smp. 2). In 
providing the answers to the six items in the tabulation Buddha- 
ghosa has furnished us with a great deal of information which 
has hitherto not been presented in such comprehensive manner, 
though the introductory chapters to the Sumangalavilasni and 
Atthasalini cover more or less the same ground from the angle 
of the Sutta and the Abhidhamma respectively, while the 
Chronicles discuss them from altogether a different angle. He 
has deemed it fit that each of these topics in the tabulation 
should have a satisfactory explanation, especially for the sake 
of clarity and easy comprehension. In answer to the question, 
" by whom was the statement, tena kho pana samayena Buddho 
bhagavd Veranjdyam viharati ..." made, he proceeds to give 
a complete account of the Convocation itself " for the sake of 

xii Inception of Discipline 

familiarity with the source " (Smp. 3 ff.). After the account 
of the rehearsal of the Dhammavinaya he gives a disquisition 
on the classification of the Word of the Buddha defining the 
content and character of each of the units in the classification 
(Smp. 16 ff.). This discussion is, with some difiiculty, in- 
corporated in the story of the Recital as it does not harmonize 
with the general trend of the narrative, but is joined to 
it with the words, " Thus this Word of the Buddha which is 
uniform in sentiment . . . was rehearsed together . . . and not 
only this, but other divers distinctions in compilation to be met 
with in the Three Pitakas . . . have been determined when it 
was thus rehearsed together in seven months " (Smp. 33). It 
hardly has any bearing on the narrative proper, but is primarily 
designed to show the relationship in which the various com- 
ponent parts of the Canon stand to one another. Ultimately 
Buddhaghosa traces the Vinaya, as well as the rest of the 
sayings of the Buddha in their present form, to the First Great 
Convocation and explains the meaning of the words, " by whom 
was it said, when and for what reason ? " (Smp. 34). In dealing 
with the significance of the words, " by whom this was retained 
in mind, handed down by whom and established in whom " he 
traces the history of the Vinaya from the Tathagata (Smp. 35), 
in successive stages, to each of the three Convocations and 
finally to the Vinaya Recital of Maha-Arittha in Ceylon under 
the presidentship of Mahinda (Smp. 106). His primary aim is 
to establish that it is the Vinaya in its pristine purity (amissa) 
that he is commenting upon. Therefore it is imperative that 
the stages by which it has reached him should be traced. The 
succession of Teachers from Upali brought it down to the time 
of the Second Convocation and the Theras " again rehearsed 
the entire Dhamma and the Vinaya . . . even in the same manner 
as it was rehearsed by the Elder Mahakassapa " (Smp. 38). 

The account of the Third Great Convocation is given in even 
greater detail than the first two. The Elders who held the 
Second Recital foresaw that an even greater calamity than the 
ten indulgences of the Vajjiputtakas would befall the Dispensa- 
tion in Dhammasoka's reign and were compelled to take ade- 
quate steps to meet the situation when the calamity would arise 
(Smp. 39 ff.). Much space is devoted to Moggaliputta Tissa 

Translator's Introduction xiii 

before coming to Asoka (at Smp. 44 ff.). The wealth of legendary 
details has but little bearing on the actual Nidana of the Vinaya 
except to show the conditions that necessitated the Third 
Great Convocation. The King's conversion, his services to the 
Dispensation, his anxiety to become an " heir " of the Dispensa- 
tion, and the lavish gifts he showered on the Sangha are 
described at length (Smp. 48 ff.). The interruption of the 
Uposatha due to heretics who had furtively entered the Order 
for personal gains (Smp. 55) and the King's abortive attempt 
to revive it through his minister Mahadeva (Smp. 57) and the 
consequent remorse and doubt that led to his seeking Moggali- 
putta Tissa's aid to remove his doubt and stabilize the Dis- 
pensation as well (Smp. 58 ff.) are all significant episodes in 
the story of the Third Convocation. The Elder clears the 
King's doubt absolving him from all responsibility of his 
minister's misguided act (Smp. 61). The purification of the 
Dispensation begins with the King himself learning the Teaching 
from the Elder and putting the heretics and the monks to a 
simple test by asking them the question, " What teaching did 
the Perfectly Enlightened One expound ? " The heretics all 
to a man answer making the Buddha responsible for each one 
of their theories leaving the King in such a state of mental 
confusion that when the true monks reply that the Buddha was 
an exponent of the analytical doctrine the King has to seek 
confirmation from Moggaliputta Tissa even in spite of the earlier 
instruction he has had from the Elder. At this preliminary 
meeting designed to ensure the purity of the Dispensation, 
the King plays a prominent role in uniting the Sangha by 
disrobing the heretics giving them white garments (in order 
to remove all outward emblems of their monkhood — cp. 
Dpv. vii, 53), and expelling them for good from the Sangha 
(uppabbajesi), so that in later years in reminiscent mood he 
could allude to this incident in his Minor Pillar Edicts of 
Sarnath, Kosambi, and Safici (Smp. 62, n. 4). The Sangha 
is cleansed of the undesirable elements and the King requests 
the monks to hold the Uposatha. The Uposatha that was 
interrupted for seven years is held again. Moggaliputta Tissa 
not being content with the mere physical expulsion of the 
heretics from the Sangha through the intervention of the 

xiv Inception of Discipline 

temporal authority, refutes all heretical theories by reciting, in 
the assembly, the Kathavatthu so that the defeat of the heretics 
is doubly assured even at an intellectual level. Next, i,ooo 
monks recite together the Dhamma and the Vinaya in the self- 
same manner as it was done at the two previous Convocations 
(Smp. 62). 

The rest of the narrative though entitled " The Succession 
of Teachers ", covers a much wider range of subjects than does 
each of the four previous sections in the Bahiranidana. It 
starts with the succession of Teachers from Upali in India to 
Siva in Ceylon to a date reckoned as " the present day " by 
the Porana tradition on which Buddhaghosa has based his 
account (Smp. 63). It is in dealing with the story connected 
with the succession of Teachers that the nine missions sent out 
by Moggaliputta Tissa to the " Border Districts " are described 
(Smp. 64 ff.). The validity of all formal acts of the Sangha 
in the respective regions is assured by sending groups of five 
monks each, the minimum required for conferring the higher 
ordination in a border district. The mission to Ceylon is dis- 
cussed in great detail (Smp. 73 ff.) and covers about a third 
of the story in the Bahiranidana. The important episodes in 
it are : the arrival of Mahinda (Smp. 75), the Conversion of 
Devanampiyatissa (Smp. 81), his envoys to the court of 
Pataliputta (Smp. 78, 95 f.), the founding of the Mahavihara 
(Smp. 84), the building of the Thuparama (Smp. 93), the coming 
of Sanghamitta and the Great Bodhi (Smp. 96-103), and the 
Vinaya Recital of Maha-Arittha (Smp. 106). In giving the 
date of Mahinda's arrival in Ceylon as 236 years after the 
Parinibbana of the Buddha a chronological list of kings of 
Magadha and Ceylon is recorded dating events that took place 
in Ceylon from the regnal years of the contemporary Indian 
kings (Smp. 76). Mahinda entrusts the burden of the preserva- 
tion and continuity of the Dispensation by " making its roots 
descend deep " into the soil of Lanka when he has found in 
Maha-Arittha a competent person to learn the Vinaya and 
teach it in the Island (Smp. 105). It is Arittha's successors 
who handed down the Vinaya to the so-called " present day ". 
The authenticity of the Vinaya is thus established and the 
matika is fully explained once the External Story connected 

Translator' s Introduction xv 

with the Vinaya is narrated. After this Buddhaghosa is free 
to proceed to his exposition of the Vinaya. 

The Mahdvihdra Tradition 

This, very briefly, is what the Bahiranidana deals with. 
Leaving aside the many interesting problems that arise from its 
contents, which have already been dealt with by others in some 
form or another with reference to the Samantapasadika or the 
Pali Chronicles, a few words about the Samantapasadika itself are 
necessary at this stage, while some of the problems connected 
with the Bahiranidana can be taken up for discussion later on. 

The prologue and the colophon of the Samantapasadika 
furnish us with a good deal of information. Buddhaghosa's 
own words in the opening stanzas eloquently speak of the com- 
mentary he is about to compile. As is usually the case with all 
his commentaries, it is by no means an original exegesis, but 
a restatement of the material available to him in the Sihala 
Atthakatha, for, in his own words it is a navasangahitavannana, 
" a re-compiled commentary " (Smp. P.T.S., 1414). His 
implicit faith in the pubbacariya ," the teachers of yore," and 
his reliance on their authority in his exposition of the Vinaya 
are clearly expressed in his opening words (see Smp. i, n. i). 
Both in the prologue and in the colophon he acknowledges his 
indebtedness to the three main versions of the Sihala Attha- 
katha, the Maha (or Mula) -Atthakatha, the Mahapaccariya, 
and the Kurundi which he studied under the " wise Elder 
Buddhamitta who was proficient in the Vinaya " (Smp. P.T.S., 
1415). This indebtedness to the Sihala Atthakatha is true of 
all his commentaries, for Buddhaghosa constantly refers to his 
commentaries being based on the earlier commentaries available 
in the language of the Island ; e.g. in the colophons to the 
commentaries on the four prose Nikayas the following hemi- 
stisches occur, among other parallel stanzas : sa hi Maha- 
Atthakathaya saram adaya nitthita maya, " for, it was com- 
piled by me drawing the essence of the Maha- Atthakatha," 
and, Mul 'atthakathaya saram adaya maya imam karontena, 
" while I was compiling this drawing the essence of the Mula- 
Atthakatha," both of which refer to the Mahavihara version 
of the Sihala Atthakatha. 

xvi Inception of Discipline 

There has been a great tradition of Vinaya learning in Ceylon 
from the time of its first recital under Mahinda (Smp. io6). 
It is the aim of the Bahiranidana to show the continuity of 
this tradition right up to the time of the finalization of the 
original documents on which the Samantapasadika is based. 
On account of the position of importance assigned to the 
Vinaya in the Theravada in its development in Ceylon (see 
Smp. I, n. 2), the views of its custodians are of utmost value 
as regards its correct interpretation. This is equally true as 
regards the interpretation of the Dhamma, for the learning 
in the Dhammavinaya, taken as a whole, is looked upon as 
a system that has evolved in the Mahavihara. The frequent 
statements in the colophons to the commentaries on the Four 
Agamas, samayam pakasayanti Mahaviharavasmarti (with 
minor variations, and also in other commentaries attributed to 
Buddhaghosa), " advancing the corpus of traditional views of 
the Mahavihara Fraternity,'' or other frequent statements in 
the prologues to the Agama Commentaries, such as, 

Samayam avilomento theranarn theravarnsappadipanam 

sunipunavinicchayanam Mahaviharadhivasinarn, 

hitva punnappunagatam attharn attham pakasayissami ; 

" I shall expound the meaning (thereof) avoiding repetitions 
of exegeses, not contradicting the corpus of traditional views 
of the dwellers of the Mahavihara, of profoundly mature 
judgments, the shining lamps of the lineage of Elders " can 
equally apply in the case of the Vinaya Commentary. The 
Jatakatthakatha (also attributed to Buddhaghosa), in its 
prologue states, " I will declare the exposition of the meaning 
of the Jataka basing it on the method of discourse of the 
dwellers of the Mahavihara" (JA. i, i, stt. 10 f.). A similar 
statement is made in the Kankhavitarani, the Commentary on 
the Patimokkha (p. i, st. 6). In the AtthasalinT, Buddhaghosa 
stresses the purity of the views of the Mahavihara : " (I shall 
make my exposition) illustrating the unconfused judgments of 
the dwellers of the Mahavihara which are uncontaminated by 
the views of other Sects " (DhsA., 2, st. 16). It is apparent that 
the system evolved in the Mahavihara through the centuries 
was so comprehensive and thorough that it was jealously 

Translator's Introduction xvii 

guarded by its custodians and won the admiration of men of 
the calibre of Buddhaghosa. That aspect of the Mahavihara 
tradition pertaining to the Vinaya concerns us here, and 
further, the Mahavihara being a centre of Vinaya learning, 
the authoritative statements of the vinayadhara monks were 
faithfully handed down from generation to generation and 
formed an integral part of the " samaya " of the Mahavihara. 
These monks were the scholiasts or the schoolmen of the 
Theravada in Ceylon and were responsible for the tradition 
that was crystallized in the Sihala Atthakatha and played 
the most significant role in the evolution of these commentaries 
until they were recast and remoulded by Buddhaghosa. 
Further " growth " was arrested as a result of Buddhaghosa's 
rewriting them in Pali. Evidence is not lacking for the survival 
of the Sihala Atthakatha even after Buddhaghosa and the 
other Commentators that followed, though they finally went 
into oblivion in due course. The statement that they were 
burned in a huge bonfire (Buddhaghosuppatti, 7) is merely 
a figurative way of stating that they no longer served any 
purpose. The disappearance of the Sihala Atthakatha is 
looked upon by writers as a great blow to the development of 
Sinhalese literature. However that may be, it is decidedly 
the fruits of the endeavours of the " teachers of yore " in some 
finalized form that were available to Buddhaghosa when he 
started compiling his Commentaries and paved the way for 
the perfect commentarial literature in Pali available to-day, 
perhaps unrivalled by that of any other School of Buddhism. 

The terms Atthakathika and Atthakathacariya mentioned in 
a large number of Commentaries (see EHBC, 14, nn. 9-1 1) 
directly refer to these teachers (the banners of the Maha- 
vihara — Smp. I, St. 7), who contributed to the growth of the 
Sihala Atthakatha. The judgments of these " Sons of the 
Enlightened One " were taken into consideration when com- 
mentaries were written in the past (Smp. i, st. 13) while in- 
correct statements such as those found in the Andhaka (in 
great abundance !) and genuine scribes* errors (pamadalekha, 
Smp. I, St. 14) in the Maha-Atthakatha (e.g. at Smp. P.T.S., 
311) are dispensed with. A good example of this can be seen 
(at Smp. P.T.S., 495 f.) in the comments on the conditions 

xviii Inception of Discipline 

under which a monk suffers " Defeat " when he lays claims to 
transcendental attainments. The opinion of the Elder Phussa- 
deva is cited but is immediately dismissed as " even his pupils 
rejected his view ". He adds in his comments that a monk 
does not suffer Defeat when he acknowledges the attainment 
of analytic insight excluding that pertaining to the trans- 
cendental sphere. Next he quotes the Sankhepa as stating that 
even if one lays claims to atthapatisambhida, the first item 
among the fourfold analytic insight, one suffers Defeat, whereas 
this is contradicted by the Maha-Atthakatha. It goes to the 
extent of saying that one does not suffer Defeat even if one 
declares one's attainment of cessation. The statement made 
in the Mahapaccariya and its abridged version Sankhepa, that 
when a monk discloses his attainment of cessation in order to 
lead another to infer that he is an Arahant or an Anagami, 
and if the latter infers so, then he is guilty of the parajika 
offence (Defeat), should, according to Buddhaghosa, be care- 
fully examined before it is accepted. He further adds that the 
Sankhepa states that a monk does not suffer Defeat if he refers 
to his attainments reached in previous existences, but jestingly 
adds that its statement regarding the present existence too is 
rejected (why talk about past existences !). The views of 
eminent Theras who differed from the interpretations of the 
recognized Commentaries such as the Maha-Atthakatha, e.g. 
Mahapaduma (Smp. P.T.S., 283, 454, etc. in all twenty-seven 
references) and views expressed by other eminent Theras 
recorded as being accepted by commentaries, e.g. the Ceylon 
monk (first century A.c), Mahasumma's interpretation of a 
Vinaya rule accepted by the Andhakatthakatha (Smp. P.T.S., 
646, etc., twenty-four references), are also taken into con- 
sideration. Adikaram (EHBC, 81) observes that Buddhaghosa, 
in the Samantapasadika pays great tribute to the views of 
both Mahapaduma and Mahasumma : " There are instances 
where Mahapaduma's expositions are considered to be as 
authoritative as those given in the Mahapaccari, KurundT, 
and Maha-Atthakatha. . . . Different views and interpretations 
of the Vinaya as put forward by these two theras occur very 
frequently in the Samantapasadika." The views of Teachers 
often referred to in Buddhaghosa's Commentaries invariably 

Translator's Introduction xix 

include many others beside these two,^ and the acariyaparam- 
para, " the Succession of Teachers " (Smp. 63) contains the 
most comprehensive Hst of Vinaya teachers among them. In 
addition to these, the statements of the Porana, quoted even 
in the Bahiranidana (Smp. 63, 74, 75) are taken into account. ^ 
This name, as well as the parallels Poranakatthera, Porana- 
cariya, etc., refers to the Pubbacariya already mentioned, while 
Poranatthakatha can refer only to the exegetical works by 
them which represented the whole field of written source- 
material at Buddhaghosa's disposal. 

The Translation of the Sihala Atthakathd 

Buddhaghosa arrived in Ceylon at a time when the Maha- 
vihara tradition was at its best, with a period of over six 
centuries of gradual progress only occasionally interrupted for 
short periods by a few setbacks due to circumstances totally 
beyond the control of the Sangha, such as political upheavals, 
famines, pestilences, etc., and the appearance of rival sects 
resulting in royal patronage being extended in that direction, 
sometimes with open hostility to the Mahavihara Fraternity 
as in the reign of Mahasena (a.c. 334-361), all of which, up to 
now, it had withstood successfully. Its commentarial tradition 
has deep roots. According to the prologues of many of Buddha- 
ghosa's Commentaries, the origin of this tradition goes back 
to the time of the First Council. The stanzas Nos. 6, 7 of the 
prologues (DA., MA., SA., AA., DhsA., etc.) state : " Whatever 
Commentaries were rehearsed at the very outset, for the purpose 
of elucidating the meaning, by the five hundred (who were) 
endowed with self-mastery, and were likewise rehearsed even 
afterwards were subsequently brought to the Island of the 
Sihajas by Maha-Mahinda (who was) endowed with self- 
mastery, and were made to remain in the Sihaja language for 
the benefit of the inhabitants of the Island." It is difficult to 
say what these commentaries were, but the extensive exegetical 
literature incorporated in the extant Canon {vide PLC, 88 ff.) 
perhaps sheds some light on this statement. Hence, there is 
some basis to accept, of course, with certain reservations, the 

^ Mahasiva Smp. Sinh. ed. 36, 816 ; Mahasumana, ibid., 51, etc. 

2 See the excellent data on Porana in EHBC, 16-23, and Appendix II A. 

XX Inception of Discipline 

tradition attributing the earliest exegetical activity in Ceylon 
to Mahinda when he furnished explanations to the Teachings 
in the language of the Island. He naturally interpreted the 
Word of the Buddha in a spoken idiom intelhgible to the 
people. The Sinhalese Prakrit of the third century B.C. could 
have been quite akin to some of the Prakrit dialects current in 
Aryan India at the time, especially to those of the Western 
group of Prakrits, and to Sauraseni and Mahinda's own AvantT. 
This similarity, to some extent, can be established by comparing 
the language of the earliest known inscriptions of Ceylon ^ with 
Asokan Pali and the early dramatic and literary Prakrits. 
By the fifth century A.c, after a lapse of nearly six and a half 
centuries, when Buddhaghosa arrived in Ceylon, the extant 
exegetical tradition, both recorded and oral, was in a language 
that was no longer intelligible to " monks from overseas ", 
and differed considerably from the idiom of the Pali Canon, as 
may be seen from recorded specimens of the Sinhalese Prakrit 
of this period. Hence, in Buddhaghosa's opinion it was neces- 
sary to translate the then available commentaries into Pali. 
In doing so he pays tribute to the Sinhalese language calling it 
a manorama bhasa, " a delightful language." He says in the 
prologues to the commentaries on the Four Agamas, in the 
Atthasalini (and in the Dhammpadatthakatha) that he will 
expound the meaning " having divested it of the Sihala 
language, a delightful language as it is, and translate it into 
the flawless idiom compatible with the mode of expression in 
the Texts ". Thus Buddhaghosa's reason for translating the 
Sinhalese Commentaries was to make their contents available 
to monks outside Ceylon as well. 

Another important reason for not only translating but for 
recording in a fixed form, the commentarial tradition of the 
Mahavihara was prompted by historical circumstances. As 
pointed out by Adikaram (EHBC, 94), with the first signal of 
danger arising from the Abhayagiri Fraternity the Mahavihara 
monks hastened to record in writing the Pali Texts even 
without the reigning monarch Vattagamani Abhaya's (43 and 

^ The dialect peculiarities can be seen for purposes of comparison even in 
later inscriptional Sinhalese and the earliest literary Sinhalese which repre- 
sents the Apabhramsa stage of development in Indo- Aryan. 

Translator's Introduction xxi 

29-17 B.C.) support, in far away Alokavihara in the Matula 
District in the central hills, away from the capital where it 
would have attracted the King's direct attention. ^ The rift 
with the Abhayagiri Fraternity widened as time went on and 
more and more new sects appeared in course of time, the 
majority of them having afhhations with the Abhayagiri. A few 
subsequent kings were definitely hostile to the Mahavihara, 
the worst among them being Mahasena (a.c. 334-361) who 
persecuted the Mahavihara monks. While the bitter memories 
of scarcely half a century earlier were fresh in the minds of the 
Mahavihara monks, Mahanama the reigning king too was 
lukewarm towards the Mahavihara and supported the Abhaya- 
giri Fraternity (Mhv. xxxvii, 212) while he was persuaded 
by his Queen to help the Mahavihara as well. It was necessary 
for the Mahavihara Fraternity to consolidate their position 
and preserve their " samaya " against the constant onslaughts 
of their opponents, who more often than not had support from 
their fellow monks from India. The half-century that followed 
Mahasena's reign would have given the Mahavihara Fraternity 
time to reinforce themselves and close their ranks for self- 
preservation. It was as a result of the fulfilment of the wishes 
of the monks, who scarcely half a century earlier underwent 
such indignities at the hands of their opponents who were 
actively supported by the reigning monarch in their sinister 
task of harassing the Mahavihara monks, that the body of 
knowledge held sacred by them should at last be put down in 
some fixed form, translated into the language of the Canon 
itself to impart to it a greater dignity, sanctity, and authority 
so that it should be handed down to posterity. The presence 
of Buddhaghosa in Ceylon was an opportunity too good to be 
missed, and furthermore, there was every indication that the 
dark events in Mahasena's day could recur, if there was an 
equally sinister figure as Sanghamitra, among their opponents, 
to spark off such a conflagration. The pictures painted by 
Buddhaghosa in his colophons when referring to the King and 
country are rather dismal. He is glad that he has completed 
the Samantapasadika within one year, unhindered, in a world 

^ Vide ibid., 79, for a summary of the causes that led to the writing down 
of the Canon. 

xxii Inception of Discipline 

troubled by many dangers (Smp. P.T.S., 1416) and repeats in 
his Commentaries to the works of the Abhidhamma, the 
exhortation, " Even as the good kings in days gone by cherished 
their subjects may the King too cherish them righteously even 
as his own offspring." The last few years of Mahanama's 
reign ^ may have given him some indication of the difficult 
days that were to follow two years after his death, though at 
the time everything looked peaceful.^ The repeated exhortation 
may be taken either as a mere formal statement or as an indirect 
indication that all was not well with Ceylon and that the 
country was not governed well. All these factors taken together 
show that the time was ripe for recording the commentaries 
in a more precise form than the Sihala Atthakatha. 

Another reason given by Buddhaghosa for rewriting the 
commentaries in Pali is his desire to secure the stability of 
the Good Teaching (saddhammatthitikama). This should be 
considered as the chief reason why the Pali Commentaries were 
written. In fact, Buddhaghosa came to Ceylon at a very 
opportune time in the history of the Mahavihara. His work 
actually symbolizes a process in the codification, as it were, of 
the Mahavihara tradition and what matters more is the actual 
writing of the Commentaries rather than the Commentator 

From the foregoing remarks, Buddhaghosa's role as editor 
and translator is quite clear. He was convinced of the purity 
of the Mahavihara tradition, and it was all that mattered to 
him so that he strove to maintain it at all costs. His editorial 
activity was centred on the correct interpretation of the 
Word of the Buddha from the Theravada point of view. The 
conflicting traditions before him did not deter him from his 
task. He, in fact, seems to have revelled in them as he separated 
the various strands in order to discover the correct interpreta- 
tion of the Theriya tradition. ^ His aim was to give explana- 
tions and interpretations maintaining a consistent point of 
view. The serious restrictions under which he had to work 

1 According to the colophon Smp. was completed in the twenty-first year 
of his reign which was to end in just over a year — Mhv. xxxvii, 247. 

2 cp. jayasamvacchare, Smp. P.T.S., 1416. 

2 The limitations imposed upon him are analysed in PLC 93 f. 

Translator's Introduction xxiii 

(as pointed out elsewhere) ^ are best indicated in his own words 
in the Visuddhimagga (Vism. 522), when he says that in 
explaining the proposition avijjapaccaya sankhara, he had to 
abide by the universe of discourse of the Vibhajjavadins, not 
cast aspersions on the views of the " Teachers ", not be incon- 
sistent with his own thesis, not trespass on the views of dis- 
sentient Schools, not reject the Sutta, be in conformity with 
the Vinaya, see to the broad guiding principles and so on. This 
is further illustrated by the prologue to the Samantapasadika 
itself. The results of his labours are unrivalled by any single 
writer on the Buddha's teachings and there is none to equal 
him where the volume of output is concerned. 

Sources of the Samantapasadika 

There is no further necessity to dilate on the topic of Sihala 
Atthakatha in view of the lucid details given by Malalasekera 
(PLC, 91 f.) and Adikaram (EHBC, 10 ff.). The Maha- or 
Miila-Atthakatha is acknowledged as the chief source of the 
Samantapasadika (thirty-nine references), while Mahapaccari 
(ninety-four references), Kurundi (sixty-seven references), 
Andhaka (thirteen references), Sankhepa (nine references), and 
Paccari (referring to either Mahapaccari or Sankhepa — one 
reference) ^ are extensively consulted. The sources Buddha- 
ghosa refers to in his prologue are actually those in his order 
of preference. He pays open tribute to the Maha- Atthakatha 
while the Andhakatthakatha comes in for a good deal of 
criticism in the Samantapasadika. Though it is customary 
for him to give more weightage to the interpretations of the 
Maha-Atthakatha, instances of his showing preference to 
explanations in other Commentaries over this one are not rare 
(see EHBC, 11 ff.). In three instances the Sankhepa is referred 
to in association with the Mahapaccari (as cited in EHBC 12, 
n. 9) which throws some Hght on its identity as the Culla- 
paccari. It is rather strange that the Vinaya-Atthakatha 
referred to by Buddhaghosa in his commentaries on works 
of the Sutta and Abhidhamma Pitakas, e.g. VibhA. 334, 

1 UCR. xvii, 1-2, p. 2. 

* See the index to the Sinhalese edition of Smp. Simon Hewavitarne 
Bequest Series. 

xxiv Inception of Discipline 

Pj. i, 97, hardly plays any significant part as a source of the 
Samantapasadika where it is to be most expected. This may 
perhaps be due to the fact that it was not an independent 
Sihaja Atthakatha by itself, but formed a part of each of the 
recognized versions of the Sihala Atthakatha to the whole 
Canon. When Buddhaghosa refers to the Samantapasadika 
in his other Commentaries he is quite specific, while the term 
Vinaya- Atthakatha by itself does not refer to his Commentary 
on the Vinaya. The reference at Pj. ii, 340 to a Khandhakattha- 
katha is to be placed in the same category as pointing to a part 
of the Sihala Atthakatha, while the reference at Pj. i, 97 to 
the Vinaya- Atthakatha leaves us in no doubt as to its nature, 
for it actually refers to the story of the First Convocation which 
is nearer to the version found at Vin. ii, 284 ff. rather than to 
the versions found in the introductions to the Commentaries of 
the first work of each of the Pitakas. This, besides giving an 
indication as to how the accounts of the first two Councils were 
included in the Vinaya CuUavagga as its last two khandhakas, 
further lends support to the inference that this Vinaya-Attha- 
katha was not an independent Sihala Atthakatha as Adikaram 
(EHBC, 13) contends but was a part of each of the recognized 
versions of these commentaries just as Khandhakatthakatha 
formed a constituent of it. Further investigation is necessary 
to arrive at a more definite conclusion as the material on which 
these inferences are made is very meagre. 

Dates of Buddhaghosa s Works 

Coming to the question of the date of Samantapasadika in 
relation to that of his other works, we are faced with con- 
flicting data. If its colophon is to be accepted without any 
questioning the only work that can be dated with accuracy is 
the Samantapasadika itself, but this leaves us in the serious 
predicament of trying to reconcile with its date the statement 
at Mhv. xxxvii, 246, which seems to suggest that Buddha- 
ghosa returned to India, having accomplished his task in 
Ceylon, during Mahanama's reign itself and not after his death 
which is said to have taken place a little over a year after the 
completion of the Samantapasadika. The colophon (Smp. 
P.T.S. 1415) states : 

Translator's Introduction xxv 

Palayantassa sakalam Lankadipam nirabbudam 
ranfio Sirinivasassa siripalayasassino 
samavisatime kheme jayasamvacchare ayam 
araddha, ekavisamhi sampatte parinitthita ; 

" This work, undertaken exactly in the twentieth victorious 
and peaceful ^ year when the glorious and renowned King 
Sirinivasa was reigning unhindered over the whole of the 
Island of Lanka, was completed with the arrival of the twenty- 
first regnal year." The same king is referred to as Sirikudda 
in the colophon to the Dhammapadatthakatha and is identified 
as Mahanama.2 Taking his date of accession as a.c. 409 the 
Samantapasadika is to be dated, according to the colophon, 
to A.c. 429-430. The Visuddhimagga is to be assigned to a 
date prior to A.c. 429 as it was the first work of Buddhaghosa 
in Ceylon and this is supported not only by tradition but also 
by references to it in practically all of his Commentaries. 
Further, unhke some of his Commentaries which mutually 
refer to each other, the Visuddhimagga makes no mention 
of his Commentaries in Ceylon. The references in the Visuddhi- 
magga to Majjhimatthakatha, Samyuttatthakatha, and Angut- 
taratthakatha are not to his own commentaries but to those 
belonging to the Sihala Atthakatha which he studied before 
he wrote this work.^ 

The KankhavitaranT, the Commentary on the Patimokkha, 
frequently refers to the Samantapasadika * often with the 
statement : vittharo pana Samantapasadikaya Vinayasam- 
vannaya vuttanayen'eva veditabbbo, " And the explanation 
should be understood as stated in the exposition of the Vinaya 
in the Samantapasadika." It is more or less certain that the 
KankhavitaranT was posterior to the Samantapasadika ; and 
since it is the Commentary on the Patimokkha it is quite 
probable that its compilation followed immediately after that 
of the Samantapasadika. We are not at all in this happy 

^ Contrast this with the next stanza and also the statement in Paramat- 
thadipani (Paiicappakaranatthakatha) : 

Yatha rakkhimsu porana surajano tath'ev'imam 
raja rakkhatu dhammena attano va paiam paiam. 

2 See PLC 96. xr j . t- j . 

' See PLC 87. 

« Pp. 50, 51, 54, 58, 62, 110, 159, 168, 193. 

xxvi Inception of Discipline 

position when we come to the question of the relative chrono- 
logy between the Samantapasadika and Buddhaghosa's Com- 
mentaries to works of the Sutta and Abhidhamma Pitakas as 
the references are reciprocal. The Commentaries to the four 
Agamas refer to the Samantapasadika, while each of the Com- 
mentaries to the succeeding work of the Pitakas refers to the 
work or works that preceded it. Thus Sumangalavilasni 
(DA. iii, 981, 1000, 1043) refers to the Samantapasadika ; 
Papancasudani (MA. i, 198, 199 ; iii, 45, 106) to Samanta- 
pasadika and (i, 2 ; v, 24) to Sumangalavilasini ; Saratthap- 
pakasini (ii, 37, 145) to Samantapasadika, (i, 3, 348) to 
Sumangalavilasni, and (i, 13 ; ii, 45) to Papancasudani ; 
Manorathapurani (AA. iii, 334 ; iv, 136 f.) to Samantapasadika, 
(i, 3 ; iii, 285) to Sumangalavilasini, and (AA. i, 15) to Papafi- 
casudani. The Samantapasadika in turn refers to Sumangala- 
vilasni (p. 115, Sinh. ed.), and Papancasudani (pp. 115, 644, 721, 
Sinh. ed.). It is quite probable that some of these references 
were inserted by Buddhaghosa later on into works already 
completed. This would not have been a difficult thing to do 
as the number of copies made during his brief stay in Ceylon 
could have been not many. 

The fewer number of references in the Samantapasadika to 
the Agama Commentaries ^ may perhaps be indicative of the 
fact that it was the earlier work though there is no definite 
proof of their chronological relationship, particularly when we 
take into account the date given in the colophon and the 
Mahavarnsa reference to Buddhaghosa's departure to India. 
The Papaficasudani (MA. ii, 30), Saratthappakasini (SA. ii, 45), 
and Manorathapiirani (AA. v, 16) refer to Sammohavinodani 
while the latter in turn (VibhA. 43, 396, 410, 479) mentions 
Atthasalini as the Commentary that should take precedence 
over it. This would normally indicate that the Vinaya and 
Abhidhamma Commentaries were anterior to the Agama 
Commentaries and that the commentaries to the works of each 
of the Pitakas were composed in the order in which those works 
are classified in the Canon. The mutual references in Samanta- 
pasadika (Smp. P.T.S., 150) and Atthasalini (DhsA. 97 f.) are 

1 See Sinh. ed., pp. 96, 765. 

Translator's Introduction xxvii 

to be explained on quite a different basis. ^ Though the Attha- 
saHni was written by Buddhaghosa in India, before he came to 
Ceylon, it must have been completed in Ceylon after being 
subjected to a complete revision in the light of the new material 
available at the Mahavihara, for this is the only explanation 
that could account for the references to Visuddhimagga and 
other subsequent works and the Sihala Atthakatha in the body 
of the work. In the light of the foregoing data, which should 
be treated with utmost caution, a tentative chronological 
scheme can be suggested though it can by no means be 
considered as satisfactory : — 

1. Visuddhimagga. 

2. Abhidhamma Commentaries in their order. 

3. Vinaya Commentaries in their order. 

4. The Agama Commentaries in their order. 

This scheme, however, would again lead us into some 
difficulty as the information given in the colophon to the 
Samantapasadika regarding the date of the completion of that 
work and that mentioned at Mhv. xxxvii, 246, regarding 
Buddhaghosa's departure to India cannot be fully reconciled 
taking into account the volume of work that has to be dated 
after the Samantapasadika. Buddhaghosa's departure is 
recorded in the stanza immediately preceding that which 
mentions the death of Mahanama, and there is no reason to 
doubt the chronological sequence as intended by the author 
of this part of the Mahavamsa. This being so, one or both of 
the above statements cannot be accepted considering the 
number of Commentaries that have to be dated after the 
Samantapasadika. First of all, the Kankhavitarani which in 
all probability followed its major Vinaya Commentary would 
have kept the author occupied before he embarked on the 
Agama Commentaries which, considering their bulk would 
have required at least three years of work if the Samanta- 
pasadika took him one year (or more). The revision of 
the Abhidhamma Commentaries too should be assigned to 
the period after the Samantapasadika. Besides, if any of the 

1 Vide PLC 98. 

xxviii Inception of Discipline 

other four works ^ that are attributed to Buddhaghosa were 
his, their compilation too would have to be assigned to the 
period after the Samantapasadika. This would leave us in the 
predicament of assigning all these works to the brief period 
between the King's twenty-first regnal year and his death 
which took place after he had reigned for twenty-two years. 
If the information in these two sources is correct, there is no 
alternative inference but to say that Buddhaghosa worked at 
several commentaries simultaneously. This would easily explain 
the cross-references in the several works while the absence of 
references to commentaries on works that follow in each of 
the Pitakas in the Canonical arrangement presupposes that 
commentaries to works of each of the Pitakas were written 
strictly in the order in which these works occur in the Canon. 

Other Commentaries attributed to Buddhaghosa 

This scheme has not taken into account the other com- 
mentaries attributed to Buddhaghosa, viz. Paramatthajotika 
(KhA and SnA), Dhammapadatthakatha, and Jatakatthakatha. 
The prologue to Paramatthajotika states that the author sets 
out to comment on the Khuddakas which he differentiates from 
the Khuddaka Nikaya : Khuddakani nama Khuddakanika- 
yassa ekadeso, Khuddakanikayo nama paiicanikayanani 
ekadeso, " The Khuddakas constitute one part of the Khud- 
daka Nikaya and the Khuddaka Nikaya a part of the Five 
Nikayas." He next refers to the " greater " Khuddaka Nikaya 
as enumerated in the Bahiranidana (Smp. 31). It is possible 
that the term Khuddakas is meant to refer to Khuddakapatha 
and Sutta Nipata as the Commentaries to both these works 
go by the same name Paramatthajotika, while the other two 
Commentaries on works from the Khuddaka Nikaya which 
are attributed to Buddhaghosa have no separate names of 
their own, but are merely called Dhammapadatthakatha and 
Jatakatthakatha. The colophons to the Commentaries to 
Khuddakapatha and Sutta Nipata do not provide any addi- 
tional information except that the usual postscript is appended. 
Adikaram (EHBC 7 f .) doubts the authenticity of the tradition 
which attributes the Paramatthajotika to Buddhaghosa and 

1 KhA., SnA., DhA., JA. 

Translator's Introduction xxix 

gives his reasons for it, briefly examining the two works which 
comprise the Paramatthajotika. He even doubts whether the 
two Commentaries in it were the work of the same author 
and suggests that the commentator Buddhaghosa to whom 
the works are attributed may be the Elder by that name 
mentioned in the AtthasaUni (DhsA. i, st. 8) and Sammo- 
havinodani (VibhA. 523) at whose request these works were 

The Dhammapadatthakatha in its prologue mentions that 
the excellent commentary found in the language of the Island 
of Tambapanni, handed down from generations does not serve 
the purpose of others (i.e. foreign monks), and that Buddha- 
ghosa is translating it into Pali at the request of the Elder 
Kumarakassapa(DhA. i, i, stt. 5, 7), while the colophon adds 
that he wrote it when living in the storeyed dwelling of King 
Sirikudda (i.e. Mahanama) in the monastery which was caused 
to have been erected by the grateful Emperor (DhA. iv, 235, 
St. 2). The stanza does not make it clear whether King 
Sirikudda and the Emperor are one and the same. In spite 
of this, the authorship of this commentary remains doubtful 
(see PLC 96 ff. for a detailed discussion), though there is yet a 
possibility, in spite of the difference in language and style 
between this work and Buddhaghosa's major commentaries, 
that it may be by him. 

The next work, Jatakatthakatha, too is attributed to Buddha- 
ghosa, but it is extremely doubtful whether it was by him 
(see PLC 117 ff.). The prologue seems to suggest that Buddha- 
ghosa was its author as it follows the usual pattern of the 
prologues to his works and points out that the commentary 
will be based on the tradition of the Mahavihara : Jatakassa 
atthavannanarn Mahaviharavasinam vacanamagganissitarn 
bhasissam (JA i, i, st. 10 f.). But indirectly a greater antiquity 
is claimed for this work than any of the other works of Buddha- 
ghosa in Ceylon, if Buddhamitta, who is mentioned in the 
prologue, was the teacher under whom Buddhaghosa studied 
the Sihala Atthakatha (Smp. P.T.S., 1415), for no other work 
goes so far back as to mention Buddhamitta' s preceptor. 
It is very unlikely that the other Buddhamitta, his fellow- 
resident at Mayiirapattana (MA. v, 109) would have had his 

XXX Inception of Discipline 

preceptor in Ceylon. The two monks Atthadassi and Buddha- 
mitta (of the Mahavihara) and Buddhadeva " of keen intellect 
belonging to the Mahimsasaka Sect " (st. 7) jointly request 
the author to compile this work. This creates another problem 
of how a monk belonging to a rival School to the Mahavihara 
could reconcile himself with the Mahavihara tradition. Thus the 
prologue, in the face of all these contradictions, appears spurious 
and looks like an attempt of a later writer to invest it with 
more authenticity than was really necessary to show that it 
was Buddhaghosa's. The colophon too is quite different from 
what is usually found in Buddhaghosa's works and consists 
of a long patthana which by no stretch of imagination could 
have come from Buddhaghosa's pen. The absence of the usual 
postscript is also very significant. The reference in the Sutta- 
nipata Atthakatha (Pj. ii, 357) to the Nidanakatha of the 
Jatakatthakatha may or may not refer to this version, for it 
might as well refer to the version in the Sihala Atthakatha 
on which the extant work is based. ^ The Manor at hapiirani 
closes the last important chapter in Buddhaghosa's literary 
career, and aptly bears that name to commemorate the fulfil- 
ment of his heart's desire to compile commentaries to all the 
Four Agamas (see the colophon, AA. v, 98 f.). In spite of the 
doubts cast on these works regarding their authorship, if a 
date is to be assigned to them, it has to be after the date of the 
Manorat hapiirani. No chronological arrangement is possible 
except to say that Khuddakapatha Atthakatha preceded the 
Suttanipata Atthakatha and that these two preceded Dhamma- 
padatthakatha and Jatakatthakatha. Geiger {Pali Language 
and Literature, p. 32) states that the Dhammapadatthakatha 
is later than the Jatakatthakatha, but gives no reasons for 
saying so. 

In our search for further corroborative evidence we have to 
turn to the colophons of the works which are definitely known 
to be Buddhaghosa's, even though the information given in 
them cannot solve the question of relative chronology. The 
stereotyped postscript is of no value at all as it can very 
well belong to a subsequent scribe. The colophon to the 

^ Smp. Sinh. ed,, p. 179, refers to a Jataka Nikaya along with the four 
prose Nikayas. 

Translator's Introduction xxxi 

Jatakatthakatha, which is the only one besides that to Samanta- 
pasadika which could have provided some useful information, 
cannot be relied upon. The colophon of Visuddhimagga says 
that the work was written on the invitation of a monk named 
Sanghapala, of whom nothing else is known. The names of 
theras who figure in the colophons to the other works (sum- 
marized in EHBC, 5 £f.) are not of much help unless something 
precise is known about them. Even here, the formal request 
to write these books could have been made long before the 
actual commencement of the works concerned. Thus, Buddha- 
mitta's request to write the commentary to the Majjhima 
Nikaya was made at Mayiirapattana, and Jotipala's to write 
the commentary to the Samyutta Nikaya was made perhaps 
at Kaiici. It was probably the same Jotipala, Buddhaghosa's 
fellow-resident, who requested him both at Kafici and in the 
Mahavihara to write the commentary to the Anguttara Nikaya. 
Buddhamitta, under whom he studied the Sihala Atthakatha, 
was different from his old friend by that name of his Kanci 
days. It is the former Buddhamitta who is also referred to as 
Buddhasiri in the Bahiranidana (see Smp. i, n. 5). The writer 
of the prologue to the Jatakatthakatha also refers to the same 
Elder when he mentions the name along with that of his 
preceptor Atthadassi. 

Sources of the Bahiranidana 

Coming back to the Bahiranidana, a few words regarding its 
style and arrangement are necessary at this stage. As these are 
to some extent determined by the nature of the sources of which 
it is a somewhat faithful translation, a brief reference should 
be made to them in passing, though there seems to be hardly 
anything to be added to what has already been said by Olden- 
berg (the Dipavamsa, edition and translation, pp. 2 ff.), 
Geiger (the Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa, pp. 43 ff., the 
Mahavamsa, English translation, pp. ix ff.), and Malalasekera 
(Vamsatthappakasini-Mahavamsa Tika, i, pp. Ivi ff.). What 
has been said with reference to these works applies to some 
extent to the Bahiranidana as well, for all these works are based 
on practically the same source-material with a few modifica- 
tions and changes necessitated by the aim in view and the 

xxxii Inception of Discipline 

individual taste of their respective authors. Opinion differs 
as to what this source-material was as regards details though 
fundamentally there is a certain degree of agreement. Olden- 
berg identifies the Porana, Poranatthakatha, and Atthakatha 
Mahavarnsa as referring to one and the same source. He 
holds that this formed the historical introduction to the 
Sinhalese Commentary of the Mahavihara, the Maha or Miila 
Atthakatha, and that it was an essential constituent part of 
the latter " composed in order to give the dogmatical contents 
of the latter the indispensable historical foundation ". Geiger's 
view is that there was an ancient independent chronicle 
belonging to the Mahavihara bringing the historical records 
down to Mahasena's reign, the rewritten Pali version of which 
is the present Mahavarnsa. This he compares to the medieval 
monastic chronicles of Europe (ibid., p. 64). Malalasekera 
agrees with him and identifies it with the Sinhalese Atthakatha 
Mahavarnsa and points out that originally this chronicle formed 
an historical introduction to the Canonical commentary and 
dealt only with the following items : 

Dipagamanam Buddhassa dhatu ca bodhiyagamarn 
sanghacariyavadaii ca dipamhi sasanagamarn 
narindagamanarn vamsarn . . . 

" The Buddha's visits to the Island, the arrival of the relic (s), 
and of the Bodhi, the (doctrinal) tradition of the leading Elders 
of the Sangha, the establishment of the Dispensation in the 
Island, the coming of the King and the genealogy . . ." 
(Dpv. i, i). Later it incorporated extraneous matter and 
developed into an independent compilation, whose custodians 
were the Mahavihara monks (ibid., Iviii). He adds that the 
historical tradition grew by various stages by the inclusion of 
new material as time went on and that it was added on to the 
already existing Porana-atthakatha (ibid., lix). The already 
existing Porana-atthakatha were the Commentaries to the 
Canon. Perhaps the introductions to Buddhaghosa's Com- 
mentaries to the first book of each of the Pitakas (Smp., DA, 
DhsA) may be helpful in determining those portions of the 
original Porana-atthakatha, as unnecessary historical details 
of the Island have no relevance to his purpose which was to 

Translator's Introduction xxxiii 

establish the genuineness of the Textual and Comment arial 
tradition in Ceylon. 

Thus many of the problems connected with the Dipavamsa 
and the Mahavamsa regarding additional information not found 
in the Commentarial introductions do not arise in the case of 
the Bahiranidana which has a limited aim in view. Further- 
more, its historical introduction is purely from the point of 
view of the Vinaya tradition and nothing else, while the list 
of kings and the chronological details (at Smp. 76) are merely 
incidental. Here, too, it does not proceed beyond Devanam- 
piyatissa, while the Vinaya tradition is traced as far as the 
date indicated by the phrase yava ajjatana (about first century 
A.C.), through a succession of Vinaya teachers. Whether there 
was an independent chronicle, or whether the Sihala Atthakatha 
were prefixed with an introduction which from time to time 
was augmented to include events up to Mahasena's reign, it 
can be said without any degree of doubt that the portion 
covered by the Bahiranidana did certainly belong to the 
Sihala Atthakatha to the Canon as " the indispensable founda- 
tion " of the Vinaya is discussed in it. In giving the historical 
foundation of the Vinaya, Buddhaghosa has skilfully woven 
together into the narrative much relevant information, e.g. 
the classification of the Teachings, etc., which may or may 
not have been found in the sources, and most probably not in 
the context in which it is presented in the Bahiranidana as 
well as in the introductions to Sumangalavilasini and Attha- 
salini. This historical background portrayed the continuity 
of the Vinaya as far as the sources would go. All the events 
that are found recorded in the chronicles coming after the date 
of the source materials of the Bahiranidana, as well as the 
historical data not relevant in establishing the genuineness of 
the Textual and Commentarial tradition in Ceylon, should be 
treated as " foreign " to the Sihala Atthakatha on the Canon. 
They are, however, quite appropriate in the Atthakatha 
Mahavamsa (or Sihalatthakatha Mahavamsa) and other Porana 
sources outside the Maha-Atthakatha and other allied 
recensions of the Sinhalese Commentaries on the Tipitaka. 
This would naturally lead us to the inference that the sources 
of the Pali Commentaries and those of the Chronicles were 

xxxiv Inception of Discipline 

distinct though not necessarily independent and that the latter 
included all that was necessary for their purpose from among 
the sources of the former. 

Buddhaghosa's role, as well as that of Mahanama, the author 
of the Mahavamsa, was to translate the available material into 
PaH (see Mhv. Tika, i, 36, etc., loc. cit., pp. Ivi). As the Tika 
states, the Mahavamsa was a faithful rendering of the original 
Sinhalese source-material with the only change that it was put 
into Pali verse. Compared with the previous clumsy attempt 
at versification in the Dipavarnsa, Mahavamsa stands out as 
a work of considerable poetic achievement though it falls 
short of the elegant poetry of the Canonical metrical literature. 
The fact that it was a metrical rendering could have 
placed certain restrictions and limitations on the author 
as regards presenting a faithful rendering of the original 
material. In the case of the Bahiranidana there were no such 
restrictions, and undoubtedly one may suppose that it is even 
more faithful to the original Sinhalese source than the more 
elegant literary product, the Mahavamsa. It is partly on this 
basis that minor discrepancies in some proper names between 
the Bahiranidana and the Chronicles are to be explained, 
e.g. Issaranimmana, Kalingakula, Pakundaka, Tavakka, etc. 
(see notes to Translation). However, the word-for-word 
similarity between wholesale passages of the Bahiranidana 
and the Chronicles (see Geiger, the Dipavarnsa and Mahavamsa, 
106 ff.) shows that there were no wide divergences between 
them. This similarity does not presuppose the fact that the 
chronologically later work was based on the earlier work, but 
that they go back to a common tradition. Where actual 
quotations are made from the Dipavarnsa they are duly 
acknowledged in the Bahiranidana whereas the passages taken 
wholesale from the Porana ^ are acknowledged as such and the 
fact that the Dipavarnsa too had incorporated them is ignored. 

The Style and Arrangement of the Bahiranidana 

As stated earlier, the style and arrangement of the Bahirani- 
dana is to a great extent determined by the nature of its 

^ Both the Atthakatha Mahavamsa and Sihala Atthakatha to the Tipitaka 
were interspersed with Pali verse. See Malalasekera, Mhv. Tika, I, Ivi If. 

Translator's Introduction xxxv 

sources. In spite of Buddhaghosa's commentaries being 
translations of the Sihala Atthakatha his works display a 
literary style of their own. Though he worked under serious 
limitations as regards the interpretation of the Texts, he appears 
to have exercised the highest freedom when he clothed his 
ideas in words. His prose style which is so vigorous and lucid 
is quite different from the sober and stereotyped prose of the 
Nikayas. The old idiom is already archaic by Buddhaghosa's 
time. Though the language of the Vinaya and Abhidhamma 
Pitakas shows minor differences from that of the prose Nikayas, 
there is essentially no fundamental departure from the older 
idiom. The Post-Canonical works Uke the Milinda Pafiha, 
Nettippakarana, and Petakopadesa exhibit a somewhat greater 
degree of flexibility not seen in the standard prose of the 
Nikayas, yet betray their kinship to the earlier idiom. Buddha- 
ghosa makes no effort to conform to the old idiom as it would 
have hindered his free expression of ideas. The restrictions 
imposed by the no-longer living idiom of the Canon would 
have made his task very difficult. Yet it was necessary to 
re-edit the old commentaries in the language of the Texts — 
palinayanurupam. He has done this so skilfully that it met 
with the approval of the Theras not only as regards contents 
but also in literary style : Theriyacariya sabbe palim viya tam 
aggahurn — Mhv. xxxvii, 245. For his purpose he has master- 
fully evolved a style of his own which is even more vigorous 
and expressive than that of the Milinda Paiiha, the best of the 
Post-Canonical works as regards style and diction, yet keeping 
within the strict rules of the idiom of the Texts — tantikkamam 
kail ci avokkamitva. This is best stated in the words of Mala- 
lasekera : "In place of the archaic, stilted, sometimes halting 
Sutta speech, almost puritanical in its simplicity, groping 
about often for want of words to express ideas and concep- 
tions then fresh to the minds of the users of this or that dialect, 
Buddhaghosa left behind him in his many works a language 
rich in its vocabulary, flexible in its use, elegant in structure, 
often intricate in the verbiage of its constructions, and capable 
of expressing all the ideas that the human mind had then con- 
ceived. Sonorous, long-winded sentences took the place of the 
direct simple composition of the Suttas " (PLC, 103). 

xxxvi Inception of Discipline 

However, this literary skill is not seen to best advantage in 
the actual commentarial portions of his Commentaries, but in 
his original work Visuddhimagga, the introductory chapters 
to his Commentaries, and the long exegetical remarks and 
narrative portions of his works. In the case of the Bahirani- 
dana, its faithfulness to the older Porana source, in the bulk 
of the narrative, has not given Buddhaghosa much opportunity 
to show his literary skill at its best. Yet, where he has deviated 
from the sources, his true genius as a writer of elegant Pali is 
quite evident. The best examples of Buddhaghosa occasionally 
exercising great freedom when he cuts himself away from the 
sources are seen in a few scattered descriptive passages in the 
Bahiranidana, e.g. the description of the pavilion erected by 
Ajatasattu (Smp. lo), of Asoka's supernatural powers (Smp. 44), 
Majjhantika's conversion of Kasmira-Gandhara (Smp. 65), 
Sona and Uttara in Suvannabhumi (Smp. 72), etc. Some of 
these descriptions betray a remarkable affinity to the highly 
ornate descriptive prose of Classical Sanskrit of this period. 
The nature of the material to be dealt with is such that 
Buddhaghosa had very little opportunity of proving his 
ability as a " creative " writer, but the few available examples 
are a sufficient indication of his ability in this direction. 
Furthermore, some idea of his analytic and synthetic treat- 
ment of highly abstruse points of doctrine, his logical reasoning 
and pr oneness to abstraction, best seen in the Visuddhimagga, 
can be gained from his remarks on the classification of the 
Buddha's teachings, especially those at Smp. 25 ff. 

The narrative prose of the Bahiranidana can be classed 
among the best of its category in Pali literature and compares 
very favourably with the best in Indian literature. It can 
claim for itself this distinction not only for its clarity, simplicity, 
and vigour, but also due to its effective presentation, while 
at the same time closely adhering to the main theme, the 
Nidana of the Vinaya. In spite of his role as commentator, 
Buddhaghosa reveals himself as a great writer of narrative 
prose. This is amply illustrated by the manner in which the 
episodes of Tissa (Smp. 39 ff.), Nigrodha (Smp. 47 f.), Tissa, 
Asoka's brother (56 ff.), the conversion of the Border Districts 
(Smp. 65 ff.), the Great Bodhi (Smp. 97 ff.), etc., are presented. 

Translator' s Introduction xxxvii 

All these episodes are skilfully woven into the main narrative 
with the greatest ease and at no stage do they appear forced or 
laboured. He makes subsequent reference to an earlier state- 
ment by giving details to justify it, e.g. end of Smp. i8, Handa 
mayam avuso dhammaii ca vinayaii ca sangayama ... at 
Smp. 4 ; Smp. 48, Raja sihapaiijare thito ... at the top of 
Smp. 47, etc. He carries this simple device further by resorting 
to the so-called " flash-back " style in order to explain an 
incident or introduce a new figure in the narrative, e.g. Smp. 47, 
56, 97 ff., etc. He does so in order to avoid a break in the 
main narrative and often connects up the episode with an 
introductory phrase such as, Tatrayarn anupubbikatha (Smp.47, 
64), Ko panayam Nigrodho nama (Smp. 47), Tissatthero 
nama na yo va so va (Smp. 56), etc. Compared with the 
chronological sequence in which events are recorded in the 
Chronicles, this manner of narrating a story appears to be 
rather unusual, but it is doubtful whether it was peculiar to 
Buddhaghosa, for this difference between the Samantapasadika 
and the Chronicles may reflect some significant fact as regards 
their sources. As stated earlier, the Samantapasadika and the 
Chronicles have drawn from two different sources (not neces- 
sarily independent) and the main narrative in the Samanta- 
pasadika perhaps reflects the introductory portion of the 
Vinayatthakatha of the Sihala Atthakatha while the supple- 
mentary material drawn from other Porana sources, including 
those on which the Chronicles were based, was included in the 
narrative as additional information. The difference in sources 
is perhaps a plausible explanation of the unusual " flash-back " 
style of the Bahiranidana. On the other hand, it may equally 
be said that there is nothing new in this technique and that 
it goes back even to the Canon, e.g. bhutapubbam bhikkhave 
imissa yeva Savatthiya . . . etc., and is the rule in the Jataka 
literature in narrating the past story, e.g. atitarn ahari. What- 
ever its origin, the narration of a story in historical sequence 
is not considered as an essential element in the Bahiranidana, 
whereas the Chronicles try to maintain it as far as possible. 
The scant attention paid to it in the Bahiranidana even tends 
to confuse the reader. For example, the legend of the Naga 
King Kala appears earlier in the narrative (Smp. 45) and 

xxxviii Inception of Discipline 

mention is made of King Asoka paying homage to the image 
of the Buddha created by him, while his conversion is mentioned 
later on (Smp. 48). Asoka's reference to the Dhamma as 
" ovada " in his conversation with Nigrodha before his con- 
version, on the other hand, is meant to impress on the reader 
Asoka's unfamiliarity with Buddhism. (See Smp. 81, n. 2 for 
parallel instances.) Yet, as regards chronology the Bahiranidana 
is consistent within itself, e.g. see the chronological details of 
Asoka's reign given at Smp. 52, 53, 56, 74, etc. 

The Bahiranidana is seen to follow the usual style of Pali 
Canonical writings when it intersperses a large number of 
stanzas along with the prose. Many of these stanzas resemble 
stanzas occurring in the Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa, but 
are identical in a few instances only. Except where actual 
quotations are made from the Dipavamsa, the rest is to be 
traced to the Pali stanzas of the Poranas, already referred to, 
which these works incorporated, either in the form in which 
they occurred in the different versions of the old Atthakatha, 
or with a few modifications to suit their literary style. 

Another feature the Bahiranidana shares with all the works 
of Buddhaghosa is the frequent allusion to Canonical Texts 
and quotations from them to substantiate his statements, 
especially in his exegetical remarks, e.g. Smp. 28. 

Among the contents of the Bahiranidana there are several 
topics of great interest, the most important of which are the 
accounts of the Three Councils and the traditions pertaining 
to them. As this subject has been exhaustively dealt with from 
various angles, expressing conflicting views, it is not proposed 
to take it up here, nor have any observations of a controversial 
nature been made in the notes to the Inception of Discipline. 
The incidental information given in these accounts requires 
more careful examination than making generalizations on the 
Councils themselves, which are too vast a topic to be taken 
up here. A few observations have been made in the notes about 
the traditional classifications of the Teachings (Smp. 16 ff.). 
The Succession of Teachers in India (Smp. 35) and in Ceylon 

Translator's Introduction xxxix 

(Smp. 63) is a very fruitful field for investigation, and the 
work already done so far by scholars in this field requires to 
be carried on with patient toil in order that the acariya- 
parampara should have some meaning instead of its remaining 
a mere list. The observations made on Asoka's associations with 
Buddhism in the light of the data available in the Pali sources 
should help the reader to reassess the so-called " Buddhist " 
edicts of Asoka which have hitherto been neglected ; the 
tendency so far has been to treat the edicts and the Pali 
sources as things apart shedding no mutual light on one 
another. A fresh examination of the historicity of the missions 
sent out after the Third Council and Asoka's relations with the 
kingdoms over which his " dhammavijaya " extended is also 
necessary. His connexions with Ceylon, too, require more 
careful examination, particularly in view of the two envoys 
sent by Tissa, his second consecration, and the adoption of the 
Mauryan title Devanampiya which was later adopted by several 
Sinhalese Kings (see Epigraphia Zeylanica, i, 142). It is not 
within the scope of a book of this nature to treat adequately 
any one of these problems. 

N. A. Jayawickrama. 

Department of Pali and Buddhist Civilization, 

University of Ceylon, 


January, 1962. 




Homage to the Exalted One, the worthy and fully awakened. 

I — The Preamble 

I. I pay homage to that Lord of great compassion who 
underwent severe hardships for a long period which cannot 
be reckoned even in terms of crores of aeons and brought 
pain upon himself for the sake of the welfare of the world, i. 

I pay homage to the exalted Dhamma, the resort of the 
awakened, which tears asunder the tangle of defilements such 
as that of ignorance, not understanding which, the world of 
beings goes from existence to existence. 2. 

I prostrate myself before the worthy Sangha, the field for 
those in quest of merit, which is endowed with the virtues of 
morality, concentration, wisdom, and insight into emancipa- 
tion. 3- 

I have won an incessant flow of merit by my adoration of 
the Triad of Gems which in this manner is most worthy of 
reverence ; and by its power I have surmounted all 
obstacles. 4. 

Placing rehance in the greatness of the teachers of yore ^ 
I shall expound the uncontaminated Code of Discipline by 
the survival of which is assured the mainstay of the Dispensa- 
tion of the Sage of great stability though He exists no 
more. 2 5- 

Readily have the pre-eminent teachers of yore who have 
washed away the stains of defilements with the water of their 
wisdom, [2] being endowed with analytical knowledge arising 
from their clear wisdom and being adept in the exposition of 
the Good Teaching — 6. 

and who are like unto the banners of the Mahavihara,^ 
expounded to us the Discipline of the higher life with clear 
examples and divers methods as adopted by the noble 
Sambuddha, the Enlightened One. 7. 


Inception of Discipline 

But on account of the fact that this exposition had been 
done in the language of the Island of Sihala,* and since the 
monks overseas cannot understand the meaning thereof 8. 

I shall now begin this exposition in conformity with the 
method of treatment found in the Sacred Texts, recollecting 
well the request made by the Elder named Buddhasiri. ^ 9. 

And in commencing the exposition I shall practically base 
it on the Maha-atthakatha ^ as well as the Mahapaccariya ^ 
without discarding the relevant statements and the rulings 
given in the recognized commentaries such as the Kurundi ® ; 
and thenceforth I shall proceed with the correct exposition of 
the Tradition of the Elders ^ embodied therein. lo-ii. 

May the Elders and monks both young and middling with 
devotion at heart and holding in high esteem the Teaching 
of the Tathagata who is the guiding lamp of the Dhamma, 
hearken unto me. 12. 

The Buddha has declared both the Dhamma and the 
Vinaya which his Sons ^^ came to know likewise. Since, in 
the past, 11 commentaries were written without ignoring their 
judgments, 13. 

[3] I shall therefore avoid the incorrect statements (scribes' 
errors) handed down in those commentaries, for the final 
authority here are the men of learning who have the highest 
esteem for the methods of training.^^ 14. 

Thence giving up recourse to a different tongue, ^^ con- 
densing protracted exegesis, without excluding any formal 
decision nor deviating from the method of exposition found 
in the textual tradition even in a small measure — 15. 

this exposition should be studied with care as it will offer 
explanations in harmony with the Suttas (discourses) taking 
into account the statements of those who are well versed 
in the Suttantas.^* 16. 

2. Since it is said here that I would expound the Vinaya, the 
term Vinaya itself should be first defined ; and hence it is said 
that the entire Vinaya Pitaka is meant by the term Vinaya 
here. Here is its tabulation for purposes of exposition : 

By whom it was said, when, for what reason, held by whom, 

First Great Convocation 3 

handed down by whom, where it was estabUshed : having 
thus explained the procedure 

I shall proceed to show in divers ways the significance of 
the section beginning with tena ^ and compile a commentary 
to the Vinaya. 

Here the phrase, " by whom it was said, when and for what 
reason " has been used with reference to the statement begin- 
ning with, 2 " At that time the Buddha, the Exalted One was 
living at Veraiija." This evidently is not a statement made 
personally by the Buddha himself. Therefore it is imperative 
that we state [4] by whom this statement was made, when and 
for what reason. The venerable Elder Upali uttered this at 
the time of the First Great Convocation, and this First Great 
Convocation has been dwelt upon at length in the Section 
dealing with the Convocation of the Five Hundred.^ For the 
sake of familiarity with the source, here too, it should be 
understood in the following manner. 

II — The Account of the First Great Convocation 

3. When the Exalted One, the Lord of the world had passed 
away in the element of Nibbana which is devoid of any material 
substratum, at the hour of day-break on the full moon day of 
the month of Visakha ^ between the twin sala trees in the 
Upavattana sala-grove of the Mallas in Kusinara,^ having 
discharged the functions of an Enlightened One, beginning 
with the turning of the Wheel of the Dhamma,^ down to the 
conversion of the wandering ascetic Subhadda,* the venerable 
Mahakassapa the leading Elder ^ among the 700,000 monks 
who had assembled at the passing away in perfect Nibbana 
of the Exalted One, recollecting after the lapse of seven days 
from the passing away in perfect Nibbana of the Exalted 
One, the words uttered by Subhadda ^ who had taken to the 
ascetic life in old age, namely,' " Away with it friends, grieve 
not, lament not, we are well rid of the Great Recluse who was 
wont to tell us what was befitting and what was not and hence 
made our lives miserable ; but now we will do whatever we please 
and not do what we please not " ; kindled the enthusiasm 

4 Inception of Discipline 

among the Order of monks to bring about a rehearsal of 
the Dhamma and Vinaya and further reflected,^ " It may be 
that the occasion would arise for evil-minded monks to think 
that the Sacred-word is such that its Teacher is no more, to 
form factions and before long make the Good Teaching dis- 
appear for ever. As long as the Dhamma and Vinaya endure, 
so long will the Sacred-word be such that its Teacher has not 
passed into oblivion. And so has the Exalted One said,^ 
' O Ananda, the Dhamma and the Vinaya that I have declared 
to you [5] and laid down before you (respectively) that itself 
will be your teacher after my demise.' It behoves me to rehearse 
the Dhamma and Vinaya so that the Dispensation would endure 
and remain for long. Since I have been honoured with equality 
in the use of robes by the Exalted One saying,^^ ' Kassapa, you 
may wear my patch-work hempen robes which I no longer 
use/ and also honoured by placing me on an equal footing 
with Himself with reference to transcendental attainments ^^ 
consisting of the categories such as the sixfold higher know- 
ledge 12 and the ninefold successive modes of abiding ^^ with 
such statements as,^* ' O monks, as long as he wishes, Kassapa 
can enter and abide in the first jhana (spiritual rapture) being 
detached from sensual pleasures, etc.', what other unindebted- 
ness will there be unto me as such ? Has not the Exalted One 
conferred upon me this unique honour of considering me as 
the protector of the lineage of His Good Teaching even as a 
king would his own son as the perpetuator of his dynasty by 
conferring upon him his armour and regal splendour ? " 

4. For it has been said,^ " Thereupon the venerable Maha- 
kassapa addressed the monks, ' On one occasion, friends, I had 
set out on the high road from Pava to Kusinara with a large 
company of monks, about five hundred in number.' " In this 
manner the entire Section dealing with Subhadda ^ should be 
understood in detail. 

[6] Subsequently he said,^ " Let us, friends, rehearse the 
Dhamma and the Vinaya : in the past what was contrary to 
the Dhamma and the Vinaya prevailed, the Dhamma and the 
Vinaya were disregarded ; those who held views contrary to 
the Dhamma and the Vinaya held sway while those who 

First Great Convocation 5 

professed the Dhamma and the Vinaya were powerless." * The 
monks rejoined, " If that be so, Sir, may the Elder select the 
monks (for the Convocation)." 

The Elder rejected many hundreds and thousands of monks 
in the categories of worldling, Stream-Entrant, Once-Returner, 
Non-Returner, and Dry Visioned Arahant ^ and canker-waned 
Arahant, all of whom were versed in the Teachings consisting 
of the entire ninefold Dispensation of the Teacher and chose 
499 canker-waned monks who alone were proficient with regard 
to the learning in all aspects of the Teachings in the entire 
Three Baskets, had attained mastery in analytical knowledge, 
were of no mean achievement, and for the greater part were 
classified by the Exalted One as an expert each in his field 
in the distinct spheres of the threefold knowledge.^ Regarding 
them it has been said,"^ " Thereupon the venerable Mahakassapa 
selected five hundred Arahant s less one." 

5. Why did the Elder make the number fall short by one ? 
To make room for the venerable Elder Ananda. It was not 
possible to hold the Convocation with or without that venerable 
one, for he was yet a Learner ^ with his (spiritual) task yet 
unaccomplished. Therefore it was not permissible to have him 
at the Convocation. Since there was no section whatsoever of 
the Teachings of the Lord of Ten Powers commencing with 
the discourses and mixed prose and verse utterances ^ which he 
himself had not learned from the Exalted One, it was equally 
not possible to hold it without him. This being so, even though 
he was yet a Learner he would have to be selected by the 
Elder on account of the great service that might be rendered 
by him at the rehearsal of the Dhamma ; but the reason for 
his not [7] being selected was to absolve himself (Kassapa) 
of the blame of others. 

The Elder had great confidence in the venerable Ananda, so 
much so, that even after grey hair started appearing on his 
head, he used to look upon him as a lad and address him, " And 
Oh ! this lad has not understood even this little." (Had he 
been chosen) the monks would have subjected him to hostile 
criticism, saying that the Elder had chosen Ananda who was 
endowed with the analytic insight of but a Learner in preference 

6 Inception of Discipline 

to many monks who had reached perfection and were also 
endowed with analytic insight in conformity with it, and 
would think that in this instance he was prejudiced in his favour 
as this venerable one was born of the Sakya Clan and was the 
Tathagata's cousin, being the son of his father's younger 
brother. While avoiding that censure by others he (purposely) 
did not select him, reflecting (at the same time) that it was not 
possible to hold the rehearsal without Ananda (but) he would 
accept him only on the express wish of the monks. 

Thereupon the monks themselves begged of the Elder on 
Ananda's behalf ; for it has been said ^ : " The monks spoke 
thus to Venerable Mahakassapa, ' Yonder Venerable Ananda, 
Sir, even though he is yet a Learner, is incapable of going on 
a wrong course through desire, ill-will, fear, or delusion * ; 
he has mastered much of the Dhamma and the Vinaya under 
the Exalted One. Therefore, Sir, may the Elder nominate 
Venerable Ananda as well.' " Thereupon Venerable Maha- 
kassapa selected Venerable Ananda as well. There were thus 
500 Elders including that venerable one who was selected on 
the express wish of the monks. 

6. It then occurred to the Elder monks,^ " Where shall we 
rehearse the Dhamma and the Vinaya ? " Thereupon it again 
occurred to them, [8] " Food is plentiful at Rajagaha,^ and 
lodgings are easy to obtain there. Well then, let us rehearse 
the Dhamma and the Vinaya spending the Rains-residence ^ 
at Rajagaha, and let not other monks enter upon the Rains- 
residence there." Why did they think in this manner ? (Their 
idea was :) " Perhaps some undesirable individual may come 
into the midst of the monks and disturb this gigantic under- 
taking of ours." Then the venerable Mahakassapa made an 
announcement followed by a formal Act of the Order.* It 
should be understood as stated in the Section dealing with the 

7. A fortnight had elapsed since the time of the passing away 
of the Tathagata in perfect Nibbana when seven days were 
spent in sacred festivities ^ and a further seven days in paying 
homage to the relics and so on. And the Elder Mahakassapa, 

First Great Convocation 7 

considering that one and a half months of the summer were yet 
remaining and that the day for entering upon the Rains- 
residence 2 was fast drawing nigh, took with him half the number 
of the Order of monks saying, " Friends, we shall repair to 
Rajagaha," and went in one direction. The Elder Anuruddha 
took with him the other half and went by a different route. 

8. On the other hand, the Elder Ananda, taking with him 
the bowl and the robe of the Exalted One and being attended 
by a company of monks went on a missionary tour in the 
direction of Savatthi ^ in his eagerness to repair to Rajagaha 
visiting Savatthi first. ^ Wherever the Elder Ananda went, 
there was great lamentation to the effect, " O Sir, Venerable 
Ananda, where have you left the Teacher that you are coming 
here ? " In due course the Elder arrived at Savatthi ; the 
lamentation there was great, as it had been on the day of the 
passing away of the Exalted One in perfect Nibbana. Thereupon 
the venerable Ananda consoled the populace with a discourse on 
the Dhamma dealing with transciency and, entering the Jeta 
Grove opened the door of the Fragrant Chamber which used 
to be the dwelhng of the Lord of Ten Powers, shifted the couch 
and seats, dusted them, swept the Fragrant Chamber, [9] threw 
away the rubbish of withered flowers and garlands, brought 
back the couch and the seats and placed them in their former 
places and did all the ministrations which he would have done 
when the Exalted One had been alive. Then the Elder took a 
purgative in milk on the following day in order to allay the 
humours of his body which were disturbed on account of the 
excessively sedentary life he had led from the time of the passing 
away of the Exalted One in perfect Nibbana, ^ and remained 
indoors in the monastery. He referred to it when he told the 
young brahmin messenger * whom Subha the brahmin had 
sent, " Young man, it will not suit me today. I have taken 
some medicine. Perhaps I shall come to-morrow." On the 
following day, he went accompanied by the Elder Cetaka as 
his attendant monk and, when questioned by Subha the 
brahmin, preached the tenth sutta of the Dighanikaya called 
Subhasutta.^ After that the Elder supervised the repairs to 
the broken and shattered portions of the Jetavana Monastery 

8 Inception of Discipline 

and, when the day for entering upon the Rains-residence drew 
near, went to Rajagaha. Likewise, the Elders Mahakassapa 
and Anuruddha took with them the entire company of monks 
and went to Rajagaha itself. 

9. At that time there were eighteen great monasteries at 
Rajagaha. And all of them were soiled with the cast-off and 
accumulated rubbish. For, at the time of the passing away 
of the Exalted One in perfect Nibbana all the monks took each 
his bowl and robe and went away deserting the monasteries 
and cells. The Elders there, in order to honour the request of 
the Exalted One and to escape the adverse criticism of 
members of heretical schools, thought of repairing the dilapida- 
tions during the first month. For, should the heretics say, 
" The disciples of the Recluse Gotama looked after their 
monasteries while their Teacher was alive ; now that he has 
passed away in perfect Nibbana, they have deserted them," 
it is said that they thought so to escape the blame from them. 

[10] And so it has been said ^ : It then occurred to the Elder 
monks, " Friends, the Exalted One has praised the effecting of 
repairs to dilapidations. So let us, friends, during the first 
month, repair the dilapidations and assemble to rehearse the 
Dhamma and the Vinaya during the second month." 

10. On the following day they went and stood at the palace 
gates. King Ajatasattu came forth, saluted them and inquired 
from them why they had come and what they expected him 
to do. The Elders intimated their need of labour to effect 
the repairs to the dilapidations in the eighteen great 
monasteries. " Very well. Sirs," said the King and gave 
artisans. The Elders had all the monasteries repaired during 
the first month and informed the King, " Great King, the 
repairs to the monasteries are completed, we now wish to 
rehearse the Dhamma and Vinaya." 

" Very well. Sirs, do so with full confidence. Mine is the 
wheel of command, let yours be the Wheel of the Dhamma. 
Command of me, Sirs, whatever you wish me to do." 

" A place for the monks who make the rehearsal of the 
Dhamma to assemble, Great King." 

First Great Convocation 9 

" Where shall I build it, Sirs ? " 

" It is meet you erect it at the entrance to the Sattapanni 
Cave on the side of the mountain Vebhara/ Great King." 

"So be it, Sirs," said King Ajatasattu and had a pavilion 
erected, resembling the handiwork of Vissakamma,^ with well 
apportioned walls, pillars, and stairways, adorned with divers 
decorative designs of garlands and creepers, as though sur- 
passing the splendour of the royal palace, or mocking with 
derision the glory of divine mansions, like unto a veritable 
abode of Siri ^ or a unique emporium, or a world of delight to 
the birds — the eyes of devas and men — or like a conglomeration 
of the choice essence of all that the eye should see ; [11] and 
decorated it like the abode of Brahma,* with its floor well laid 
out and ornamented with variegated decorative motifs of many 
kinds of flowers resembling a floor of polished crystal inlaid 
with gems of many colours and with a delightful overflowing 
canopy with manifold festoons of flowers suspended from it. 
In that large pavilion he spread out 500 rugs which were 
permissible for use ^ for the 500 monks, prepared a seat for the 
president at the southern end facing the North and a seat for 
the preacher in the centre of the pavilion facing the East, 
a seat worthy even of the Buddha, the Exalted One ; and 
placing there a fan inlaid with ivory he sent word to the 
Order of monks : " My task. Sirs, is done." 

II. And at that time some monks, referring to the venerable 
Ananda said, " There is a monk here in this assembly who goes 
about emanating the smell of raw flesh." The Elder heard it 
and was greatly perturbed thinking that there was no other 
monk in that assembly of monks who went about emanating 
the smell of raw flesh, and that undoubtedly they were saying 
so referring to him. Some other monks told the venerable 
Ananda that the assembly was to meet the following day and 
that he was but a Learner with his (spiritual) task yet unaccom- 
plished and that it was not proper for him to go to the assembly, 
and further, that he should strive with diHgence. 

Thereupon, 1 the venerable Ananda having reflected that the 
assembly was to meet the following day and that it did not 
become him to enter the assembly whilst yet being a Learner, 

10 Inception of Discipline 

spent the greater part of the night in mindfulness as to the 
body, and at day-break, descended from the cankama-vfdlk, 
entered the monastery, and inclined his body with the idea of 
lying down. Scarcely had his feet left contact with the floor and 
before his head had reached the pillow, during that interval 
his mind was released from the cankers with no further clinging 
to the material substratum. For, this Venerable One [12] had 
spent the time out of doors pacing up and down (in meditation) 
and, being unable to reach any higher attainment, he reflected, 
" Has not the Exalted One told me,^ ' Ananda, you have 
done merit in the past. Engage yourself in striving, you will 
soon be released from the cankers.' Buddhas never err in their 
pronouncements. I have over-exerted myself in my effort, in 
consequence of which my mind was tending towards distrac- 
tion. Let me therefore abate the rigour of my exertions." ^ 
Saying so he came down from the cankama-^dl\<i, washed his feet 
standing at the place for washing the feet, entered the 
monastery, sat down on his couch and stretched himself on 
it thinking of resting awhile. His two feet left the floor and 
his head had not yet reached the pillow. During this interval 
his mind was released from the cankers with no further clinging 
to the material substratum ; the Elder attained arahatship 
remaining in a position outside the four postures. Therefore, 
when it is asked what monk attained arahatship in this Dis- 
pensation neither lying down, sitting, standing, nor pacing 
up and down one should answer that it is the Elder Ananda. 

12. Thereupon, on the following day, the Elder monks, 
having finished their meal, arranged their bowls and robes 
and assembled in the convocation hall. But the Elder Ananda 
who was desirous of intimating his attainment of arahatship 
did not go with the monks. The monks seating themselves in 
their respective seats in order of seniority, sat down leaving a 
place for the Elder Ananda. And when some asked for whom 
that seat was left they were told that it was for Ananda. And 
in answer to the question, " Where has Ananda gone ? " (it 
should be said thus : — ) At that time the Elder thought that 
it was then the time for him to go. [13] Then displaying his 
supernatural power he dived into the earth and showed himself 

First Great Convocation ii 

in his own seat. But some say that he came through the air ^ 
and sat down. 

13. When the Venerable One was thus seated the Elder 
Mahakassapa addressed the monks, " Friends, what shall we 
rehearse first, the Dhamma or the Vinaya ? " The monks 
replied, " Sir, Mahakassapa, the Vinaya is the very life of the 
Dispensation of the Enlightened One : so long as the Vinaya 
endures, the Dispensation endures, therefore let us rehearse 
the Vinaya first." ^ 

" Placing whom in charge ? " ^ 

" The venerable Upali." 

" Is not Ananda competent ? " 

" It is not that he is not competent, but the Perfectly En- 
lightened One, while he was living, considered the venerable 
Upali as the most pre-eminent in connexion with the learning 
of the Vinaya, saying,^ ' He, O monks, is the most pre-eminent 
among my disciples who are monks, in the retention of the 
Vinaya, namely Upali.' Therefore let us rehearse the Vinaya 
in consultation with the Elder Upali." Thereupon the Elder 
(Mahakassapa) appointed himself for the purpose of questioning 
about the Vinaya, and the Elder Upali agreed to give 

So say the Sacred Texts * : " Thereupon the venerable 
Mahakassapa announced to the assembly of monks, ' Friends, 
may the fellow members ^ of the Order listen to me. If it is 
agreeable to the members of the Order, I shall question Upali 
on the Vinaya.' The venerable Upali too announced to the 
Order, ' May it please the venerable members ^ of the Order 
to listen to me. If it is agreeable to the Order, I shall expound 
the Vinaya when questioned by the venerable Mahakassapa.' " 
Having ^ thus obtained approval for himself, the venerable 
Upali rose from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, 
saluted the older monks, and sat in the preacher's seat taking 
in his hand the fan inlaid with ivory. 

14. Then the venerable Mahakassapa seated himself in the 
president's seat and questioned the venerable Upali on the 
Vinaya,^ " Friend Upali, where did the Exalted One lay down 
the first Parajika ? " ^ 

12 Inception of Discipline 

[14] " At Vesali,3 Sir." 

" In connexion with whom ? " 

" In connexion with Sudinna, son of Kalandaka." 

" In connexion with what subject ? " 

" In connexion with sexual intercourse." * 

Then the venerable Mahakassapa questioned the venerable 
Upali on the subject of the first Parajika, the occasion, the 
person, the rule, the corollaries, and on what constitutes an 
offence and what does not. In the same way as of the first, 
then of the second, the third, and of the fourth Parajika he 
asked about the subject and so on and what did not constitute 
an offence. The Elder Upali explained whatever he was 

Then having classified accordingly these four Parajika 
entitled the chapter on the Parajika, they established as 
thirteen the thirteen Sanghadisesa. They established the two 
rules called the Aniyata, the thirty rules called the Nissag- 
giyapacittiya, the ninety-two rules called the Pacittiya, the 
four rules called the Patidesaniya, the seventy-five rules 
called the Sekhiya, and the seven rules for the settlement of 
questions that have arisen.^ 

Thus having classified accordingly the Mahavibhanga, they 
established the eight rules in the Bhikkhunivibhanga entitled 
the chapter on the Parajika. They established as seventeen 
the seventeen (Sanghadisesa) rules, the thirty rules as the 
Nissaggiyapacittiya, the i66 rules as the Pacittiya, the eight 
rules as the Patidesaniya, the seventy-five rules as the Sekhiya, 
and the seven rules for the settlement of questions that have 
arisen. 6 [15] Having thus classified the Bhikkhunivibhanga 
even in the same manner they established the Khandhaka and 
the Parivara. 

Thus was made the compilation of the Vinaya Pitaka ' which 
consists of the Vibhanga of both categories, the Khandhaka 
and the Parivara. The Elder Mahakassapa questioned on 
everything and the Elder Upali explained. At the conclusion 
of the explanation of the questions the 500 Arahants rehearsed 
together in a group according to the exact way in which the 
compilation had been fixed. On the conclusion of the com- 
pilation of the Vinaya the Elder Upali placed aside the fan 

First Great Convocation 13 

inlaid with ivory, descended from the preacher's seat, saluted 
the older monks, and sat in the seat assigned to him. 

15. Having rehearsed the Vinaya, the venerable Maha- 
kassapa, wishing to rehearse the Dhamma, asked the monks, 

Whom shall we place in charge in rehearsing the Dhamma ? " The 
monks replied, " Let us make the Elder Ananda to be in charge." 

Thereupon ^ the venerable Mahakassapa announced to the 
Order of monks, " Friends, may the members of the Order 
listen to me. If it is agreeable to the members of the Order, 
I shall question Ananda on the Dhamma." The venerable 
Ananda, too, announced to the Order of monks, " May it please 
the venerable members of the Order to listen to me. If it is 
agreeable to the members of the Order, I shall explain the 
Dhamma when questioned by the venerable Mahakassapa." 
Then ^ the venerable Ananda rose from his seat, arranged his 
robe over one shoulder, saluted the Elder monks (i.e. those who 
were his seniors), and sat in the preacher's seat taking in his 
hand the fan inlaid with ivory. The Elder Mahakassapa 
questioned the venerable Ananda on the Dhamma, " Friend ^ 
Ananda, where was the Brahmajala * preached ? " 

[16] " Sir, at the King's palace at Ambalatthika, between 
Rajagaha and Nalanda." ^ 

" In connexion with whom ? " 

" Suppiya the wandering ascetic and the brahmin youth 

" On what subject ? " ^ 

" On praise and blame." 

And in such wise did the venerable Mahakassapa question 
the venerable Ananda on the occasion and the person. (Again 
he asked), 

" Friend Ananda, where was the Samafifiaphala ^ preached ? " 

" Sir, at Jivaka's Mango Grove at Rajagaha." 

" With whom ? " 

" With Ajatasattu, son of the Videhan princess." 

Thereupon the venerable Mahakassapa questioned the 
venerable Ananda on the occasion of the Samaiiiiaphala, and 
the person. And in the self -same manner he questioned him on 
all five Nikayas. 

14 Inception of Discipline 

The five Nikayas ® are, Dighanikaya, Majjhimanikaya, 
Samyuttanikaya, Anguttaranikaya, and Khuddakanikaya. 
Here Khuddakanikaya means the rest of the sayings of the 
Buddha excluding the four Nikayas. The venerable Elder 
Upali explained the Vinaya therein ^ and the Elder Ananda 
the remaining sections of the Khuddakanikaya and the four 

i6. All this forms the word of the Buddha which should be 
known as uniform in sentiment/ twofold as the Dhamma and 
the Vinaya, threefold according to the first, intermediate, and 
last words, and similarly as Pitakas (Baskets), fivefold according 
to the Nikayas (Collections), ninefold according to the Angas 
(Factors), and forming 84,000 divisions according to the Units 
of the Dhamma. 

17. How is it uniform in sentiment ? During the interval of 
forty-five years from the time He realized the unique and 
perfect Enlightenment until he passed away in the element of 
Nibbana being free from clinging to the material substratum, 
whatever the Exalted One has said either as instruction to 
devas, men, nagas, yakkhas, and other beings or on reflection, 
has but one sentiment and that is emancipation. Thus it is 
uniform as regards sentiment. 

18. [17] How is it twofold as the Dhamma and the Vinaya ? 
All this, in its entirety, is reckoned as the Dhamma and the 
Vinaya. Herein the Basket of the Discipline is the Vinaya, 
the rest of the word of the Buddha is the Dhamma.^ Hence 
was it stated ^ : " Let us, friends, rehearse the Dhamma and 
the Vinaya," and " I shall question Upali on the Vinaya 
and Ananda on the Dhamma." Thus it is twofold as the 
Dhamma and the Vinaya. 

19. How is it threefold according to the first, intermediate, 
and last words ? All this, in its entirety, has the three divisions 
as the first words of the Buddha, the intermediate words and 
the last words. Herein, the stanzas ^ : 

" For many births have I run my course in sarnsara 

First Great Convocation 15 

seeking with no success the builder of the house ; painful 
is birth again and again. 

" Thou art seen O builder of the house, thou shalt not build 
the house again. All thine beams are broken, the ridge-pole 
shattered. The mind that is divested of all things material 
has attained the destruction of all craving " : 
form the first words of the Buddha. Some say that it was the 
Stanza of Joy in the Khandhaka beginning with,^ " When 
indeed, phenomena manifest themselves " (which formed the 
first words). It should be known that this is a Stanza of Joy 
which arose in Him as he contemplated on the causal modes 
with a happy frame of mind after the attainment of Omniscience 
on the first day of the lunar fortnight. The statement that He 
made on the eve of His passing away in perfect Nibbana,^ 
" Now then monks, I address you, all component elements have 
decay inherent in them, apply yourselves diligently," forms 
the last words of the Buddha. What has been said during the 
interval between these two (statements) form the intermediate 
words of the Buddha. Thus it is threefold according to the first, 
intermediate, and last words. 

20. [18] How is it threefold according to the Pitakas ? Indeed, 
all this, in its entirety, has the three divisions as the Vinaya- 
pitaka, the Suttantapitaka, and the Abhidhammapitaka. 
Therein, having brought together all that has been both 
rehearsed and not ^ at the First Convocation, both Patimok- 
kha, the two Vibhanga, the twenty-two Khandhaka, and the 
sixteen Parivara, it is called the Vinayapitaka. 

The collection of the thirty-four suttas beginning with 
Brahmajala called the Dighanikaya, that of 152 suttas begin- 
ning with Mulapariyaya called the Majjhimanikaya, that of 
7,762 suttas beginning with Oghataranasutta called the 
Sarnyuttanikaya, that of 9,557 suttas beginning with the 
Cittapariyadanasutta called the Anguttaranikaya, and the 
Khuddakanikaya ^ consisting of the fifteen works : Khuddaka- 
patha, Dhammapada, Udana, Itivuttaka, Suttanipata, Vimana- 
vatthu, Petavatthu, Thera- and Therigatha, Jataka, Niddesa, 
Patisambhida, Apadana, Buddhavamsa, and Cariyapitaka, are 
called the Suttantapitaka. 

i6 Inception of Discipline 

Dhammasangani, Vibhanga, Dhatukatha, Puggalapafinatti, 
Kathavatthu, Yamaka, and Patthana constitute the Abhidham- 

21. Herein, 

Because it contains manifold distinctive modes of practices 
and restrains both bodily and verbal acts, the Vinaya is 
called so by those who are adept in the purport of the 

Here the word " manifold " is used with reference to the 
divisions such as the injunctions of the fivefold Patimokkha/ 
the seven classes of offences beginning with the Parajika,^ the 
Matika,^ and the Vibhanga. They have become distinctive 
on account of the application of corollaries * which serve the 
purpose of relaxing rigid rules. [19] It regulates body and 
speech as it prohibits physical and verbal transgressions. 
Therefore it is called Vinaya on account of the diversity of 
means, the distinctive practices, and the disciplining of the body 
and speech. Therefore this has been said for the sake of 
expediency in bringing out the connotation of the term : 

Because it contains manifold distinctive modes of practices 
and restrains both bodily and verbal acts, the Vinaya is 
called so by those who are adept in the purport of the 

22. And the next : 

Because it points out meanings, expresses them clearly, 
fulfils them, flows with meanings, affords perfect protection, 
and shares the properties of a thread, Sutta is given the name 

For it conveys meanings which are diversified as subjective, 
objective, and the like. Here the meanings are clearly expressed 
as they have been declared in accordance with the intentions of 
those who are amenable to discipline. Here it fulfils the 
meanings in the same manner as when it is said that corn yields 
a harvest. It flows with meaning in the same manner as when 
it is said that the cow yields abundant milk. It has been said 
that it protects and guards them well. It shares the properties 

First Great Convocation 17 

of a thread even as a plumb-line serves as a measure to the 
carpenters : even so is this to the wise, as when flowers strung 
together with a thread are neither scattered nor dispersed. 
Likewise, by means of this the meanings have been grasped. 
Therefore this has been said for the sake of expediency in 
bringing out the connotation of the term : 

Because it points out meanings, expresses them clearly, 
fulfils them, flows with meanings, affords perfect protection, 
and shares the properties of a thread, Sutta is given the name 

23. [20] And the other : 

Since here are found conditions which possess growth and 
their own characteristics, are revered and differentiated and 
said to be excellent — on account of these it is called 

And this prefix ahhi is seen to denote growth, possession of 
own characteristics, reverence, differentiation, and excellence. 
Therefore it has come to be used in the sense of growth in 
statements such as,i " acute and painful sensations come upon 
me, they do not recede." In statements such as ^ " all those 
memorable nights that had been set apart ", it is used in the 
sense of own characteristics ; in statements such as ^ " king 
of kings, Inda among men ", in the sense of reverence ; in 
statements such as * " capable of being disciplined in the funda- 
mental tenets of the Dhamma and the essential rules of the 
Vinaya ", in the sense of differentiation. It means (that they 
are able to master) the Dhamma and the Vinaya without 
confusing either with the other. In statements such as ^ "in 
surpassing splendour " , it is used in the sense of excellence. 
Herein, as stated in expressions such as ^ "he develops the 
path for the arising of form ", or ^ "he lives suffusing one 
quarter with thoughts of love ", phenomena which have reached 
a state of development have been referred to. On account of 
their being characterized by sense-data and so forth according 
to such attributes as ^ " visual object and auditory object ", 
they possess their own characteristics. According to such 
designations as ^ " conditions pertaining to a Learner, to a 

i8 Inception of Discipline 

Man Perfected and those that are transcendental ", it is im- 
pUed that they are revered and are worthy of reverence. On 
account of their true state being dehmited in such manner as ^^ 
" there arises contact and there arise sensations " and so forth, 
they are differentiated. They are called phenomena of excel- 
lence in statements such as ^^ " states waxed great, states 
immeasurable, states incomparable ", and so forth. Therefore 
this has been said for the sake of expediency in bringing out 
the connotation of the term : 

Since here are found conditions which possess growth 
and their own characteristics, are revered and differentiated 
and said to be excellent — on account of these it is called 

24. Whatever has been not specifically implied, it is expressed 

Those versed in the meaning of the term Pitaka, used 

it with reference to learning and a vessel. By combining 

(the two meanings) the three (divisions) commencing with 

the Vinaya should be known so. 

[21] In signifying learning it is called a pitaka in statements 
such as 1 " not by including in a pitaka " and so forth. In 
statements such as ^ " Then a man might come along bringing 
with him a hoe and a basket " it signifies some kind of vessel. 

Those versed in the meaning of the term Pitaka, used 

it with reference to learning and a vessel. By combining 

(the two meanings) the three (divisions) commencing with 

the Vinaya should be known so. 

Hence having thus formed a compound with the noun pitaka 
in both meanings, it is called the Vinayapitaka as the Pitaka is 
the Vinaya on account of its being the learning and as it em- 
braces the differentiated meanings. And so, in the very same 
manner as stated above, the Suttapitaka is the Sutta which is 
the Pitaka and the Abhidhammapitaka is the Abhidhamma 
which is the Pitaka. In this manner should these three, com- 
mencing with Vinaya, be known. Having understood them 
thus, again for the sake of expediency in bringing out in divers 
ways the significance of these Pitakas : 

First Great Convocation 19 

One should explain their divisions of sayings incorporating 
admonitions and discourses that suit the occasions, as well 
as of moral training, avoidance, and the profundity.^ 

One should also elaborate on all topics such as the division 
of the learning and how and under what conditions a monk 
attains whatever (there may be of) success or failure. 

25. Here follows the explanation and elucidation. These three 
Pitakas, indeed, according to formal analyses are said to be the 
authoritative injunctions, the popular teachings, and the ulti- 
mate truth respectively ; or they are the discourses necessitated 
by transgressions, those adapted to circumstances, and those 
set out in accordance with reality respectively ; or again, 
discourses on the various categories of restraint,^ on the 
refutation of heresies, and on the distinction between Name 
and Form, respectively. Herein, the Vinayapitaka is called the 
exposition of injunctions as it has been preached with a pre- 
ponderance of authority by the Exalted One in whom all 
authority is vested ; the Suttapitaka, the exposition of popular 
teachings as it has been preached with great emphasis on 
popular ethics by the Exalted One who was proficient in popular 
ethics ; and the Abhidhammapitaka, the exposition of ultimate 
truth as it has been preached with great leanings on absolute 
truth by* the Exalted One who is adept in the absolute truths. 

[22] Likewise, the first is called the teaching necessitated by 
transgressions wherein those beings who are given to many 
misdeeds are admonished in accordance with the nature of 
their offences ; the second, that adapted to circumstances 
wherein beings who are given to divers dispositions, latent 
tendencies, and traits of character are admonished in accord- 
ance with their adaptability ; and the third, that set out in 
accordance with reality wherein beings who conceive of an 
ego and what pertains to it, only in the presence of a pile of 
conditions, are instructed in terms of the absolute truth. 

Similarly, the first is called discourse on the various categories 
of restraint as in it are discussed all aspects of restraint, which 
are diametrically opposed to remissness in conduct ; the second, 
discourse on the refutation of heresies as in it is discussed the 
unravelling of perverse views, which is diametrically opposed 

20 Inception of Discipline 

to the sixty-two heretical theories ^ ; and the third, discourse 
on the distinction between Name and Form as in it is discussed 
the differentiation of Name and Form which is diametrically 
opposed to lust and other evil tendencies. 

26. It should be known that in these three are the threefold 
training, the threefold avoidance, and the fourfold profundity. 
Hence the training in the higher morality is specifically dis- 
cussed in the Vinayapitaka, the training in higher thought in 
the Suttapitaka, and the training in higher wisdom in the 
Abhidhammapitaka. In the Vinayapitaka is taught the 
avoidance of transgression, as transgression in defilements is 
diametrically opposed to morality ; in the Suttapitaka the 
avoidance of prepossession, as prepossession is diametrically 
opposed to concentration ; in the Abhidhammapitaka, the 
avoidance of latent bias, as latent bias is diametrically opposed 
to wisdom. In the first is the categorical avoidance of defile- 
ments and in the others the avoidance consisting of elimination 
and eradication. In the first is the avoidance of the defilement 
of misconduct : in the others that of the defilements of craving 
and misbelief. And in each of them the fourfold profundity ^ 
of the Dhamma, of the meaning, of the exposition, and of the 
comprehension, should be known. Herein the Dhamma is 
the Sacred Texts, the meaning is its precise meaning, the 
exposition is the verbal preaching of the Sacred Texts which 
have been established in the mind, and the comprehension 
is the correct understanding of the Sacred Texts and the 
meaning of the Sacred Texts. And in these three (Pitakas) [23] 
the Dhamma, the meaning, the exposition, and the comprehen- 
sion are difficult of access to men of little wit and providing no 
basis of support even as the great ocean is to hares and such 
animals ; and hence they are profound. In this manner, herein, 
should the fourfold profundity too of each one of them be 

27. Another explanation : Dhamma signifies cause ; for it is 
said,^ " The knowledge of the cause is the analytical knowledge 
of the Dhamma." Attha signifies the result of the cause ; 
for it is said,2 " The knowledge of the result of the cause is 

First Great Convocation 2i 

the analytical knowledge of the meaning." Desand signifies 
exposition. It also implies the verbal expression of the Dhamma 
according to its true nature. Pativedha signifies realization in 
a worldly and in a transcedental sense : an exposition in its 
proper sphere, without confusion, in conformity with the 
essential significance of the phenomena and with the nature of 
the meanings and the comprehension of the expositions in 
accordance with their general trend. 

Now, on account of whatever is characterized as Dhamma or 
Attha in these Pitakas, of the exposition which elucidates the 
meaning in accordance with that meaning which has to be 
announced to the listeners and precedes knowledge, of all that 
which consists of penetrative knowledge herein and is considered 
as unequivocal reahzation, and of its being difiicult of access 
providing no basis of support to men of feeble intellect who have 
not accumulated any meritorious deeds, even as the great 
ocean is to hares and such animals, the fourfold profundity 
herein should be known in this manner. 

[24] To this extent are the reasons for stating the following 
stanza : 

One should explain their divisions of sayings incorporating 
admonitions and discourses that suit the occasions, as well 
as of moral training, avoidance, and the profundity. 

28. But in, 

One should also elaborate on all topics such as the division 
of the learning and how and under what conditions a monk 
attains whatever (there may be of) success or failure, 

the threefold division of the learning in these three Pitakas 
should be observed. The modes of learning are three (in 
number) : that which may be compared to the water-snake, 
that which aims at release, and the mode of learning of a 
treasurer. Here, what has been wrongly grasped, and learned by 
heart for the reproach of others is comparable to the simile of 
the water-snake : regarding which it is said,^ " Even as, 
O monks, a man who is in need of a water-snake, who seeks for 
one and goes about searching for one, were to see a large water- 
snake, he would seize it by the coils or tail, and that water-snake 

22 Inception of Discipline 

were to turn round and bite him in the hand or arm or any 
other part of his body, he would, in consequence of that 
undergo death or pain amounting to death. What is the reason 
for it ? O monks, it was due to the improper handhng of the 
water-snake. Even in the same way, O monks, some foohsh 
men in this world commit to memory the Dhamma consisting 
of sutta, geyya, veyyakarana, gatha, udana, itivuttaka, jataka, 
abbhutadhamma, and vedalla.^ Having committed to memory 
the Dhamma, they do not examine with intelligence the 
significance of those teachings. As they do not examine 
intelligently their significance those teachings do not arouse 
comprehension. They commit the teachings to memory for 
the sake of censuring others and freeing themselves of others' 
blame. They do not experience that purpose for the sake of 
which (the virtuous) master the Dhamma. Those teachings 
which have been wrongly grasped by them are conducive to 
their disadvantage and misery for a long time. What is the 
reason for it ? O monks, it is due to the wrong comprehension 
of the teachings." 

[25] Whatever has been well grasped, and perfected, desiring 
the fulfilment of the aggregate of moral precepts themselves, 
not with the purpose of censuring others — it brings about 
release. Regarding this it is said,^ " Those teachings being well 
grasped by them are conducive to their advantage and happi- 
ness for a long time. What is the reason for it ? O monks, 
it is due to their correct comprehension of the teachings." 

Again, whatever a canker-waned sage who has understood 
the aggregates, rid himself of the defilements, developed the 
path, pierced through the state of mutability, and realized 
cessation, accomplishes solely for the purpose of guarding the 
line of continuity and protecting the linage, this is the mode of 
learning of a treasurer. 

29. But the monk who is faring along well in the Vinaya, on 
account of his attainment of virtue arrives at the threefold 
knowledge, which is stated therein in accordance with their 
analytical treatment. He who is faring along well in the Sutta, 
on account of his attainment of concentration arrives at the 
sixfold higher knowledge, which is stated therein in accordance 

First Great Convocation 23 

with their analytical treatment. He who is faring along well 
in the Abhidhamma, on account of his attainment of wisdom 
arrives at the fourfold analytic insight, which is stated therein 
in accordance with their analytical treatment. Thus, he who is 
faring along well in them, in due course arrives at the attain- 
ments consisting of this threefold knowledge, sixfold higher 
knowledge, and fourfold analytic insight. 

On the other hand, he who is faring ill along in the Vinaya 
is not aware of the blameworthiness of the physical contact 
and the like which arise in association with those forbidden 
objects which are excluded from the prescribed categories of 
pleasant contact with (specified types of) carpets, garments 
for outer wear and the like.^ For it is said,^ " I understand the 
Dhamma declared by the Exalted One that certain practices 
have been said to be harmful by the Exalted One, and the 
person who indulges in them (considers them) as incapable of 
bringing harm upon him." Consequently he arrives at evil 
conduct. [26] He who is faring ill along in the Sutta accepts 
the wrong thing, not knowing the correct significance, as it is 
stated in such passages as,^ " These four individuals, O monks, 
are seen existing," and so on. Regarding this it has been 
said,* " On account of his wrong grasp, he accuses me, harms 
himself, and enters on much evil." Consequently he arrives at 
wrong views. He who is faring ill along in the Abhidhamma 
over-rides the thoughts on the nature of things and thinks 
even of what should not be reflected on. Consequently he arrives 
at confusion of mind. For it has been said ^ : " These four 
topics should not be reflected on, O monks, they should not be 
thought of, for he who thinks of them would be subjected to 
madness and vexation." Thus, he who is faring ill along with 
reference to those, in due course, sustains great loss consisting 
of evil conduct, wrong views, and confusion of mind. To this 
extent are the reasons for also stating the following stanza : 
One should also elaborate on all topics such as the division 
of the learning and how and under what conditions a monk 
attains whatever (there may be of) success or failure. 
In this manner should the Pitakas be known in their divers 
aspects : and in accordance with them the word of the Buddha 
should be understood as being threefold. 

24 Inception of Discipline 

30. How is it fivefold according to the division into Nikayas ? 
All this falls into the fivefold division : Dighanikaya, Majjhi- 
manikaya, Samyuttanikaya, Anguttaranikaya, and Khudda- 

Therein, what is the Dighanikaya ? 

The thirty-four suttas commencing with Brahmajala arranged 
in three vaggas (groups). 

The thirty-four long suttas whose arrangement is in three 

vaggas is called the Dighanikaya, the first in serial order. 

And why is it called the Dighanikaya ? 

On account of the fact that it is a collection and a resting 
place for suttas long in measure (it is so termed), and it is called 
a nikaya as all of them are placed together as a collection. 
[27] In statements such as,^ " O monks, I do not see any other 
group that is so variegated as creatures of the animal kingdom, 
as the kingdom of those that go prone and of those that live in 
the mud," are found examples both from the doctrinal aspect 
and popular usage. Thus should the connotation of the term 
nikaya be understood even with reference to the others. 

What is the Majjhimanikaya ? 

The 152 suttas of medium length commencing with the 
Miilapariyaya Sutta and arranged in fifteen vaggas. 

That which contains 150 suttantas and two other suttas, 

comprising fifteen vaggas is called the Majjhimanikaya. 

What is the Samyuttanikaya ? 

The 7,762 suttas commencing with the Oghatarana Sutta 
and classified under such topics as the Devata Samyutta. 

Seven thousand suttas and 700 of them as well as sixty-two 

suttantas — this is the Sarnyutta collection. 

What is the Anguttaranikaya ? 

The 9,557 suttas commencing with the Cittapariyadana, the 
" Summary Grasping of the Mind ", which occur as one factor 
in excess of each preceding one. 

Nine thousand suttas and 500 suttas and fifty-seven other 

suttas form the number in the Anguttara. 

What is the Khuddakanikaya ? 

The rest of the word of the Buddha including the entire 
Vinaya Pitaka, the Abhidhamma Pitaka, and the fifteen 

First Great Convocation 25 

divisions commencing with the Khuddakapatha enumerated 
earHer,2 leaving aside the four nikayas.^ 

[28] The rest of the word of the Buddha, excluding these 

four nikayas such as the Digha, is considered the Khudda- 


Thus it is fivefold according to (the division into) Nikayas. 

31. How is it ninefold according to (the classification into) 
Angas ? 

All this is comprised under the ninefold division : sutta, 
geyya, veyyakarana, gatha, udana, itivuttaka, jataka, abbhuta- 
dhamma, and vedalla. 

Herein, the twofold Vibhanga, the Niddesas, the Khandha- 
ka, the Parivara, Mangala, Ratana, Nalaka, and Tuvataka 
Suttas of the Sutta Nipata and other sayings of the Tathagata 
bearing the name sutta should be known as Sutta (Discourses).^ 

All the suttas containing stanzas should be known as Geyya 
(Recitation), particularly the entire Sagatha-vagga (Chapter 
with Stanzas) in the Sarnyutta.^ 

The whole of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, suttas which contain 
no stanzas and any other (sayings from the) word of the 
Buddha not included in the other eight Angas ^ should be 
known as Veyyakarana (Expositions). 

The Dhammapada, Theragatha, Therigatha, and sections 
entirely in verse in the Sutta Nipata which are not designated 
as suttas should be known as Gatha (Stanzas).* 

The eighty-two suttantas containing stanzas which were 
prompted by an awareness of joy should be known as Udana 
(Utterances of Joy).^ 

The 112 suttantas which have been handed down prefixed 
with the statement, " For this has been said by the Exalted 
One," should be known as Itivuttaka (Thus Saids).^ 

The 550 Birth Stories commencing with Apannaka should 
be known as Jataka (Birth Stories).® 

All the suttantas connected with wonderful and marvellous 
phenomena handed down with words to such effect as, " O 
monks, these four wonderful and marvellous qualities are seen 
in Ananda," should be known as Abbhutadhamma (Marvellous 

26 Inception of Discipline 

[29] All the suttantas requested to be preached as a result of 
repeated attainment of wisdom and delight, such as Culla- 
vedalla, Mahavedalla, Sammaditthi, Sakkapafiha, Sankhara- 
bhajaniya, and Mahapunnama Suttas ^ and others should be 
known as Vedalla (Analyses).^ Thus it is ninefold according 
to (the classification) into Angas. 

32. How is it eighty-four thousandfold according to the 
Dhammakkhandhas (Units of the Dhamma) ? 

All this, the entire word of the Buddha has 84,000 divisions 
according to the Units of the Dhamma as laid down in the 
following manner ^ : 

I have taken 82,000 from the Buddha, and 2,000 from 

the monks : and these are the 84,000 extant Units of the 


Herein, a sutta with a unitary application is one Unit of the 
Dhamma. Whatever is of multiple application, the number of 
Units of the Dhamma in it depends on the number of topics of 
application. In metrical compositions the question and the 
answer form two different Units of the Dhamma. In the 
Abhidhamma, each analysis of a triad or a dyad or the analysis 
of each thought-process forms a separate Unit of the Dhamma. 
In the Vinaya, there are the subjects for rules, tabulations, 
analysis of terms, secondary conditions of guilt,^ and of 
innocence and the demarcation of the threefold delimiting 
factors of offences.^ Herein, each category should be under- 
stood as a separate Unit of the Dhamma. Thus it has 84,000 
divisions according to the Units of the Dhamma. 

33. Thus, this word of the Buddha which is uniform in senti- 
ment taken as a whole (without division), and consists of such 
divisions as the Dhamma and the Vinaya in the divisions such 
as those into two and so forth, has been laid down as, " This 
is the Dhamma and this is the Vinaya, these are the first, 
intermediate, and final sayings of the Buddha, these are the 
Vinaya, Sutta, and Abhidhamma Pitakas, these are the 
Nikayas from Digha to Khuddaka, these are the nine Angas 
commencing with Sutta and these are the eighty-four thousand 
Units of the Dhamma," was rehearsed together by the assembly 

Second Great Convocation 27 

of self-controlled monks with Mahakassapa as their leader verily 
observing this distinction. 

[30] And not only this, but other divers distinctions in 
compilation to be met with in the three Pitakas, such as the 
stanzas containing Hsts of contents, the arrangement into 
chapters, noting down of repetitions, and the classification into 
kindred sections of ones, twos, and so forth, that into groups 
of kindred topics, and into groups of fifties and so forth, have 
been determined when it was thus rehearsed together in seven 

And at the conclusion of its rehearsal this great earth 
trembled and quaked, shook and shook violently many times 
over, up to its ocean-limits as though giving its blessing at the 
joy produced that this Dispensation of the Lord of Ten Powers 
had been made by the Elder Mahakassapa to last a period of 
time extending 5,000 years. And many wondrous things became 
manifest. And this is the First Great Convocation which is 
commonly known in the world as : 

Held by 500, and hence called " Pertaining to the Five 
Hundred " ; and as it was held by the Elders it is also 
termed as that of the Elders. 

Here ends the First Great Convocation. 

HI — The Account of the Second Great Convocation 

34. While the First Great Convocation was in progress, the 
venerable Mahakassapa, who was asking questions on the 
Vinaya, at the end of such statements of his as, " Where O 
friend, Upali, was the first Parajika laid down ? " asked about 
the subject, the occasion, and the person. And the venerable 
Upali who wished to convey everything by explaining the 
occasion from the very beginning when he was thus asked about 
the occasion here, by whom it was proclaimed, and wherefore 
it was proclaimed, spoke thus ^ : [31] " At that time the 
Buddha, the Exalted One, was living at Verafija." And in this 
manner everything should be stated. So it has been said by 
the venerable Elder Upali. It should be known too that it 
was said at the time of the First Great Convocation. And with 

28 Inception of Discipline 

this statement the meaning of these words, " By whom was 
this statement made, and when was it said ? " has been 

And now, here is told (the significance of), " Wherefore it 
has been said ? " Since the Venerable One was asked the 
occasion by the Elder Mahakassapa, it should be known that 
it has been so declared by the venerable Elder Upali, in order 
to explain this occasion from the beginning, at the time of the 
First Great Convocation when he said this for this reason. 
And so with this statement the meaning of these terms of 
tabulation, " By whom said, when and for what reason " has 
been explained. 

35. Now, this is said to express the significance of the words : 
" By whom this was retained in mind, handed down by whom, 
established in whom, and having next delcared the procedure." 
And it states by whom the Vinaya Pitaka — adorned as it is 
with the " Occasion " expressed in words to the effect,^ " At 
that time the Buddha, the Exalted One was living at 
Veranja " — has been retained in mind, by whom handed down, 
and in whom established. Firstly, from the beginning, it has 
been retained in mind by the venerable Elder Upali having 
learned it under the Exalted One, and directly from him, even 
before the passing away of the Tathagata in perfect Nibbana, 
by many thousands of monks such as those possessing the six- 
fold higher knowledge, and after the passing away of the Tatha- 
gata in perfect Nibbana, by the Elders who made the compila- 
tion of the Dhamma under the leadership of Mahakassapa. 

The meaning of " By whom was it handed down ? " is that 
it was firstly handed down in Jambudipa till the Third Con- 
vocation by a succession of teachers commencing with the 
Elder Upali. [32] And this is the succession of teachers '^ : 

Upali, Dasaka, as well as Sonaka, similarly Siggava and 
Tissa Moggaliputta — these five victorious ones. 

Transmitted the Vinaya in the glorious (is) land of Jambu- 
siri in unbroken succession up to the time of the third 

36. For, the venerable Upali learned this Vinaya tradition, 

Second Great Convocation 29 

this lineage of the Vinaya, this legacy of the Vinaya directly 
under the Exalted One and established it in the heart of many 
monks. Among those individuals who learned the Vinaya 
under the Venerable One and attained perfection of knowledge 
in the Vinaya, the number of worldlings, Stream-Entrants, 
Once-Returners, and Non-Returners has transcended all 
reckoning ; and there were exactly 1,000 canker- waned 
Arahants. And the Elder Dasaka was his own Saddhiviharika.^ 
He received it from the Elder Upali and in the same way gave 
instruction in the Vinaya. The number of worldlings and 
others who studied the Vinaya under this Venerable One too 
and attained perfection of knowledge in the Vinaya has 
transcended all reckoning ; of canker-waned Arahants alone 
there were 1,000. Next, the Elder Sonaka was the Saddhi- 
viharika of the Elder Dasaka. He too learned it from his 
preceptor the Elder Dasaka and in the same way gave instruc- 
tion in the Vinaya. The number of worldlings and others who 
studied it under that Venerable One too and attained perfec- 
tion of knowledge in the Vinaya has transcended all reckoning ; 
of canker- waned Arahants alone there were 1,000. 

37. And the Elder Siggava was the Saddhiviharika of the 
Elder Sonaka. He too studied the Vinaya under his preceptor 
the Elder Sonaka and took the role of the Chief in office among 
a thousand Arahants. Again, the worldlings, Stream-Entrants, 
Once-Returners, Non-Returners, as well as canker-waned 
Arahants [33] who studied under that Venerable One and 
attained perfection of knowledge in the Vinaya were not (to 
be) limited as so many hundred or so many thousand. It is 
said that there was a very large number of monks in Jambudipa 
at that time. And the influence of the Elder Moggaliputta 
Tissa will be clearly seen from the Third Convocation. It should 
be known that in this manner the Vinaya Pitaka was first 
handed down in Jambudipa until the Third Convocation by this 
succession of teachers. 

38. In order to know well the Second Convocation this 
procedure should be understood. For when. 

Those 500 Elders, including Kassapa and others who were 

30 Inception of Discipline 

effulgent and canker- waned and devoid of attachment, 
rehearsed the Good Teaching, making it shine everywhere, 
remained till the end of their life-time and passed away in 
Nibbana like lamps with oil consumed ; 
as days and nights were passing by, one by one, in due course,^ 
when it was a hundred years since the passing away of the 
Exalted One in perfect Nibbana, the Vajjiputtaka monks of 
VesalT proclaimed at Vesali these ten indulgences ^ \ It is 
permissible to use salt in a horn, to eat when the sun has turned 
two digits after noon, to go into the village for alms a second 
time, to hold separate uposatha ^ meetings within the same 
sima,* to pass a formal act of the Order awaiting the sanction 
of the others, to follow precedent in practices, to drink whey 
after meals, to drink unfermented liquor, to use rugs not of 
the prescribed length if they have no fringe, and to accept 
gold and silver. King Kalasoka, son of Susunaga ^ was on 
their side. 

At that time the venerable Yasa, son of Kakandaka who 
was on his sojourns in the land of the Vajjis came to hear that 
the Vajjiputtaka monks of Vesali had put forward ten indul- 
gences, and soon arrived at Vesali thinking to himself, " It 
does not become me to remain indifferent hearing the danger 
that is to befall the Dispensation of the Lord of Ten Powers : 
let me check the propounders of this heresy [34] and make the 
Dhamma shine." Thereupon the venerable Yasa, son of 
Kakandaka took up his residence in the Gabled Hall in the 
Great Wood near Vesali. 

And at that time the Vajjiputtaka monks of Vesali, on the 
day of the uposatha, filled a bronze vessel with water, placed 
it in the midst of the Order of monks, and began to say to the 
lay devotees of Vesali who came there, " Friends, give a 
kahapana ^ to the Order, even half a kahapana, even a quarter 
or even a masaka : ' it will be of use to the Order to procure 
requisites." All that, as far as the statement ^ that at this 
rehearsal of the Vinaya there were exactly 700 monks, neither 
less nor more, and that therefore this Second Convocation 
was called that of the Seven Hundred,^ should be mentioned. 
In this manner, at that assembly 1,200,000 monks gathered 
together urged by the venerable Yasa. In their midst, those 

Second Great Convocation 31 

ten indulgences were decided on by the Elder Sabbakami who, 
being questioned by the venerable Revata, explained the 
Vinaya, and the dispute was thus settled. ^^ 

Next/^ the Elders who wished to rehearse the Dhamma and 
the Vinaya afresh, selected 700 monks versed in the Three 
Pitakas and possessing analytic insight ; and making them sit 
in conclave at Valukarama in Vesali, cleansed the Dispensation 
of every impurity and they again rehearsed the entire Dhamma 
and the Vinaya separately as pitakas, nikayas, angas, and 
Units of the Dhamma even in the same manner as it was 
rehearsed by the Elder Mahakassapa. This convocation was 
concluded in eight months. 

What is commonly held in the world as. 

That of the Seven Hundred as it was done by 700, and also 
called the Second by reason of the one that was held earlier ; 
is verily this : ^^ 

Well known among those Elders by whom this rehearsal 
was done were those Saddhiviharikas of the Elder Ananda, 
Sabbakami, Salha, Revata, Khujjasobhita, [35] Yasa, and 
Sanasambhiita, Elders who had themselves seen the Tatha- 

These two, Sumana and VasabhagamT, should be known 
as the Saddhiviharikas of Anuruddha, who had themselves 
seen the Tathagata. 

Further, those Elders by whom the Second Recital was 
rehearsed, all of them had laid aside their burden, done their 
duty and were cankerless. 

This is the Second Convocation. 

39. Having thus finished rehearsing this Second Recital, those 
Elders who were investigating whether a calamity of this nature 
would, in the future, befall the Dispensation foresaw thus : 
" In the hundred and eighteenth year from now, the King 
named Dhammasoka will appear in Pataliputta and reign over 
the whole of Jambudipa. He will win faith in the Dispensation 
of the Buddha and bestow upon it great material gains and 
honour. Consequently, heretics coveting gain and honour will 
enter the Order in the Dispensation and propound each his 

32 Inception of Discipline 

own philosophical dogma. In this manner a great calamity 
will befall the Dispensation." 

Thereupon it so occurred to them, " When this calamity has 
arisen will we be able to meet the situation or not ? '* And all 
of them, realizing that they themselves would not live to see it, 
surveyed the whole of the human world and the six heavenly 
regions of the sensuous plane, ^ and not being able to perceive 
any one who would be able to settle this dispute, beheld in the 
world of Brahma, the Great Brahma named Tissa whose span 
of life there was drawing to a close and who had developed 
the path for birth in a higher Brahma-world. 

Perceiving this it so occurred to them : " If we should make 
an effort to induce him to be born in the world of men, for 
certain, [36] he would take birth ^ in the family of the Brahmin 
Moggali. Next, with his curiosity aroused for the mantas ^ 
he will go forth from home and enter the Order. Having thus 
entered the Order he will learn the entire word of the Buddha, 
attain analytic insight, subdue the heretics, give his judgment 
on the dispute and stabilize the Dispensation." 

They went to the world of Brahma and spoke thus to the 
Great Brahma Tissa, " One hundred and eighteen years from 
now, a great calamity will befall the Dispensation. While 
surveying the whole world of men and the six heavenly regions 
of the sensuous plane we did not see any one able to stabilize 
the Dispensation, but in our search in the world of Brahma 
we saw your worthy self. It would be well, O good Sir, if you 
will give us the assurance that you will be born in the world of 
men and stabilize the Dispensation of the Lord of Ten Powers." 

When this was said, the Great Brahma who was overjoyed 
and fired with enthusiasm at the thought that indeed he would 
have the ability to stabilize the Dispensation by purifying it 
of the calamity that would arise in it, gave them the assurance 
saying, " So be it." The Elders having accomplished their task 
in the world of Brahma came back again. 

40. And at that time there were two young monks called the 
Elder Siggava and the Elder Candavajji, who were newly 
ordained, were versed in the Three Pitakas, and gained analytic 
insight and were canker-waned. They did not take part in the 

Third Great Convocation 33 

settlement of that dispute. The Elders said to them, " Friends, 
you did not give us your assistance in the settlement of this 
dispute. And let this be your punishment for it : The Brahma 
named Tissa will take birth in the family of the brahmin 
Moggali. Let one of you take him away and admit him into 
the Order, let the other teach him the word of the Buddha " ; 
and all of them remained till the end of their span of life and 

Those Elders of great psychic power, headed by Sabba- 
kami, blazed forth in the world hke columns of fire and 
became extinct.^ 

[37] And verily, those canker-waned Elders who had 
reached full mastery (over themselves) and developed analytic 
insight, made the second rehearsal, purified the Dispensation, 
and paved the way for the purity of the Good Teaching even 
for the future and finally were overpowered by the way of 

Thus knowing the contemptible nature and unassailability 
of the way of impermanence let the wise man endeavour to 
reach that immortal state which is everlasting. 

With this is concluded the description of the Second Convoca- 
tion in all its aspects. 

IV — The Account of the Third Great Convocation 

41. Now Tissa the Great Brahma passed away from the world 
of Brahma and took birth in the house of the brahmin Moggali. 
From the day he took birth, the Elder Siggava too continued 
for seven years to visit the brahmin's house for alms. Not on 
a single day did he receive even a ladleful of gruel or a spoonful 
of rice. Then one day, at the end of seven years he received the 
mere word, " Your pardon Sir, go on." On the same day, the 
brahmin too who was returning home having attended to some 
business outside saw the Elder going the opposite way and 
asked him, " O good recluse, did you visit our home ? " 

" Yes, brahmin, we went thither." 
" Did you receive anything there ? " 
" Yes, brahmin, we did receive." 

34 Inception of Discipline 

He went home and inquired, " Did you give anything to that 
recluse ? " 

" We gave nothing whatever." 

On the following day, the brahmin seated himself right on the 
doorway thinking to himself, " Today I will put the recluse 
to shame for lying." And on this second day, the Elder came 
to the door of the brahmin's house. On seeing the Elder the 
brahmin said to him, " Without receiving anything from our 
house yesterday, you said that you did receive. Is it becoming 
of you to utter falsehood ? " The Elder replied, " Brahmin, 
for seven years we have not been honoured at your house even 
with the mere words, ' Your pardon Sir, go on,' but yesterday 
I received this mere word. Hence I spoke in that manner 
taking into account this act of courtesy." 

The Brahmin reflected, " These (recluses) having received 
but a courteous greeting express their thanks to us for having 
received it. [38] In what manner will they not praise us if 
they receive anything else in the form of hard and soft food ? " 
and was pleased, and had a spoonful of food, together with 
curries suitable for it, given to him from the food prepared for 
his use, and said that he would be receiving that quantity of 
alms every day. He was highly impressed by the composure 
of the Elder who continued to visit him from the following day 
onwards, and begged of the Elder to partake of his meals in his 
house for all time. The Elder accepted the invitation, and every 
day, at the end of his meal on his visit there, preached the word 
of the Buddha a little at a time before he departed. 

42. As for the young brahmin, even at the age of sixteen, he 
had gained proficiency in the three Vedas. There is no one else 
who may sit on or lie down on the seat or couch used by a pure 
being who has come down from the world of Brahma. When 
he visits his teacher's house they cover his bed and seat with 
a white cloth and keep them apart hanging them up. 

The Elder thought, " The time is now come to admit the 
youth into the Order. Though I have been coming here for a 
long time no conversation has ever taken place with the youth. 
It would be expedient now if it were to take place by this 
means, on account of his divan." and went to the house and 

Third Great Convocation 35 

made a determination of will that no other seat should be 
visible in that house except this divan of the youth. The 
inmates of the brahmin's house who were not able to see any 
other seat when they saw the Elder, spread out the divan of 
the young man and offered it to him. The Elder sat on the divan. 
The youth too, who had returned from the house of his teacher 
that very instant, saw the Elder seated on his divan, and being 
angry and displeased asked, " Who prepared my divan for the 
recluse ? " 

The Elder finished his meal and when the youth's churlishness 
had subsided, asked him " How now, young man, [39] do you 
know any manta ? " The youth replied, " Well, recluse, if 
I do not know the mantas who else knows them ? " and asked 
the Elder, " Do you yourself know the manta ? " 

" Ask me, young man, you will find out." 

Thereupon the youth questioned the Elder on all those knotty 
points of the three Vedas with their glossaries, ritual, phonology, 
etymology, and traditional lore as the fifth, ^ whose meanings 
neither he nor his teacher could comprehend. As he had 
mastered the three Vedas even by nature ^ and had now gained 
analytic insight, the Elder found no difficulty in solving those 
problems. First of all, he unravelled those problems and next 
told the youth, " Young man, I have been asked many questions 
by you, now I too will ask you one question. Will you answer 
it for me ? " 

" Yes, good recluse, ask, I will answer." 

The Elder asked the following question from the Cittaya- 
maka ^ : "He whose thought arises but does not cease, will 
his thought cease and not arise ; or he whose thought will 
cease and not arise, does his thought arise and not cease ? " 
The young man who was not able to call to mind the beginning 
or the end asked him, " What indeed, O good recluse, is this ? " 

" Young man, this is called the Buddha-manta." 

" Is it possible, Sir, to initiate me too into it ? " 

" Yes, young man, it is possible to give it to him who obtains 
the ordination which we have ourselves taken upon." 

[40] Thereupon the youth went up to his parents and told 
them, " This recluse here knows what is called the Buddha- 
manta, but he does not give it to any one who has not entered 

36 Inception of Discipline 

the Order under him. I wish to enter the Order under him 
and learn the manta." And his parents gave him their permis- 
sion, thinking, " Let our son even enter the Order and learn the 
mantas ; after he has learned them he will come back to us " ; 
and said to him, " Son, you may receive it." 

43. The Elder admitted him into the Order and, first of all, 
acquainted him with the topics of meditation on the thirty-two 
parts of the body.^ Doing his preliminary exercises with regard 
to them, before long, he established himself in the fruit of the 
Stream-Entrant stage. The Elder next thought, " The novice 
has attained the fruit of the Stream-Entrant stage, it is now 
impossible for him to turn back from the Dispensation. If 
I should assign to him more elaborate topics of meditation, 
he would attain arahatship and would evince no keenness to 
learn the word of the Buddha. Now is the tine to send him 
to the Elder Candavajji." 

Subsequently he said to him, " Come novice, go to the Elder 
and learn the word of the Buddha. Inquire after his health 
on my behalf and say to him, ' Sir, my preceptor sent me to 
you.' When you are asked the name of your preceptor say, 
* Sir, he is the Elder Siggava.' When he asks you what his 
name is say, ' Sir, my preceptor knows your name.' " ^ 

Saying, " Very well, Sir," the novice Tissa took leave of the 
Elder by reverentially circumambulating him, and in due course, 
went before the Elder Candavajji and saluting him stood 
respectfully aside. The Elder asked, " Novice, from where do 
you come ? " He replied, " My preceptor, Sir, sent me to 

" What is the name of your preceptor ? " 

" Sir, he is the Elder Siggava." 

" And what is my name ? " 

" Sir, my preceptor knows your name." 

" Then put away your bowl and robe." 

Saying, " So be it. Sir," the novice [41] put away the bowl 
and robe ; and on the following day swept the cell and provided 
water and a tooth cleaner. 

The Elder swept over again the place that had been swept, 
brought fresh water throwing away that water, and took 

Third Great Convocation 37 

another tooth-stick removing that tooth-stick. He did this 
for seven days and on the seventh day questioned him again. 
Once again the novice spoke in the manner he had spoken in 
before. The Elder reahzed for certain that he was the brahmin 
and asked him, " What is your purpose in coming here ? " 

" Sir, to learn the word of the Buddha." 

Saying, " Novice, then you may learn it," the Elder initiated 
him into the word of the Buddha from the following day 
onwards. Whilst yet being a novice, Tissa mastered together 
with the commentary, the entire word of the Buddha with the 
exception of the Vinaya Pitaka. When he had received the 
higher ordination, even before he had spent the first Rains- 
residence, he had become proficient in the Three Pitakas. 

The teacher and the preceptor having established the entire 
word of the Buddha in the hands of the Elder Moggaliputta 
Tissa, remained till the end of their span of life and passed 
away in perfect Nibbana. And at a subsequent date the Elder 
Moggaliputta Tissa developed the topics of meditation, and 
having gained arahatship imparted the Dhamma and Vinaya 
to many. 

44. And at this time King Bindusara had one hundred sons. 
Asoka killed all of them except Prince Tissa who was born of 
the same mother.^ Whilst carrying on his campaigns against 
them he reigned for four years without being anointed king ; 
and at the end of the four years he was consecrated as the sole 
ruler of Jambudipa in the 218th year after the passing away 
of the Tathagata in perfect Nibbana. ^ [42] By virtue of his 
consecration the following supernatural royal powers accrued 
to him : His sway extended over a region of a yojana below 
the great earth and a similar region above in the sky. Daily, 
the deities brought to him sixteen pots of water in eight 
pingoes ^ from the lake Anotatta,* of which, after he had won 
faith in the Dispensation, he gave eight pots to the Order of 
monks, two pots to the monks versed in the Three Pitakas 
numbering about 60,000, two pots to his chief queen Asandhi- 
mitta, and he himself used four pots. There is in the Himalayas 
a variety of tooth-stick called nagalata,^ smooth and soft and 
full of sap. Daily, the deities brought these as well, and they 

38 Inception of Discipline 

served as the daily tooth-cleaners to the King, the Queen, 
16,000 (women) dancers and 60,000 monks. 

And daily, the deities brought for him medicinal myrobalan 
fruits, golden coloured medicinal gall-nuts, and sweet smelling 
and juicy ripe mangoes. In the same way, they brought from 
the Chaddanta lake ® inner and outer garments of the five 
colours, yellow silken cloth for wiping the hand, and celestial 
drink. And daily the Naga Kings brought for him from the 
Naga realm perfumed ointments, silken cloth for his outer 
garments interwoven with jasmine flowers without using 
thread, and costly unguents. [43] Parrots brought daily, 9,000 
vahas ' of sali rice grown in the Chaddanta lake ; and rats 
removed the husk so that not one grain was broken ; and on 
all occasions this grain was meant for the King's use. Bees 
made honey. In forges and other places (of work) bears swung 
the hammers. The cuckoos came forth warbling in sweet tones 
and paid homage to the King. 

45. The King who was endowed with these supernatural 
powers, one day sent a golden chain to bind the Naga king called 
Kala ^ whose span of life is an aeon and who had had the 
opportunity of seeing four Buddhas in person ; and he had 
him brought before him, and seating him on a worthy divan 
beneath the white parasol of state made offering of flowers of 
many hundred colours sprung both on land and water, as well 
as with flowers of gold. Making 16,000 (women) dancers decked 
in all their finery to stand around him on all sides he requested 
him, " Firstly, set before these eyes of mine the form of the 
Perfectly Enlightened One, the Exalted Universal Monarch 
of the Good Teaching." And beholding the form of the Buddha 
created by him, decked with all the eighty minor marks 
scattered all over his body, arisen through the power of his 
merit and resembling an expanse of water adorned with red, 
blue, and white lotuses in full bloom on account of the splendour 
of the thirty- two characteristics of a Great Being, ^ or like the 
expanse of the heavens resplendent with the suffusion of the 
clear radiance from the clusters of rays from myriads of stars, 
or which resembled the peak of a golden mountain surrounded 
by flashes of lightning and rain-bows with the sheen of the 

Third Great Convocation 39 

twilight glow on them on account of the splendour of the 
fathom-deep halo of the interwoven rays of the diversified 
colours consisting of blue, yellow, red, and others around him, 
[44] radiant with the graceful head dazzling with the splendour 
of the bright pinnacle of rays consisting of many colours, and 
Hke an unguent to the eyes of the hosts of brahmas, devas, 
human beings, nagas, and yakkhas ; and for seven days, he 
made what is known as the offering of his gaze.^ 

46. After he received his consecration, for three years, the 
King, it is said, supported an outside heretical sect, and in his 
fourth year gained faith in the Dispensation of the Buddha. ^ 
As for his father Bindusara, he was an adherent of Brahmanism. 
He established the constant feeding of brahmins, heretical 
teachers born of the brahmin caste, and white-robed wandering 
ascetics, numbering about 60,000. 

Asoka, who likewise continued at his palace, the gift of alms 
that was performed by his father, one day, as he stood at his 
lion- window, 2 saw them eating and conducting themselves in a 
manner bereft of all composure, with unrestrained faculties 
and with undisciplined bodily movements, and he thought, 
"It is worth investigating and making this gift to a suitable 
recipient." Having thus reflected, he said to his ministers, 
" Go, fellows, and bring hither to my palace recluses and 
brahmins whom each one of you considers worthy, for we 
wish to give alms." Replying to the King, " So be it. Sire," 
the ministers brought various classes of white-robed wandering 
ascetics, religious mendicants, naked ascetics, and others and 
announced, " These, Sire, we deem holy." 

The King, thereupon, had various types of high and low 
seats prepared at his palace, and inviting them to come, said 
to all of them who came, " Sit down on any seat suitable for 
each one of you." [45] Some of them sat down on comfortable 
seats, others on seats of plank. Seeing this the King realized 
that there was no inner substance in them, and he gave them 
hard and soft food agreeable to them and sent them away. 

47. As time thus went by, one day, standing at his lion-window 
he saw the novice Nigrodha ^ walking by the royal courtyard, 

40 Inception of Discipline 

restrained, self-controlled, with senses guarded and endowed 
with deportment in his movements. And who is this Nigrodha ? 

He is the son of Prince Sumana, the eldest son of King 
Bindusara. And here follows the story from the beginning : 
It is said that during King Bindusara's dotage Prince Asoka 
gave up the principality of Ujjeni which was assigned to him 
and came and took the whole city under his control and 
captured Prince Sumana. On the very same day. Princess 
Sumana, Prince Sumana's wife, had completed the full period 
of pregnancy. She went away in disguise ; and while she was 
on her way through a Candala village she heard the words, 
" Come hither Sumana," uttered by the deity who had made a 
banyan tree growing hard by the house of the Candala chieftain 
his abode and she went thither (up to the deity). 

By his supernatural power the deity created a hut ^ and gave 
it to her requesting her to live in it. She entered that hut. 
Even on the day she went away she gave birth to a son. As 
he had received the protection of the deity of the banyan 
(nigrodha) tree she gave him the name Nigrodha. The Candala 
chieftain, from the day he saw her, began to attend on her 
regularly looking upon her as the daughter of his lord.^ The 
Princess lived there for seven years. 

[46] The Prince Nigrodha too reached the age of seven years. 
At this time the Elder Mahavaruna, an Arahant who was living 
there, seeing the latent potentialities of the child thought, 
" This child is now seven years old, it is time to admit him into 
the Order " ; and sending word to the Princess, he admitted 
Prince Nigrodha into the Order. The Prince attained arahat- 
ship in the tonsure-hall itself. One day, after he had attended 
to his bodily ablutions early in the morning, he performed his 
duties to the teacher and the preceptor, and taking the bowl 
and robe set out with the intention of visiting the home of 
his mother, a lay-devotee. And the place of residence of his 
mother had to be reached by entering the city through the 
southern gate and going through the heart of the city and 
emerging from the eastern gate. 

48. At this time, Asoka the righteous monarch, was pacing 
up and down at the lion- window facing the East. Even at this 

Third Great Convocation 41 

moment Nigrodha reached the royal courtyard, with his senses 
controlled, mind pacified, and looking but a yoke's distance 
ahead. Therefore it is said : " One day, standing at his lion- 
window he saw the novice Nigrodha walking by the royal 
courtyard, retrained, self-controlled, with senses guarded and 
endowed with deportment in his movements." ^ Seeing him, 
it so occurred to him, " All these people are confused in mind 
and are like the perturbed deer ; but this child is not confused 
in mind, his gaze ahead and around and the movement of his 
limbs to and fro are exceedingly pleasant ; for surely, within 
him there is bound to be some transcendental virtue " ; and 
at the mere sight (of him) the King's mind was pleased with 
the novice and there arose love towards him. 


It is said that in the past, when they were doing good works 
together, he was born as a merchant, as the King's eldest 
brother. 2 For it is said,^ 

[47] By living in constant association in the past or through 

affection in the present, there thus arises this love like a lotus 

in the water. 

The King with love arisen for him and with great esteem 
for him, despatched his ministers saying, " Summon this 
novice." As he saw that they were delaying long he again 
sent two or three others in order to hasten his arrival. 

The novice came along with his usual measured gait. The 
King said, " Select a suitable seat and sit down." He looked 
around this way and that and ascertaining that there were no 
other monks present at the time, went up to the royal divan 
over which was hoisted the white parasol of state and made a 
sign for the King to take his bowl. The moment the King 
saw him going up to the divan he reflected, " Now, even today, 
this novice will be the lord of this house." Giving the bowl 
into the hands of the King, the novice ascended the divan and 
sat down. The King offered him all the various preparations 
of food such as gruel and hard food which had been prepared 
for his own use. The novice accepted the food, both hard and 
soft, sufficient only for his sustenance. At the end of the meal 
the King asked, " Do you know the instruction given you by 
the Teacher ? " 

42 Inception of Discipline 

" Great King, I know some aspect of it." 
" Preach it to me too, my dear." 

" Very well, Great King," said he, and preached, in order to 
arouse the King's joy, the Chapter on Diligence in the Dhamma- 
pada * which was most suited to him. And the King, even as 
he heard the words, ^ " Diligence is the path to immortality 
and indolence is the path of Death," said, " I have understood 
it, my dear, do conclude it." At the end of the discourse which 
kindled his joy he said, " I will, my dear, give you eight 
appointed meals." The novice replied, " Great King, I will 
give these to my preceptor." 

' ' And pray, my dear, who is this preceptor that you speak of ? " 
" Great King, it is he who urges me on and makes me 
remember when he sees my repeated wrong behaviour." 
" I will, my dear, give you eight other meals." 
[48] " Great King, I will give these to my teacher." 
" And pray, my dear, who is this teacher that you speak of ? " 
" Great King, it is he who establishes me in the principles 
(dhamma) in which one should have a training in this 

" It is well, my dear, I will give you eight other meals." 
" Great King, these I will give to the Order of monks." 
" And pray, my dear, what is this Order of monks that you 
speak of ? " 

" Great King, it is they on whom depend the ordination and 
higher ordination of my preceptor and my teacher and of me." 
The King was exceedingly delighted and said, " I will give 
you eight further meals, my dear." 

The novice accepted, saying, " So be it," and on the following 
day, entered the royal palace taking with him thirty-two other 
monks and partook of his meals there. The King said, " Let 
thirty-two other monks in addition accept alms with you 
tomorrow " ; and in this manner, day by day, he made the 
number increase and discontinuing the meals for the 60,000 
brahmins, wandering ascetics, and others, and, on account of 
his devotion to the Elder Nigrodha, established the continual 
feeding of 60,000 monks at his inner apartments. 

And the Elder Nigrodha estabhshed the King together with 
his followers in the Three Refuges and in the five moral precepts 

Third Great Convocation 43 

and made firm their faith as that of common people in the 
Dispensation of the Buddha, so that it should not waver.* 

Moreover, the King had the great monastery called 
Asokarama built and instituted the permanent feeding of 
60,000 monks. And righteously and not by unlawful means, 
he had in the 84,000 townships all over Jambudipa, monasteries 
duly adorned with 84,000 cetiyas, built. 

49. And so one day, seated amidst the Order of monks 
numbering 60,000, when he had given magnificient alms at 
Asokarama and made offerings of the four requisites ^ to the 
Order, the King asked the question, " What is the extent of the 
Dhamma preached by the Exalted One ? " 

" Great King, according to angas, it forms nine Angas : 
according to units, it forms eighty-four thousand Units of the 
Dhamma." ^ 

Having won faith in the Dhamma, the King said, " I will 
honour each one of the Units of the Dhamma with a monastery," 
[49] and spent ninety-six crores of wealth on one and the same 
day and ordered his ministers, " Come hither, fellows, having 
a monastery erected in every town have eighty-four thousand 
monasteries built in the eighty-four thousand townships " : 
and he himself initiated the work for the construction of the 
Great Asoka Monastery at Asokarama. 

The Order gave him the services of the Elder named Inda- 
gutta, a canker-waned Arahant of great psychic and super- 
natural power, as the officer supervising the new construct ions. ^ 
By his supernatural power the Elder completed whatever work 
had failed to reach completion. In this manner too, the work of 
the construction of the monasteries was completed in three years. 

On one and the same day letters arrived from all the towns ; 
and the ministers announced to the King, " Sire, the eighty-four 
thousand monasteries are completed." 

The King sent out a drum of proclamation in the city 
announcing, " Seven days hence will be held the festival of 
dedication of the monasteries. Let all make preparations both 
within and without the city for the festival of dedication of the 
monasteries, taking upon themselves the eightfold moral 

44 Inception of Discipline 

50. Seven days later, surrounded by his fourfold army con- 
sisting of many hundred thousands decked in all their cere- 
monial attire, he went to the monastery parading through the 
city which had been gaily dressed by the eager multitudes who 
were anxious to make the city excel in splendour the glory of 
the royal city of Amaravati ^ in heaven, and went and stood 
amidst the Order of monks. 

And at that time there had assembled eighty crores of 
monks and 9,600,000 nuns. Among these monks the canker- 
waned alone numbered 100,000. It thus occurred to them, 
" If the King were to obtain an unobstructed view of the service 
he was rendering, he would win faith to a greater extent in the 
Dispensation of the Buddha." [60] They then performed a 
miracle called the Unveiling of the World. As the King surveyed 
the four directions, remaining at Asokarama, he saw up to its 
ocean limits Jambudipa right round him and also beheld the 
84,000 monasteries resplendent with the magnificent ceremonies 
connected with the festival of dedication. 

Seeing this splendour he was overcome with great joy and 
fervour ; and reflecting whether such joy and fervour had 
arisen to any one else before, he asked the Order of monks, 
" Sirs, who has made great sacrifice to the Dispensation of 
the Lord of Ten Powers, our saviour of the world ? And 
whose sacrifice is considered the greatest ? " The Order of 
monks entrusted the responsibility (of answering) to the 
Elder Moggaliputta Tissa. The Elder repHed, " Great King, 
even during the life-time of the Tathagata there was no other 
giver of requisites like you. Your sacrifice alone is great." 
When the King heard the Elder's words, with his body in- 
cessantly permeated with great joy and fervour, he thought, 
" And so there is no giver of requisites like me, great is my 
sacrifice, and I am said to support the Dispensation with material 
gifts ! This being so am I or am I not an heir of the Dispensation ' ' ? 

51. Then he asked the Order of monks, " Am I Sirs, an heir 
of the Dispensation ? " The Elder Moggaliputta who heard this 
statement of the King, perceiving the inherent suflicing 
quahfications (for arahatship) of Mahinda, the King's son, 
thought, " If this Prince were to enter the Order there would be 

Third Great Convocation 45 

great progress for the Dispensation " ; and spoke thus to the 
King, " Great King, not indeed with this alone have you 
become an heir of the Dispensation, but you will only be 
designated as a giver of requisites or as a servitor. For, Great 
King, even he who gives a heap of requisites measuring from 
the earth to the world of Brahma, is not designated as an heir 
of the Dispensation." 

" Then Sir, how does one become an heir of the Dis- 
pensation ? " 

" Great King, he who, [51] whether rich or poor, has his own 
begotten son enter the Order, he, O Great King, is called an heir 
of the Dispensation." When it was said thus, King Asoka 
reflected, " And so, even with this sacrifice I have made I have 
not become an heir of the Dispensation ! " and in his desire to 
be an heir of the Dispensation, looked about this way and that 
and saw Prince Mahinda standing nearby. Seeing him it so 
occurred to him, " Even though I have been eager to invest 
him with the office of Viceroy from the day Prince Tissa ^ 
entered the Order, now methinks, ordination is better (for 
him) than Viceregal splendour." 

Then he said to the Prince, " My son, will you be able to 
join the Order ? " As for the Prince, he was naturally inclined 
to seek ordination ever since the day Prince Tissa entered the 
Order, and hearing the words of the King he was exceedingly 
delighted and replied, " Sire, I will enter the Order, admit me 
into the Order and you become an heir of the Dispensation." 

At this time, the King's daughter Sanghamitta too was 
standing at the same place. And her husband, the Prince called 
Aggibrahma had entered the Order along with the Viceroy, 
Prince Tissa. The King saw her and said, " My child, will you 
too be able to join the Order ? " 

" Yes father, I am able." 

Having obtained the consent of his children, the King was 
overjoyed and spoke thus to the Order of monks, " Sirs, admit 
these children into the Order and make me an heir of the 

52. The Order (of monks) approved of the King's request and 
admitted the Prince into the Order appointing the Elder 

46 Inception of Discipline 

Moggaliputta Tissa as preceptor and the Elder Mahadeva ^ as 
teacher and gave the higher ordination with the Elder Maj jhan- 
tika 2 as teacher. At that time, it is said, the Prince had 
completed his twentieth year. Even within the precincts of the 
sima ^ for the higher ordination, he attained arahatship gaining 
the fourfold analytic insight.* The teacher of the Princess 
Sanghamitta was the Elder (-nun) Ayupali and the preceptor 
was the Elder (-nun) Dhammapali. [52] At this time Sangha- 
mitta was eighteen years of age. The moment she entered the 
Order, even within the precincts of the sima they established 
her in the training in moral precepts. At the time of the ordina- 
tion of the two of them the King was in the sixth year after 

Thereupon the Elder Mahinda, from the time he received the 
higher ordination, studying the Dhamma and the Vinaya under 
his preceptor, within three years learnt the complete Tradition 
of the Elders consisting of the works of the Three Pitakas 
together with their commentaries handed down at the two 
Convocations, and became the leader among a thousand monks, 
resident-pupils of his preceptor. 

53. By this time Asoka the righteous monarch was in the 
ninth year of his consecration. And even during the eighth 
year of the King's consecration the Elder Kontiputta Tissa ^ 
who was wandering about following the observance of begging 
his requisites ^ did not receive a handful of ghee for the treat- 
ment of his ailment, and with his span of life reduced by the 
intensity of his disease he admonished the Order of monks to 
be diligent, and seated cross-legged in mid-air entered the 
element of fire and passed away in perfect Nibbana. The King 
heard of this incident, paid all due honour to the Elder, and 
exclaiming, " Even during my reign the requisites of the monks 
are so rare ! " he had tanks constructed at the four gateways 
of the city and filling them with medicaments had them 

54. At that time, it is said, the King had a daily revenue of 
500,000, of which 400,000 were collected at the four gates 
and 100,000 at the hall of justice. Of this the King spent 

Third Great Convocation 47 

100,000 daily for the Elder Nigrodha, 100,000 for offerings of 
incense and garlands at the cetiyas built in honour of the 
Buddha, 100,000 for the Dhamma — it served the purpose of 
procuring the four requisities for learned monks well versed in 
the Dhamma — 100,000 for the Order of monks and the other 
100,000 to provide medicines at the four gates. ^ In this manner 
[53] there arose great gain and honour to the Dispensation. The 
heretics, whose gain and honour had dwindled to the extent 
of their failing to obtain even food and clothing, gained admis- 
sion to the Order in the Dispensation in their eagerness for 
gain and honour, and each propounded his philosophical 
dogmas claiming them to be the Dhamma and the Vinaya. 
And those who failed to gain admission to the Order, themselves 
shaved off their hair, and wearing yellow robes wandered about 
in monasteries intruding at the uposatha ^ and " Invitation " 
(pavarana) ^ ceremonies and at formal Acts of the Order * 
and of the Chapter. ^ The monks did not perform the uposatha 
ceremony in their company. 

55. Thereupon the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa handed over the 
leadership of the Chapter to the Elder Mahinda, thinking, 
" Now this dispute has arisen, it will soon be aggravated ; 
and it is not possible to settle it living in their midst " ; and 
wishing to abide at peace as he was wont to, he retired to the 
hill near Ahoganga.^ 

And in spite of the heretics being subjected to censure by the 
Order of monks with regard to the Dhamma and the Vinaya 
and the Teaching of the Master, they gave rise to divers forms 
of upheavals, stains, and thorns in the Dispensation, as they did 
not conform to the principles laid down in accordance with 
the Dhamma and the Vinaya. Some of them tended the 
sacrificial fire, some subjected themselves to the heat of the ^ve 
fires, 2 some worshipped the sun following its movements in 
the sky, while others made a determined effort to destroy the 
Dhamma and the Vinaya. 

At that time the Order of monks held neither the uposatha 
nor the " Invitation " with them. The uposatha at Asokarama 
was interrupted for seven years. They informed the King too 
of this matter. The King commanded a minister to go to the 

48 Inception of Discipline 

monastery and settle the dispute and revive the uposatha.^ 
This minister who had not the courage to ask questions of the 
King in turn, approached the other ministers and asked them, 
" The King has despatched me charged with the duty of going 
to the monastery to settle the dispute and revive the uposatha. 
How is this dispute to be settled ? " [54] They replied, " We 
are inclined to believe that what the King intended was that 
all those who did not perform the uposatha should be slain 
even as those who quell an uprising in the frontier districts 
execute the culprits." ^ Then the minister went to the 
monastery, and summoning an assembly of the Order of 
monks, told them, " I have been sent by the King to see that 
the uposatha is held. Sirs, hold now the uposatha." The 
monks replied that they would not hold the uposatha in the 
company of the heretics. The minister began cutting off their 
heads with his sword, starting from the seat of the seniormost 

56. And the Elder Tissa saw this minister who was committing 
this misguided act. The Elder Tissa was a person of no mean 
consequence ; he was Prince Tissa, the King's brother, born 
of the same mother. The King, after his consecration, appointed 
him Viceroy. One day,^ on one of his visits to the forest he 
saw a large herd of deer disporting themselves in delightful 
gambol. On seeing them it so occurred to him, " These deer 
that feed on mere grass play about thus, but what manner of 
agreeable sport will these recluses not indulge in, 2 eating 
delicious food at the royal household and sleeping in comfort- 
able beds ? " He returned from there and told the King about 
this reflection of his. 

Thinking : " The Prince feels remorse for no reason ; and it 
would be well if I convinced him in this manner," the King, 
one day, pretended to be very angry over something or another 
and said to him, " Come hither, accept the kingship for seven 
days : after that I will put you to death " ; and threatening 
him with impending death he made him realize that fact. And 
as for the Prince, he did not bathe at leisure, neither ate nor 
slept, and his body became miserably emaciated as he kept on 
thinking that they would kill him after seven days. Thereupon 

Third Great Convocation 49 

the King asked him, " Why are you reduced to this condition ? " 

" For fear of death, Sire." 

" Look you, seeing death that is due within a fixed time- 
Hmit [55] you are not yourself and do not enjoy Ufe. How can 
the monks rejoice observing death which is intrinsically con- 
nected with in-breathing and out-breathing ? " Thenceforth 
the Prince gained faith in the Dispensation. 

And again one day, while roaming in the forest, when he 
had set out on a deer-hunt, he saw the Elder Mahadhamma- 
rakkhita, a Yona,^ who was seated and being fanned by a 
lordly elephant with the branch of a sala-tree. He was delighted 
on seeing this and thought to himself, " When, indeed, will 
I too be able to enter the Order like this great Elder ? Will 
that day ever come to pass ? " The Elder perceived his reflec- 
tion, and while he was looking on rose into the air and, 
descending on the surface of the lotus lake at Asokarama, 
began to bathe making his robe and upper robe float in mid-air. 
The Prince was exceedingly delighted when he beheld the 
Elder's supernatural powers ; and turned back wishing to 
enter the Order that very day and announced to the King, 
" Sire, I wish to enter the Order." 

Though he begged of him in many ways, the King was unable 
to keep him back. He had the road leading to Asokarama 
decorated, and making the Prince attire himself in festive 
garb, conducted him to the monastery, led in procession by the 
army in festive array. Hearing that the Viceroy would enter 
the Order many monks prepared bowls and robes. The Prince 
made his way to the hall of meditation, and together with 
a thousand men entered the Order under the Elder Maha- 
dhammarakkhita. There was no limit to the number of those 
who entered the Order following the Prince's example. 

The Prince entered the Order during the fourth year of the 
King's consecration.* Further, there was another Prince 
named Aggibrahma, a nephew of the King, Sanghamitta's 
husband. Sanghamitta bore him an only son.^ [56] Having 
heard that the Viceroy had entered the Order, he too went up 
to the King and begged of him, " Sire, I too wish to enter the 
Order." Receiving the King's permission, " Enter the Order, 
dear child," he entered the Order on the same day. 

50 Inception of Discipline 

In this manner should be known the Elder Tissa the 
younger brother of the King, whose entry into the Order 
was followed by that of a band of Khattiyas of great 
splendour and opulence. 

57. He saw the minister who was thus committing this mis- 
guided act and reflected, " The King will not send him to kill 
the Elders. Assuredly, this minister must be acting under a 
misapprehension " ; and he himself went and sat down in the 
seat nearest to him.^ Recognizing the Elder, and not having 
the courage to bring his weapon down upon him he went back 
and announced to the King, " Sire, I have beheaded so many 
monks who were not willing to hold the uposatha ; and then 
came the turn of the venerable Elder Tissa. What shall I do ? " 
The moment the King heard this he reprimanded him, " You 
villian, did I sent you to kill the monks ? " And with his body 
burning with anguish he hastened to the monastery and asked 
the Elder monks, " Venerable Sirs, this minister has thus 
acted contrary to my commands. On whom will the evil 
devolve ? " 

Some Elders replied, " He has acted at your command. The 
evil is yours." Some replied, " This evil belongs to both of you." 
And some others asked, " Was there. Great King, the intention 
in you that he should go and kill the monks ? " 

" No Sirs, I sent him with all good intentions that the Order 
of monks might hold the uposatha being united." 

" If you had good intentions, no evil belongs to you, but it 
devolves on the minister." 

58. The King was perplexed with doubt and asked, " Sirs, is 
there any monk who can cut off this doubt of mine and stabilize 
the Dispensation ? " 

" There is. Great King, the Elder named Moggaliputta 
Tissa. [57] He is able to cut off this doubt and stabilize the 

And on the same day the King sent four preachers of the 
Dhamma, each attended by a thousand monks, and four 
ministers, each attended by a thousand men, to conduct the 
Elder to him. 

They went and said, " The King summons you." The Elder 

Third Great Convocation 51 

did not go. The second time the King sent eight preachers of 
the Dhamma and eight ministers, each one attended by a 
retinue of a thousand asking them to say, " Sir, the King 
summons you " ; and to conduct him to him. Even so did 
they speak to him, but the Elder did not go to him even the 
second time. The King asked the Elders, " Sirs, I have sent 
for him twice ; why does the Elder not come ? " 

" Great King, as he is told that the King summons him, he 
does not come. If it is restated thus, ' Sir, the Dispensation is 
sinking. Be of assistance to me to stabilize the Dispensation,' 
then he would come." 

Thereupon the King despatched sixteen preachers of the 
Dhamma and sixteen ministers, each with a retinue of a 
thousand followers, charged with this message. He asked the 
monks, " Sirs, is the Elder young or old ? " 

"He is old, Great King." 

" Sirs, will he ride in a carriage or in a palanquin ? " 

" Great King, he will not ride in it." ^ 

" Sirs, where does the Elder live ? " 

" On the upper reaches of the Ganges, Great King." 

The King then commanded, " If that be so, my men, tie a 
raft of boats, make the Elder sit in it, station guards on both 
banks and conduct the Elder hither." The monks and the 
ministers went to the Elder and conveyed to him the King's 
message. The Elder heard it and thinking to himself, " Indeed, 
here am I who have entered the Order from the very outset 
for the purpose of stabilizing the Dispensation ; and the time 
has now come to me," he rose taking with him his piece of 
hide. 2 

59. [58] Now at night, the King dreamt a dream ^ which 
indicated that the Elder would reach Pataliputta the following 
day. And thus was his dream : A majestic elephant, all white, 
came and felt the King's body right down from his head and 
held him by the right hand. On the following day the King 
questioned the interpreters of dreams, " I have seen such a 
dream : what will befall me ? " 

" Great King, a mighty monk will take you by the right 

52 Inception of Discipline 

Then the King, as soon as he heard that the Elder had come, 
went to the bank of the Ganges, waded into the river, and going 
forward to meet him reached the Elder when the water was 
knee-deep and gave his hand to the Elder so that he could 
descend from the boat. The Elder held the King by the right 
hand. Seeing this,^ the sword-bearers drew forth their swords 
from the scabbards thinking of cutting off the Elder's head. 
Why ? It was customary among ruling clans that whosoever 
holds the king's right hand shall have his head cut off with 
a sword. The King saw their shadow only and said, " I enjoy 
no peace of mind for the past wrongs done to the monks. Do 
not do the Elder any harm." And why did the Elder hold the 
King by his hand ? Since he had been invited by the King 
for the purpose of asking a question, he therefore held him 
(by the right hand) treating him as his resident-pupil. 

60. The King conducted the Elder to his park, and placing 
three sets of guards all round outside, he himself washed the 
Elder's feet, smeared them with oil, and sat near him ; and 
in order to test whether the Elder was capable of removing 
his doubt and stabilizing the Dispensation by settling the 
dispute that had arisen, he said to him, " Sir, I am desirous of 
seeing a miracle." 

" Great King, which miracle do you wish to see ? " 

" Sir, the earth quake." 

" Great King, do you wish to see the whole earth tremble, 
or only a region ? " 

" Which of them. Sir, is more difficult ? " 

" Which, Great King, is the more difficult to move — all the 
water in a bronze bowl filled with water, or only a part of it ? " 

" A part of it, Sir." 

" Even in the same way. Great King, it is more difficult to 
make a part of the earth to tremble." 

" Then, Sir, I wish to see a part of the earth tremble." 

[59] " If that be so. Great King, at an interval of a yojana 
in every direction let a chariot be placed on the eastern side 
with one wheel standing inside the boundary, let a horse stand 
on the southern side with two feet inside the boundary, let 
a man stand on the western side with one foot resting within 

Third Great Convocation 53 

the boundary and let a bowl of water be placed on the boundary 
on the northern side with half of it resting within the boundary." 
The King had this done. The Elder entered the fourth 
jhana which has higher knowledge as its basis, and emerging 
from it made a resolution of will that the earth should tremble 
to the extent of a yojana for the King to see. The wheel 
of the chariot that stood within the boundary on the eastern 
side shook, the other did not ; in the same way, the feet of 
the horse and the man which were within the boundary on the 
southern and western sides respectively, shook, together with 
half their bodies ; on the northern side, the water of that half 
of the bowl which stood within the boundary shook and the 
rest remained still. 

61. The King saw this miracle and came to the conclusion that 
the Elder was capable of stabilizing the Dispensation, and 
questioned him about his own remorse, " Sir, I despatched a 
minister asking him to go to the monastery to settle the 
dispute and make the uposatha held. He went to the monastery 
and put to death so many monks. To whom does this evil 
belong ? " 

" What, Great King, was it your intention that he should go 
to the monastery and kill the monks ? " 

" Not so, Sir." 

" If, Great King, you had no such intention, the evil is not 

Thereupon the Elder convinced the King on this matter 
with the following discourse ^ : " O monks, I say that volition 
is action. Having willed one does a deed physically, verbally, or 
mentally." [60] In order to elucidate this meaning he quoted 
the Tittira Jataka ^ : In the past, O Great King, a decoy 
partridge asked an ascetic ^ : 

" Many are the beings that come with the thought, ' Here 

is seated our kinsman.' My mind is in doubt regarding whom 

the consequent action affects." 

The ascetic replied, " Is there the thought in you that those 
birds should come to you, guided by your voice or seeing your 
form, and be trapped and killed ? " " No Sir," replied the 
partridge. Thereupon the ascetic assured him, " If the thought 

54 Inception of Discipline 

was not in you, no evil belongs to you. Action affects him only 
that wills and not him who wills not." 

If the mind harbours no evil, no consequent action affects 
it. Evil does not smear the virtuous man of meagre cares.* 

62. In this manner the Elder reassured the King : and living 
there in the King's park itself for seven days, he instructed the 
King on the Teaching.^ On the seventh day, the King had the 
Order of monks assembled at Asokarama and having had an 
enclosure of screens put round, he sat within that enclosure, 
and separately grouping together monks who held divergent 
views, and summoning each group of monks, asked, " What 
teaching did the Perfectly Enlightened One propound ? " Then 
the eternalists replied that He was an eternalist. The qualified 
etemalists, the propounders of the theory of finiteness and 
infinitude, the eel-wrigglers, casuists, those who held theories 
of conscious existence, non-conscious existence, neither con- 
scious nor non-conscious existence, [61] annihilationists and 
those who professed Nibbana of this life also replied (in accord- 
ance with their view).^ Since the King had already studied the 
Teaching ^ he realized that they were not monks but heretics 
belonging to other schools ; and giving them white garments 
he expelled them from the Order.* They numbered 60,000 in all. 

He next summoned the remaining monks and asked, " What 
teaching did the Perfectly Enlightened One expound ? " 

" Great King, He was an exponent of the analytical doctrine 
(Vibhajjavada)." ^ 

When it was said thus the King asked the Elder, " Did the 
Perfectly Enlightened One expound the analytical doctrine ? " 

" Yes, Great King." 

Thereupon the King said, " Sir, the Dispensation is now pure ; 
let the Order of monks hold the uposatha " ; and giving them 
his protection he entered the city. The Order, in perfect 
harmony, assembled and held the uposatha.^ In that assembly 
were 6,000,000 monks. At that meeting the Elder Moggaliputta 
Tissa recited the treatise Kathavatthu refuting the heretical 
theories. Even as the Elders Mahakassapa and Yasa son of 
Kakandaka rehearsed the Dhamma and the Vinaya, he too 
selected, out of the monks numbering 6,000,000 who were 

Succession of Teachers 55 

well versed in the learning of the Three Pitakas and were of 
profound analytic insight and possessed of the threefold 
knowledge, 1,000 monks, and rehearsing the Dhamma and the 
Vinaya he purified the Dispensation of all stains and held the 
Third Convocation. At the end of the rehearsal the earth 
trembled in many ways. This rehearsal was concluded in nine 
months. What is commonly known in the world as : 

Has been held by a thousand monks, and hence is called 

" Pertaining to One Thousand " ; and, on account of the 

earlier two, is also called " The Third " 

— this is the Third Convocation. 

V — The Account of the Succession of Teachers 

63. Whatever we have said to the effect, " It has been handed 
down firstly in Jambudipa up to the Third Convocation, by 
the succession of teachers commencing with the Elder Upali " ^ ; 
has been said to this extent for the purpose of answering this 
question, " By whom has it been handed down ? " [62] And 
here follows the succession of teachers ^ : 

Upali, Dasaka, as well as Sonaka, similarly Siggava and 

Tissa Moggaliputta — these five victorious ones 

Transmitted the Vinaya in the glorious (is) land of Jambu- 

siri, in unbroken succession up to the time of the third 


And to this extent is its meaning declared. And after the time 
of the third rehearsal it has been brought to this Island by 
Mahinda and others. Having learned it from Mahinda, for 
some time, it was handed down by the Elder Arittha and others : 
and it should be known that from that time up to the present 
day ^ it has been handed down by the succession of teachers 
who constituted their own line of resident-pupils. For as the 
Poranas * say ^ : 

Thereupon Mahinda, Itthiya, Uttiya and Sambala . . . and 

the learned Bhadda — 

These sinless sages of great wisdom came hither from 

Jambudipa. They taught the Vinaya Pitaka in Tambapanni. 

They also taught the five Nikayas and the seven (Abhi- 

dhamma) treatises. 

56 Inception of Discipline 

Then the wise Arittha and the learned Tissadatta, the 
skilled Kalasumana, the Elder named Digha . . . and the 
learned Dighasumana, 

And another Kalasumana, the Elder Naga, Buddha- 
rakkhita, the wise Elder Tissa and the learned Elder Deva, 

And another wise Sumana proficient in the Vinaya, 
Culanaga of great learning, unassailable as an elephant, 

[63] The Elder named Dhammapalita, and Rohana 
revered by the virtuous, his pupil named Khema of great 
wisdom and learned in the Three Pitakas, 

Who in his wisdom shone with great splendour in the 
Island, like the king of the stars, Upatissa the wise, Phussa- 
deva the great orator. 

And another wise Sumana, he of great learning named 
Phussa, the great orator Mahasiva proficient in all the 
contents of the Pitaka,^ 

And again another wise Upali skilled in the Vinaya, 
Mahanaga of great wisdom, proficient in the tradition of the 
Good Teaching, 

And again the wise Abhaya skilled in all the contents of the 
Pitaka, the wise Elder Tissa proficient in the Vinaya, 

His pupil named Puppha of great wisdom and of much 
learning, who while protecting the Dispensation had estab- 
lished himself in Jambudipa, 

The wise Culabhaya proficient in the Vinaya, the wise 
Elder Tissa skilled in the tradition of the Good Teaching, 

Culadeva the wise, proficient in the Vinaya and the wise 
Elder Siva skilled in all the contents of the Vinaya — 

These nagas (sinless sages) of great wisdom, knowing the 
Vinaya and skilled in the path, proclaimed the Vinaya 
Pitaka in the Island of Tambapanni. 

64. And here follows the story connected with it ^ : 

It is said that the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa ^ conducted the 
Third Rehearsal of the Dhamma and thought thus : " Where 
will the Dispensation be firmly established in the future ? " 
As he reflected it so occurred to him, " It will be firmly estab- 
lished in the border districts." Handing over the responsibility 
to various groups of monks, he sent those monks in these 

Succession of Teachers 57 

respective directions : he sent the Elder Majjhantika ^ to the 
kingdom of Kasmira-Gandhara * saying, " You go to that 
kingdom and estabHsh the Dispensation there." Making the 
same request he sent the Elder Mahadeva ^ to the principality 
of Mahisaka, the Elder Rakkhita to Vanavasi, [64] the Elder 
Dhammarakkhita, the Yona, to the Western Lands, the Elder 
Mahadhammarakkhita to Maharattha, the Elder Maharak- 
khita to the Yona World, ^ the Elder Majjhima ^ to the districts 
bordering the Himalayas, the Elders Sonaka and Uttara to 
Suvannabhumi, and his own co-resident pupil, the Elder 
Mahinda, together with the Elders Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala, 
and Bhaddasala to the Island of Tambapanni, saying, " You go 
to the Island of Tambapanni and establish the Dispensation 
there." And all of them, as they went to the respective districts, 
took with them four companions each considering that a chapter 
of five was sufficient to confer the higher ordination in the 
border districts.^ 

65. And at this time, a Naga King named Aravala ^ created 
a hail-storm ^ during the harvesting season in the land of 
Kasmira-Gandhara and had the grain carried down to the 
great ocean. The Elder Majjhantika rose into the air at Patali- 
putta and alighting on the lake Aravala in the Himalayas 
continued to walk up and down, stand upon, sit down and 
recline on the surface of the lake Aravala. The Naga youths 
saw him and announced to Aravala the Naga King, " Great 
King, a shaven headed recluse draped in a yellow patch-work 
garment of tattered rags pollutes our water." Forthwith the 
Naga King was overcome with anger ; and going forth he 
beheld the Elder, and not being able to restrain his rage he 
created many terrors in the sky. Winds blew vehemently from 
every direction, trees were uprooted, mountain-peaks were 
shattered, thunder roared, lightning flashed, thunderbolts 
crashed, water streamed forth as though the sky were rent 
asunder, [65] and Naga youths congregated assuming hideous 
shapes : and he himself emitted smoke, blazed forth and 
unleashed torrents of weapons and intimidated the Elder with 
harsh words such as, " Who is this shaven-headed recluse draped 
in a yellow patch- work garment of tattered rags ? " and 

58 Inception of Discipline 

commanded the Naga hosts, " O come, capture this monk, bind 
him, exterminate him." ^ The Elder warded off all these terrors 
with his own psychic powers and said to the Naga King : * 

Should even the whole world together with the deities 
come and terrify me it would not be sufficient to produce in 
me fear and dismay. 

Great Naga, even if you were to raise up the whole earth 
together with its oceans and mountains and hurl it upon me, 

You will not be able to produce in me fear and dismay. 
But on the other hand, O Lord of Nagas, there would result 
vexation to you alone. 

When this was said, the Naga King with his powers subdued 
and efforts turned fruitless became sad and dejected. The 
Elder, with a doctrinal discourse befitting the occasion, in- 
structed him, incited him, fired him with enthusiasm, and 
gladdened him, and along with his 84,000 Nagas established 
him in the Three Refuges and in the five precepts. And many 
other dwellers in the Himalayas, Yakkhas, Gandhabbas, and 
Kumbhandas who listened to the Elder's discourse were 
established in the Refuges and precepts. And the Yakkha 
Pancaka together with the Yakkhini his wife,^ as well as 
500 sons were established in the fruit of the first stage. There- 
upon the Elder Majjhantika addressed all the Nagas, Yakkhas, 
and Rakkhasas and said to them ^ : 

From this day, no longer give rise to anger as before, do 
not destroy crops, for beings desire happiness. Extend love 
to creatures and let men live happily. 

[66] And all of them replied to the Elder, " Very well. Sir," 
and conducted themselves as instructed. And on that very day 
the time for paying homage to the Naga King was due. Then 
the Naga King had his jewelled throne brought to him and had 
it prepared for the Elder. The Elder sat on the throne ; and 
the Naga King stood there fanning the Elder. The inhabitants 
of Kasmira-Gandhara who came at that time saw the Elder, 
and thinking, " The Elder possesses greater supernatural 
powers than our Naga King," venerated the Elder himself 
and sat down. The Elder preached to them the Asivisopama 
Suttanta.'' At the end of the discourse there resulted the 

Succession of Teachers 59 

realization of the Dhamma to 80,000 beings, and 100,000 men of 
family entered the Order. Thenceforth up to the present day, 
the land of Kasmira-Gandhara has been aglow with the yellow 
robe and been fanned with a breeze hallowed by sages. 

Then the sage Majjhantika went to Kasmira-Gandhara, 
converted the enraged Naga and released many from bondage. ^ 

66. And the Elder Mahadeva went to the principality of 
Mahirnsaka ^ and preached the Devaduta Sutta.^ At the con- 
clusion of the discourse 40,000 beings gained insight into the 
Dhamma and a further 40,000 beings entered the Order. 

Mahadeva of great psychic power went to the country of 
Mahisa and exhorting them with the " Divine Messengers " 
released many from bondage. ^ 

67. The Elder Rakkhita went to Vanavasi,^ and standing in 
the sky converted the inhabitants of Vanavasi with a discourse 
on the Anamataggapariyaya.2 And at the end of the discourse 
there resulted the realization of the Dhamma to 60,000, 
[67] and about 37,000 entered the Order. 

The Elder Rakkhita of great psychic power went to 
Vanavasi and remaining in mid-air there, preached the 
discourse on the Anamatagga, the " Inconceivable Ends ".^ 

68. And the Elder Dhammarakkhita, the Yona, went to the 
Western Lands ^ and converted the people of the Western 
Lands with a discourse on the Aggikkhandhupama Suttanta ^ 
and made 37,000 beings to drink the nectar of the Dhamma : 
and 1,000 men from the Khattiya clan and in addition 6,000 
women entered the Order. In this manner he established the 
Dispensation there. 

The Elder Dhammarakkhita, the Yona, entered the 
Western Lands and here converted many people with the 
Aggikkhandhupama, the Simile of the Column of Fire.^ 

69. And the Elder Mahadhammarakkhita went and converted 
the people of Maharattha ^ with a discourse on the Mahana- 
radakassapa Jataka ^ and established 84,000 beings in the 

6o Inception of Discipline 

fruits of the paths, and 13,000 entered the Order. In this 
manner he estabhshed the Dispensation there. 

The sage Mahadhammarakkhita went to Maharattha and 

converted the multitude by preaching a jataka, a Birth 


70. And the Elder Maharakkhita went to the Yonaka 
Kingdom ^ and converted the Yona- World with a discourse on 
the Kalakarama Suttanta ^ and gave the ornaments of the 
fruits of the paths to 37,000 in excess of 100,000 beings ; 
and 10,000 entered the Order under him. Even in this manner 
he established the Dispensation there. 

Then the sage Maharakkhita went to the Yonaka Kingdom 
and converted the Yonas by means of the Kalakarama 

71. [68] And again, the Elder Majjhima,^ together with the 
Elders Kassapagotta,^ Alakadeva,^ Dundubhissara,* and Maha- 
deva ^ went to the districts bordering the Himalayas and 
converted that district by preaching the Dhammacakkap- 
pavattana Suttanta ^ and conferred the treasures of the fruits 
of the paths on eighty crores of beings. These five Elders 
converted five kingdoms, and about 100,000 entered the Order 
under each one of them. In this manner they established the 
Dispensation there. 

The Elder Majjhima went to the Himalayas and con- 
verted hosts of Yakkhas by preaching to them the Dhamma- 
cakkappavattana, the " Turning of the Wheel of the 
Dhamma "."^ 

72. The Elder Sonaka, with the Elder Uttara, went to Suvan- 
nabhumi.i At that time a Rakkhasi was in the habit of coming 
out of the sea and devouring all the children born in the royal 
family. That very day, a child was born in the royal family. 
The people saw the Elder and thinking that he was a com- 
panion of the Rakkhasas went forth to attack the Elder 
taking their weapons with them. The Elder asked, " Why do 
you come towards me armed with your weapons ? " They 
replied, " Rakkhasas devour all the children born in the royal 

Succession of Teachers 6i 

family. You are their companions." The Elder said, " We 
are not the companions of Rakkhasas ; we are monks who 
abstain from the destruction of life (etc.) and from drinking 
intoxicants and we subsist on one meal a day, we are of virtuous 
conduct and of good moral habits." At that very moment, 
the Rakkhasi, with her retinue, came out of the sea thinking 
of devouring the child born in the royal family. The people 
saw her and, overcome with fear, cried out, " Sir, here comes the 
Rakkhasi." The Elder created phantoms twice as large as the 
Rakkhasas and with those phantoms [69] encircled the Rakkhasi 
and her retinue on either side, placing them in the centre. 
She and her retinue thought, " Assuredly this place has been 
obtained ^ by them, and we will become their prey " ; and so 
all the Rakkhasas fled in haste in fear. The Elder drove them 
out of sight and secured the protection of the land on all sides. 
By preaching the Brahmajala Suttanta ^ he converted the large 
multitude that had assembled there on that occasion and 
established them in the Refuges and the precepts. Hereat 
there resulted the realization of the Dhamma to 60,000 people, 
3,500 young men of family and 1,500 young women of family 
entered the Order. In this manner he established the Dis- 
pensation there. Thenceforth they gave the name Sonuttara 
to the children born in the royal family. 

Sona and Uttara of great psychic power, having gone 

to Suvannabhumi and driven away the goblins preached the 

Brahmajala, the " Perfect Net ".* 

73. And the Elder Mahinda who was requested by his pre- 
ceptor and the Order of monks ^ to go to the Island of Tam- 
bapanni and establish the Dispensation, reflected, "Is it or 
is it not the time for me to go to the Island of Tambapanni ? " 
As he investigated, it occurred to him that the time was not 
ripe. What considerations made him think so ? (He saw that) 
Mutasiva ^ was in his dotage ; and therefore he thought, " This 
king is old. He is not capable of receiving this ^ and establishing 
the Dispensation firmly. Soon his son Devanampiyatissa will 
be reigning, he will be able to receive it and establish the 
Dispensation firmly. Indeed, it would be well if we were to 
visit our kinsmen until that time comes. Perhaps we may or 

62 Inception of Discipline 

may not have the opportunity of again returning to this 
district." Having thus reflected, he saluted the preceptor and 
the Order of monks and setting out from Asokarama and going 
on his sojourns in the District of Dakkhinagiri * following a 
circuitous route from the city of Rajagaha, in the company of 
those four Elders Itthiya and others, the novice Sumana, son 
of Sanghamitta [70] and the lay disciple Bhanduka, he spent 
six months visiting his kinsmen. And in due course he arrived 
at the city of Vedisa,^ the residence of his mother. 

74. It is said that Asoka, on his way to Ujjeni,^ when he had 
been appointed ruler of that district, in his early youth, arrived 
at the city of Vedisa and accepted the hand of the daughter of 
the alderman Deva.^ Even on that day she conceived and later 
gave birth to Prince Mahinda at Ujjeni. 

When the Prince was fourteen years old the King was con- 
secrated ruler. 3 At that time, she, his mother, was living in 
the home of her parents. Therefore it is said : In due course 
he arrived at the city of Vedisa, the residence of his mother. 
Devi, the Elder's mother seeing that the Elder had arrived, 
saluted at his feet with head bent low, gave him alms and 
conducted him to the Great Monastery of Vedisagiri built 
by her. Seated in the monastery, the Elder thought, " Our 
duty here is done, is it now the time to visit the Island of 
Lanka ? " He further thought, " Let Devanampiyatissa first 
undergo the consecration * sent by my father, let him hear the 
virtues of the Triad of Gems, let him set out from the cit}^ in 
order to celebrate the festival ^ and climb the peak Missaka ; ® 
then will I meet him there." And after that he spent a further 
month there. On the elapse of that month all of them assembled 
on the uposatha day of the full moon of the month of Jettha- 
mula ^ and considered whether it was the time for them to visit 
the Island of Tambapanni or not. Hence the Porana have 
said ^ : 

Then there was the Elder named Mahinda, a leading Elder 

in the Sangha, (and there were also) the Elders Itthiya, 

Uttiya, Bhaddasala, and Sambala, 

[71] The novice Sumana of sixfold higher knowledge and 

of great psychic power ; the seventh among them was the 

Succession of Teachers 63 

lay disciple Bhanduka ® who had visioned the truth — these 
were the great nagas (sinless sages) who conferred in seclusion. 

75. Then Sakka/ the lord of the deities, came to the Elder 
Mahinda and said, " Sir, King Mutasiva is dead ; the great 
King Devanampiyatissa is reigning now. Besides, ^ the Perfectly 
Enlightened One has thus prophesied about you, ' A monk 
named Mahinda, will, in the future, convert the Island of 
Tambapanni.' Therefore, Sir, it is now the time to go to that 
fair Island. I too will assist you." Why did Sakka say this ? 
It is said that the Exalted One, even as he surveyed the world 
with his eye of wisdom, seated at the foot of the Bodhi tree, 
foresaw the future prosperity of this Island and told him about 
it.3 He further commanded him to be of service then. Hence 
he made this statement. The Elder accepted his bidding, and 
rising, with himself as the seventh, into the sky from the 
mountain Vedisa, alighted on the mountain Missaka situated 
to the East of Anuradhapura, now known as Cetiyapabbata. 
Hence the Porana have said :* 

Having spent thirty days in Vedisagiri near Rajagaha(?),^ 
and considered that it was the time to go, they decided that 
they would go to that fairest Island. 

Like the royal swan in the sky, the Elders rose into the air 
leaving Jambudipa and alighted on the lordly peak. 

Like swans on a mountain top they descended on the 
summit of the hill ® which had the appearance of a cloud 
and was situated to the East of the best of cities. ' 

76. [72] Thus when the venerable Elder Mahinda came with 
Itthiya and the others and set foot here, it should be known that 
he established himself in this Island in the 236th year after the 
passing away of the Perfectly Enlightened One in perfect 
Nibbana.i And the Perfectly Enlightened One passed away in 
perfect Nibbana in the eighth year of Ajatasattu's reign. In 
the same year Prince Vijaya, the first king of the Island of 
Tambapanni, son of Prince Siha, came to this Island and made 
it a human habitation. ^ In the fourteenth year of Udaya- 
bhadda's reign in Jambudipa, Vijaya died here. In the fifteenth 

64 Inception of Discipline 

year of Udayabhadda's reign Panduvasadeva ascended the 
throne in this Island. In the twentieth year of King Nagada- 
saka's reign there, Panduvasadeva died here having reigned 
for thirty years. In the same year a Prince named Abhaya 
became king of this Island. In the seventeenth year of King 
Susanaga's reign there, twenty years had been completed in 
King Abhaya's reign. And in the twentieth year of Abhaya's 
reign, a rebel named Pakundakabhaya ^ seized the kingdom. 
In the sixteenth year of Kalasoka's reign there, seventeen years 
had been completed in Pakundakabhaya's reign. These 
seventeen years, together with the previous one year,* form 
eighteen years. In the fourteenth year of Candagutta's reign 
there, Pakundakabhaya died here, and King Mutasiva ascended 
the throne. In the seventeenth year of the righteous King 
Asoka's reign there, King Mutasiva died here and King Deva- 
nampiyatissa ascended the throne. 

After the passing away of the Sambuddha, the Enlightened 
One in perfect Nibbana, Ajatasattu reigned for twenty-four 
years, [73] Udayabhadda sixteen years, Anuruddha and Munda 
eight years, Nagadasaka twenty-four years, Susunaga eighteen 
years, and his son (Kala) Asoka twenty-eight years, and 
Asoka's sons the ten brothers who ascended the throne reigned 
for twenty-two years. After them the nine Nandas (reigned 
for) also twenty-two years, Candagutta twenty-four years, and 
Bindusara twenty-eight years. At the end of his reign, Asoka 
ascended the throne, reigned for four years without being 
consecrated, and in the eighteenth year after his consecration 
the Elder Mahinda estabhshed himself in this Island. In 
accordance with this succession of rulers it should be thus 
known that he established himself in this Island in the 236th 
year after the Perfectly Enlightened One had passed away in 
perfect Nibbana. 

77. And on this day, in the Island of Tambapanni there was a 
festival called the festival of the asterism of Jetthamiila. Ihe 
King had the holiday proclaimed, and commanding his 
ministers to conduct the festivities, set out from the city with 
a retinue of 40,000 men ; and wishing for the sport of a deer- 
hunt wended his way to the Missaka mountain. Then a tutelary 

Succession of Teachers 65 

divinity of that hill who wished to show the Elders to the 
King assumed the form of a ruddy deer and walked about in 
the vicinity pretending to be eating grass and leaves. The King 
saw it, and thinking that it was not proper to shoot it then, 
unguarded as it was, twanged his bow-string. The deer began 
to run along the road leading to Ambatthala.^ Chasing the 
deer close behind, the King climbed Ambatthala itself. The 
deer too disappeared not far from the Elders. When the Elder 
Mahinda saw the King close at hand coming towards him, he 
made a resolution of will, " Let the King see me alone and not 
the others," and said aloud, " Tissa, O Tissa, come hither ! " 
Upon hearing it the King thought, " No one born in this Island 
is capable of addressing me by name. [74] But this shaven- 
headed recluse draped in a yellow patch-work garment of 
tattered rags addresses me by my name. Who can he be, a 
human being or a non-human ? " ^ The Elder said,^ 

" Great King, we are monks, disciples of the King of 
the Dhamma who have come here from Jambudipa with 
consideration for you yourself." 

78. At that time the great King Devanampiyatissa and the 
righteous monarch Asoka were friends who had not seen each 
other. By the potency of the merits of the great King Devanam- 
piyatissa, three bamboo shoots about the size of chariot poles 
sprang up in a thicket of bamboos at the foot of the mountain 
Chataka ^ ; one of them was known as the " creeper-sapling ", 
the second as the " flower-sapling ", and the other as the 
" bird-sapling." Of these, the creeper-sapling was of a silver 
colour ; the creeper that grew decorating it appeared to be 
golden in colour. And there appeared on the flower-sapling, 
flowers of blue, yellow, red, white, and dark colours with clearly 
marked stalks, petals, and filaments. On the bird-sapling there 
appeared figures of birds such as swans, fowls, and pheasants 
as well as various kinds of four-footed animals as though they 
were aHve. And so it has been said in the Dipavamsa ^ : 

There were three bamboo shoots at the foot of the Chata 
mountain. The silver-sapling was white and the creeper 
appeared to be of gold. 

66 Inception of Discipline 

Whatever flowers there were of colours such as blue, 
such were they that appeared on the flower-sapling ; and on 
the bird-sapling were arrayed birds in their natural form. 

[75] From the ocean too there arose to him manifold treasures 
such as pearls, gems, and lapis-lazuli. Eight varieties of pearl 
arose in Tambapanni — the horse-pearl, the elephant-pearl, the 
chariot-pearl, the myrobalan-pearl, the bracelet-pearl, the 
finger- wrapping-pearl, the kakudha ^-fruit-pearl, and the natural 
pearl. He sent those saplings and these pearls and many other 
treasures as gifts to Asoka, the righteous monarch. Asoka was 
pleased and sent him the five ensigns of royalty : the parasol 
of state, the yak-tail fan, the sword, the diadem, and the golden 
sandals and gifts of many other articles required for the con- 
secration, namely, the conch shell, water from the Ganges, 
perfumed bath-powder,* ear ornaments, a water jar, a cere- 
monial vessel with markings in the auspicious direction,^ a 
palanquin, a young girl,^ a ladle, a pair of garments which 
required no washing, a cloth for wiping the hands, yellow 
sandalwood, reddish clay, ointment, gall-nut, and myrobalan.^ 
And so it has been said in the Dipavarnsa ^ : 

A yak-tail fan, a diadem, a parasol, a sword, sandals, a 
turban, a golden chain, a water jar, and a vessel with markings 
auspicious-wise — 

A palanquin, a conch, ear-ornaments, a pair of garments 
which required no washing, a golden bowl, a ladle, a valuable 
cloth for wiping the hands ; 

Water from the lake Anotatta, a maiden most noble,® 
yellow sandalwood, [76] reddish clay and ointments brought 
by the Nagas — 

Gall-nut and myrobalan, precious heavenly medicine, 
6o,ooo waggonloads of perfumed sali-rice brought to him by 
the parrots : all this his deserts of past good deeds, did the 
renowned Asoka send. 

He sent not only this material gift but also the following 
message of the Dhamma ^ : 

I have sought the refuge of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and 
the Sangha, and proclaimed lay discipleship in the Dispensa- 
tion of the Son of the Sakyas.^^ 

Succession of Teachers 67 

May you, too, O lord of men win faith in mind as regards 
these three noblest objects and seek their refuge with 
devotion. ^^ 

79. And this King had been anointed for one month to this 
day with the consecration sent by the King Asoka, for his 
consecration was performed on the full moon day of the month 
of Visakha.^ And recalling to mind the news of the Dispensa- 
tion which he had but recently heard, ^ and realizing that the 
venerable ones had already come, he threw down his weapon 
immediately when he heard the words of the Elder, " Great 
King, we are monks, disciples of the King of the Dhamma," and 
sat beside him exchanging pleasant greetings. For it is said,^ 

Laying aside his weapon he sat respectfully aside : seated 
thus the King indulged in pleasant talk of immense benefit. 
Even while he was making his speech of welcome those 

40,000 followers came and stood around him. At this stage 

the Elder made the other six visible.* Seeing them the King 

asked, " When did they come ? " 

[77] " Together with me. Great King." 

" Are there other monks such as they in Jambudipa at 

present ? " 

" There are, Great King. Jambudipa is aglow with the yellow 

robe and fanned with a breeze hallowed by sages." Therein,^ 
There are many disciples of the Buddha who possess the 
threefold higher knowledge, have gained psychic powers, are 
skilled in the knowledge of others' minds and are canker- 
waned Arahants. 

80. (He asked ^), " Sirs, how did you come ? " 
" Great King, neither by water nor by land." 

The King inferred that they had come through the air. In 
order to test the King's accompHshment in wisdom, the Elder 
began asking him questions on the mango tree nearby. 

" Great King, what is the name of this tree ? " 

" Sir, it is known as a mango tree." 

" Besides this mango tree. Great King, is there any other 
mango tree or not ? " 

" There are, Sir, many other mango trees." 

68 Inception of Discipline 

" Leaving aside this mango tree and the other mango trees, 
are there, Great King, other trees ? " 

" Yes Sir, there are, but they are not mango trees." 

" Leaving out those mango trees and the other trees that 
are not mango, is there any other tree ? " 

" This mango tree alone. Sir." 

" Good, Great King, you are wise." 

" Great King, have you any kinsmen ? " 

" Yes, Sir, they are many in number." 

" Besides them, are there any who are not your kinsmen, 
Great King ? " 

" Those who are not my kinsmen. Sir, are many more than 
my kinsmen." 

" Leaving aside your kinsmen and those who are not your 
kinsmen. Great King, is there any one else ? " 

" Yes, Sir, I myself." 

" Good, Great King, a person himself is neither his kinsman 
nor non-kinsman." 

8i. Thereupon the Elder, realizing that the King was intelli- 
gent and would be able to understand the Dhamma, preached 
the Culahatthipadopama Sutta.^ At the end of the discourse, 
together with his 40,000 followers, the King estabhshed himself 
in the Three Refuges. Exactly at this moment the King's 
food [78] was brought to him. Even as he was listening to the 
discourse the King knew ^ that it was not permissible for them 
to eat at that time, and thinking that it was wrong to eat 
without asking them he asked, " Sirs, will you eat ? " 

" Great King, food is not permissible for us at this time." ^ 

" Sirs, at what time is it permissible ? " 

" Starting from dawn till mid-day, Great King." * 

" Sirs, let us go to the city." 
" No, Great King, we will reside even here." 
" Sirs, if you will live here, let the child come with me." 
" Great King, this child has attained the fruits ^ and under- 
stood the instruction and is an aspirant for ordination who will 
presently enter the Order." 

Succession of Teachers 69 

The King, saying, " If that be so. Sir, I will send you a 
chariot tomorrow, come riding in it," saluted him and departed. 

82. Scarcely had the King departed than the Elder addressed 
the novice Sumana, " Come hither, Sumana, proclaim the time 
for listening to the Dhamma." 

" Sir, how far shall I make the announcement heard ? " 

" In the whole Island of Tambapanni." 

" Good, Sir," said the novice, and having entered the fourth 
jhana ^ which has higher knowledge as its basis, he emerged 
from it and with mind concentrated, thrice announced the time 
for listening to the Dhamma, making it heard, by virtue of 
his resolution of will, throughout the whole Island of Tam- 
bapanni. The King heard this announcement and sent a 
messenger to the Elders inquiring whether they were in any 
danger. They replied, " No misfortune has befallen us. We 
have announced the time for listening to the Dhamma, and 
we wish to preach the word of the Buddha." Hearing the 
novice's proclamation, terrestrial deities repeated the announce- 
ment and in this manner the proclamation reached as far as 
the world of Brahma. ^ As a result of this proclamation there 
arose a large assembly of deities. Seeing the large assembly 
of deities, the Elder preached the Samacitta Suttanta.^ At 
the end of the discourse there resulted the realization of the 
Dhamma to countless deities. [79] Many Nagas and Supannas 
were established in the Refuges. As was (the size of) the 
assembly of deities when the Elder Sariputta preached this 
suttanta, so it was when the Elder Mahinda preached it. 

83. Then after that night had passed, the King sent a chariot 
for the Elders. The charioteer halted the car on the roadside 
and said to the Elders, " Sirs, the chariot is brought, board it 
so that we may set out." The Elders said, " We will not board 
the chariot ; you may go, we will come later." And rising into 
the air they descended on the site of the Pathamakacetiya,^ 
to the east of Anuradhapura. Because it was built at the place 
where the Elders first alighted, this cetiya was called the 
Pathamakacetiya. The King issued a command to the ministers 
through his charioteer to arrange a pavilion within the palace. 

70 Inception of Discipline 

Overcome with great joy, all of them immediately arranged an 
exceedingly delightful pavilion. The King further reflected, 
" While discoursing on the code of moral precepts yesterday, 
the Elder said that the use of high and comfortable couches 
was not permissible. 2 Will the venerable ones sit in these 
seats or not ? " While he was thus reflecting that charioteer 
reached the city-gate. There he saw that the Elders had arrived 
before him and were draping themselves with the outer robe, 
having already tied on their belts. Seeing them, he was over- 
come with great fervour, and coming back, he reported to the 
King, " Sire, the Elders are come." The King asked, " Did 
they board the chariot ? " He replied, " No, Sire, they did not ; 
but they set out after me and have arrived at the eastern gate 
before me." Learning that they did not board the chariot 
and realizing that the venerable ones would then on no account 
accept high couches, the King issued instructions, " If that be 
so, my men, prepare seats for the Elders in the manner floor- 
carpets are arranged," and went the opposite way to greet 
them. The ministers first laid down a mat ^ on the floor and 
then laid on it many-coloured spreadings of fleecy counterpanes 
and so on. 

The soothsayers saw this and explained, " They are now 
firmly rooted in the soil ; they [80] will be the masters of the 
Island of Tambapanni." The King went up and saluted the 
Elders. Taking the bowl from the Elder Mahinda's hand he 
conducted the Elders to the city with great honour and 
reverence and led them to his palace. Seeing the seats that 
were arranged, the Elder sat down thinking that their Message 
would be established throughout the Island of Lanka, as 
widespread and calm as the earth. The King himself personally 
waited on the Elders and regaled them with various kinds of 
delicacies both hard and soft and, sending for the 500 ladies 
of the court led by the Princess Anula so that they might 
greet, pay homage to, and honour the Elders, he sat respectfully 
aside. His meal over, the Elder preached the Petavatthu, the 
Vimanavatthu, and the Saccasamyutta * to the King and his 
courtiers showering upon them the treasures of the Dhamma. 
Having listened to that discourse on the Dhamma by the 
Elder those 500 women realized the fruit of Stream-Entrantship. 

Succession of Teachers 71 

All those men who had seen the Elders on the Missaka 
mountain the previous day, spoke of the virtues of the Elders 
at various places. Hearing their words a large multitude of 
people gathered at the royal courtyard and made a big uproar. 
The King asked, " What noise is this ? " 

" Sire, the townspeople lament that they have not been able 
to see the Elders," was the reply. Thinking that there would 
be no room if they were all to enter there, the King ordered, 
" Go, my men, prepare the elephants' stall, ^ strewing white 
sand and flowers of the five colours ^ and setting up an awning, 
and prepare seats for the Elders in the place occupied by the 
state elephant." The King's ministers carried out the com- 
mand. The Elder went there, sat down and preached the 
Devadiita Suttanta.^ At the end of the discourse a thousand 
people were established in the fruit of Stream-Entrantship. 
Later,® finding that the elephants' stall was overcrowded, they 
prepared a seat in the Nandana Pleasure-grove ^ in the direction 
of the southern gate. Seated there, the Elder preached the 
Asivisopama Sutta.^^ Hearing this too a thousand beings 
[81] received the fruit of Stream-Entrantship. Thus there 
resulted the realization of the Dhamma to 2,500 people on the 
day after his arrival. 

84. While the Elder was exchanging greetings with the women, 
maidens, and girls of the noble families who visited the Nandana 
Grove, it became evening. Considering what time of day it was, 
the Elder rose thinking of returning to the Missaka mountain. 
The ministers asked, " Where would you go. Sirs ? " 

" To our place of abode." 

They informed the King of this and with the King's approval 
said, "It is not the time now. Sirs, to go there. May the 
Venerable Ones make this Nandana Pleasure-grove itself their 
place of abode." 

" Not so, we will go." 

Again they said on the King's behalf, " Sirs, the King says that 
the park known as Meghavana ^ which belonged to his father 
is situated neither too far nor too near the city and is within 
easy access ; he wishes the Elders to take up their abode there." ^ 

And the Elders lived in the Meghavana Park.^ When that 

72 Inception of Discipline 

night was spent the King himself visited the Elder and, having 
asked him whether he had slept well, inquired, " Sir, is an 
arama permissible (for the use of) the Order of monks ? " The 
Elder replied, " Great King, it is permissible," and further cited 
this sutta,* " O monks, I sanction the use of an arama." The 
King was pleased, and taking a golden water- jar he poured 
the water of dedication on the Elder's hand and gave the 
pleasure-grove Mahamegha. Simultaneously with the pouring 
of the water of dedication the earth trembled.^ This was the 
first occasion when the earth trembled at the Mahavihara. 
The King was frightened and asked the Elder, " Sir, why did 
the earth tremble ? " 

" Fear not, Great King, the Dispensation of the Lord of 
Ten Powers will be established in this Island ; and this is the 
place where the first monastery will be. This is the prognostica- 
tion of it." 

The King was exceedingly delighted. Even on the following 
day, the Elder took his meal in the palace itself and preached 
the Anamataggiyas (the Inconceivable Ends) ^ in the Nandana 
Grove. The day after that he preached the Aggikkhandhopama 
Sutta.'' In this manner he preached for seven days, bringing 
about the realization of the Dhamma to 8,500 people. Thence- 
forth [82] the Nandana Grove received the name Joti Grove 
as it became the centre from which the radiance of the 
Dispensation became manifest. 

85. And on the seventh day the Elders preached the Maha- 
Appamada Sutta ^ to the King in the inner apartments of the 
palace and returned to Cetiyagiri ^ itself. Thereupon the King 
asked the ministers, " The Elder gives admonition of deep 
meaning. Is it that he is ready to go ? " The ministers replied, 
" Sire, the Elder came of his own accord without being invited 
by you and it may be that he will go away without your 
permission." Thereupon the King, mounted on his chariot and 
with his two Queens made to sit with him, journeyed to Cetiya- 
giri in great regal splendour. Arriving there greatly fatigued, 
he himself went up to the Elders, making the Queens retire 
aside. The Elder asked him, " Wherefore, Great King, do you 
come being so fatigued ? " 

Succession of Teachers 73 

" Sir, it is in order to find out whether it is your intention 
now to go away ; for the last admonition you gave us was of 
great significance." 

" Great King, it is not our intention to go ; but. Great King, 
the time is now come for entering upon the Rains-residence, 
and with reference to it a monk should know where he should 
spend the Rains-residence." 

86. On the same day, the minister named Arittha ^ with 
fifty-five elder and younger brothers, stood near the King and 
said to him, " Sire, we wish to enter the Order under the Elders." 
The King gave them his consent saying, " Very well, my men, 
enter the Order," and entrusted them to the Elder. The Elder 
admitted them into the Order the same day. All of them 
attained arahatship even while in the hall of tonsure. And 
that very instant the King too ordered work to begin on the 
erection of sixty-eight cells around the courtyard of the 
Kantakacetiya,^ and returned to the city. [83] Those Elders 
too converted the royal family including the ten brothers ^ 
and spent the Rains-residence at Cetiyagiri giving admonition 
to the people. At that time there were sixty-two * Arahants 
spending the first Rains-residence at Ceityagiri. 

87. And ^ now the venerable Mahamahinda having spent the 
Rains-residence and performed the Invitation ceremony (at 
the end of the rains), on the uposatha day of the full moon of 
Kattika, said to the King, " Great King, it is a long time since 
we have last seen the Perfectly Enlightened One, we have lived 
as destitutes. We ^ wish to go to Jambudipa." The King 
asked, " Sir, I have provided you with the four requisites and 
these people are established in the Three Refuges on account 
of you. Wherefore are you dissatisfied ? " 

" Great King, it is a long time since we have seen the 
Perfectly Enlightened One ; and there is no object here which 
we can show devotion and reverence to, pay respectful salutation 
and homage to ; therefore are we disappointed." 

" But Sir, have you not said that the Perfectly Enlightened 
One has passed away in perfect Nibbana ? " 

74 Inception of Discipline 

" Great King, even though He has passed away in perfect 
Nibbana, his bodily reUcs, however, remain." 

" I now reaUze, Sir, that you are greatly eager for the 
establishment of a thupa. I will build a thupa ; may you 
first select a suitable site. Yet, Sir, where shall we obtain 
relics ? " ^ 

" Discuss it with Sumana, Great King." 

" Good, Sir," said the King, and going up to Sumana he 
asked him, " Where shall we now obtain relics ? " Sumana 
replied, " Great King, do not be anxious, have the streets 
cleaned and decorated with banners, streamers, full pitchers, 
and such articles and take upon yourself the uposatha vows 
in the company of your retinue and go towards the Mahanaga 
Pleasure-grove * in the evening, attended by your full train of 
musicians, together with the state elephant adorned with all its 
paraphernalia, with the white parasol of state hoisted above it. 
Assuredly [84] you will obtain the relics there." The King 
agreed saying, " So be it." 

The Elders returned to Cetiyagiri. Thereat the Elder Mahinda 
told the novice Sumana, " Novice, return to Jamibudipa, go 
to your grandfather Asoka the righteous monarch and tell him 
on my behalf, ' Great King, your friend Devanampiyatissa 
who has gained faith in the Dispensation of the Buddha 
wishes to erect a thiipa ; and it is known that you have relics 
in your possession. Give me some of them.' ^ Taking these you 
next go to Sakka, the king of the deities, and tell him, ' Great 
King, it is said that you possess two relics, the right eye-tooth 
and the right collar-bone. Of these you continue to honour 
the tooth-relic, but give me the collar-bone.' And tell him 
further, * Great King, why do you remain indifferent having 
sent us to the Island of Tambapanni ? ' " 6 Accepting the 
words of the Elder saying, " So be it, Sir," and taking his bowl 
and robe, Sumana immediately rose into the air and descending 
at the gate of Pataliputta went to meet the King and conveyed 
the message to him. 

88. The King was pleased, and taking the bowl from the 
novice's hand smeared it with perfumes and returned it to him 
fining it with relics which resembled lovely pearls. Taking it 

Succession of Teachers 75 

along with him he went to Sakka, the king of the deities. No 
sooner did he see the novice than Sakka, the king of the deities 
asked him, " Why venerable Sir, Sumana, do you roam 
about ? " 

" Great King, why do you remain indifferent when you 
yourself have sent us to the Island of Tambapanni ? " 

" I am not indifferent. Sir ; tell me what I should do." 

"It is well known that you have in your possession two 
relics, the right eye-tooth and the right collar-bone ; of them 
the right eye-tooth you may continue to honour, but give me 
the right collar-bone." 

" So be it. Sir," said Sakka the lord of the deities and un- 
fastening the gem-built thupa ^ that was a yojana in extent, he 
brought forth the relic of the right collar-bone and gave it to 
Sumana. Taking this he alighted at Cetiyagiri itself. Thereupon 
all those great nagas (sinless sages) led by Mahinda [85] de- 
posited there at Cetiyagiri itself the relics given by Asoka the 
righteous monarch, and at eventide, the time when long 
shadows are cast, they repaired to the pleasure park of Maha- 
naga Pleasure-grove taking with them the right collar-bone. 

89. The King too who had performed the rites and ceremonies 
as instructed by Sumana, arrived at the Mahanaga Grove 
mounted on a lordly elephant and himself bearing the white 
parasol of state above the state-elephant. Then this thought 
struck him, " If this is a relic of the Perfectly Enlightened One, 
then let the parasol sway aside and let the state-elephant 
fall on its knees on the ground and let the casket of relics place 
itself on my head." Even as this thought passed in the King's 
mind the parasol swayed aside, the elephant went down on 
its knees and the casket of relics placed itself on the King's 
head. Overcome by supreme joy and fervour, like one whose 
body was sprinkled with nectar, the King asked, " What, Sir, 
shall I do with the relic ? " 

" For the time being, replace it on the elephant's frontal. 
Great King." 

The King took the casket of relics and placed it on the 
elephant's forehead. In its great joy the elephant trumpeted. 
A large raincloud arose and burst forth into a " lotus-shower "^ 

76 Inception of Discipline 

There was a mighty earthquake right to the ocean-Umits (to 
celebrate the fact) that a rehc of the Perfectly Enlightened 
One should be enshrined in a border country. Deities and men 
were overjoyed. Thus producing joy in deities and men by the 
splendour of supernatural power, 

The Great Hero ^ came here from the world of the deities 
on the full moon day of the fourth month (of Kattika) ^ and 
was established on the elephant's frontal. 

Then this great elephant, surrounded by a band of numerous 
musicians and honoured with exceedingly magnificent offerings, 
walked backwards facing the west as far as the eastern gate 
of the city, and entering the city by the eastern gate, [86] left 
the city by the southern gate while great homage was paid to 
it by the entire city, and arriving at the place called Maheja- 
vatthu * situated to the east of the Thuparama, stopped there 
again facing the Thuparama. ^ 

90. By this time there was already at Thuparama a site where 
sacred objects used by three previous Perfectly Enlightened 
Ones were enshrined.^ It is said that in the past, this Island 
was known as Ojadipa : the king was called Abhaya and his 
city Abhayapura. The Cetiyapabbata was known as Devakuta- 
pabbata and the Thuparama as Patiyarama. At that time the 
Exalted One Kakusandha had appeared in the world. His 
disciple named Mahadeva, together with a thousand monks, 
established himself on Devakuta as did the Elder Mahinda on 
Cetiyapabbata. At this time the people in Ojadipa met with 
utter disaster and ruin through a fever. And the Exalted One 
Kakusandha, as he surveyed the world with his eye of enlighten- 
ment saw those beings brought to utter disaster and ruin ; 
and when he had seen this, he went there attended by 40,000 
monks. By his supernatural power the fever was allayed 
instantaneously. When the epidemic subsided the Exalted 
One preached the Dhamma and there resulted the realization 
of the Dhamma to 84,000 beings. The Exalted One gave his 
sacred water-pot (with strainer) and departed. Enshrining it 
they built a cetiya at Patiyarama. Ministering to the Island 
with his counsel, Mahadeva lived there. 

Succession of Teachers 77 

91. Again, during the time of the Exalted One Konagamana 
this Island was known as Varadipa : the king was called 
Samiddha and his city Vaddhamana. [87] The mountain was 
called Suvannakuta. At that time in Varadipa there was a 
drought resulting in famine and failure of crops. People met 
with utter disaster and ruin through disease consequent on 
hunger. And the Exalted One Konagamana, as he surveyed 
the world with his eye of enlightenment saw those beings 
brought to utter disaster and ruin ; and when he had seen this 
he went there attended by 30,000 monks. By the supernatural 
power of the Buddha there arose a torrential downpour of rain 
and there was an abundance of food. The Exalted One preached 
the Dhamma and there resulted the realization of the Dhamma 
to 84,000 beings. The Exalted One stationed on the Island the 
Elder named Mahasumana together with a following of a 
thousand monks and departed, presenting his belt. Enshrining 
it they built a cetiya. 

92. Again, during the time of the Exalted One Kassapa this 
Island was known as Mandadipa ^ : the king was called Jayanta, 
his city Visala, and the mountain Subhakuta. At this time in 
Mandadipa there was a great dispute. Involved in quarrels 
and controversies many people met with utter disaster and ruin. 
And the Exalted One Kassapa, as he surveyed the world with 
his eye of enlightenment saw those beings brought to utter 
disaster and ruin ; and when he had seen this, he went there 
attended by 20,000 monks, and settling the dispute he preached 
the Dhamma to them. There resulted the realization of the 
Dhamma to 84,000 beings. The Exalted One stationed on the 
Island the Elder named Sabbananda together with a following 
of a thousand monks and departed, presenting his bathing 
mantle. Enshrining this too they built a cetiya. 

Thus at Thuparama stood the cetiyas to the three previous 
Buddhas.2 They perish with the disappearance of the Teaching, 
the site only remains. Therefore it is said : Already by this 
time at Thuparama was the site where sacred objects used by 
the three previous Perfectly Enlightened Ones were enshrined. 
When the cetiyas have perished the spot [88] remains, by the 
power of the deities, concealed with various shrubs having 

78 Inception of Discipline 

branches covered with thorns, so that no one may desecrate it 
with rubbish, impurities, dirt, and filth. 

93. Thereupon ^ the King's officers went in front of the 
elephant and cleared the ground cutting down all the shrubs 
and making it as even as the palm of the hand. The elephant 
went up and stood facing that spot at the place of the Bodhi 
tree situated to the west of it. Then they attempted to take 
down the relic from the elephant's forehead. The elephant 
did not allow it to be taken down. The King asked the Elder, 
" Wherefore, Sir, does not the elephant allow the relic to be 
taken down ? " 

" Great King (it thinks that) it is not proper to take down 
what has been once placed upon it." ^ 

At that time the Abhayavapi ^ had gone dry, the earth around 
it was caked and lumps of clay could be easily removed. The 
people quickly brought clay from there and made a heap to the 
height of the elephant's frontal globe. And at the same time 
they began making bricks for building the thupa. Until all 
the bricks were ready the great elephant spent a few days 
standing in the elephant -stall at the place of the Bodhi tree 
by day, and walking around the place of the construction of 
the thupa at night. Having had the site filled in, the King 
asked the Elder, " In what manner, Sir, should the thupa 
be built ? " 

" Great King, in the shape of a heap of paddy." * 

"So be it. Sir," said the King, and having had the thupa 
constructed knee-high (to the level of the platform),^ he held 
a great festival in honour of taking down the relic. The whole 
city and the country assembled to witness the ceremony in 
honour of the relic. When that large multitude had assembled, 
the relic of the Lord of Ten Powers rose into the sky from 
the elephant's frontal, to the height of seven palm trees and 
performed the twin-miracle.® From the different sides of the 
relic streams of water of six colours and columns of fire issued 
forth. There took place a miracle which resembled the one 
performed by the Exalted One at the foot of the Gandamba 
tree at Savatthi. ' [89] Indeed, this was not by the power of the 
Elder, nor by the power of the deities, but by the power of the 

Succession of Teachers 79 

Buddha alone. For in His lifetime, He had made a resolution 
of will ^ : " Let the twin-miracle take place after I have 
passed away in perfect Nibbana on the day of the enshrining of 
my right collar-bone at the place where cetiyas have been built 
over the sacred objects used by three previous Enlightened 
Ones, and which lies to the south of Anuradhapura in the Island 
of Tambapanni." 

Thus inconceivable are the Buddhas and inconceivable 
are the ways of the Buddhas ; inconceivable are the results 
to those who have confidence in those who are thus incon- 
ceivable ^. 

94. In His lifetime,^ the Perfectly Enlightened One came 
thrice to this Island. First, He came alone to tame the Yakkhas, 
and having done so went round the Island thrice securing 
protection for the Island of Tambapanni, knowing that after 
He had passed away in perfect Nibbana the Teaching would be 
established in the Island. The second time He came by Himself 
in order to pacify the two Naga Kings,^ uncle and nephew, 
and returned having pacified them. The third time He came 
with a retinue of 500 monks and entering the attainment of 
cessation, sat down at the sites of the Mahacetiya,^ the 
Thiiparamacetiya, the place where the Great Bodhi tree was 
to stand, the Mutiyanganacetiya,* the Dighavapicetiya, ^ and 
the Kalyanicetiya. ^ This fourth visit of His was paid physically 
by means of a (bodily) relic. And there was no region of the 
entire land of Tambapanni which was not moistened by the 
sprays of water that issued forth from the surface of this 
(bodily) relic. Thus this (bodily) relic of His allayed the 
heat of the land of Tambapanni with the sprays of water, 
performed a miracle for the people, descended (from the sky) 
[90] and placed itself on the King's head. Thinking that his 
birth as a human being had proved fruitful, the King had the 
relic deposited, paying great homage to it : and simultaneously 
with the depositing of the relic there was a mighty earthquake. 
The King's brother, the Prince named Abhaya "^ gaining faith 
at heart at that miracle performed by the relic, entered the 
Order together with a thousand men. Five hundred youths 
from Cetaligama ^ also entered the Order. Similarly, groups of 

8o Inception of Discipline 

500 youths each, coming from villages such as Dvaramandala. ® 
All those from within and without the city who entered the 
Order numbered 30,000. When the thupa was completed, the 
King, the King's brothers, and the Queens each severally 
made offerings causing astonishment even to the deities, 
Nagas, and Yakkhas. When the ceremony of paying homage 
to the relic was over and the wonderful relic enshrined, the 
Elder Mahinda returned to the Mahamegha Pleasure-grove and 
took up his residence there. 

95. At that time the Princess Anula became desirous of 
entering the Order and told the King about it. On hearing 
her words the King spoke thus to the Elder, " Sir, the Princess 
Anula wishes to enter the Order, admit her into the Order." 

" Great King, it is not permissible for us to admit womenfolk 
into the Order. ^ But there lives at Pataliputta my sister the 
Elder(-nun) Sanghamitta. Send for her. Further, Great King, 
the Bodhi of three previous Perfectly Enlightened Ones has 
stood in this Island ^ and it is meet that the Bodhi of our 
Exalted One which diffuses clusters of dazzling rays should be 
established here. Therefore despatch a message so that 
Sanghamitta will come here bringing with her the Bodhi." 

" So be it. Sir," said the King, and accepting the word of the 
Elder, and holding a conference with his ministers, he said to 
his nephew Arittha,^ " Will you be able to go to Pataliputta 
and bring the venerable Elder(-nun) Sanghamitta together with 
the Bodhi ? " 

" I will be able. Sire, if you will approve of my entering the 

[91] "Go, my dear, and bring the Elder (-nun) and (after- 
wards) enter the Order." 

Bearing the messages of the Elder and the King, he went to 
the port of Jambukola,^ embarked in a ship, crossed the ocean, 
and arrived at Pataliputta all in one day by virtue of the 
resolution of will of the Elder. And the Princess Anula herself, 
together with 500 maidens and 500 ladies of the court, took 
up their abode in a convent which they had had erected in a 
certain quarter of the city, having taken upon themselves the 
ten precepts and wearing yellow robes. 

Succession of Teachers 8i 

96. The self same day Arittha went and presented the King's 
message. He added, " Sire, your son, the Elder Mahinda has 
charged me with this message, ' The Princess Anula, wife of 
the brother of your friend King Devanampiyatissa wishes to 
enter the Order : send the venerable Elder(-nun) Sanghamitta 
to admit her into the Order, and with the venerable lady send 
the Great Bodhi.' " And thus having conveyed the Elder's 
message he went to the Elder(-nun) Sanghamitta and said, 
" Venerable lady, your brother the Elder Mahinda sends me to 
you with the message that the Princess Anula the wife of King 
Devanampiyatissa's brother, together with 500 maidens and 
500 ladies of the court, wishes to enter the Order, and he 
requests you to go there and admit them into the Order." ^ 
She immediately went before the King in great haste and said, 
" Great King, my brother the Elder Mahinda has sent me a 
message to the effect that the Princess Anula the wife of the 
King's brother, together with 500 maidens and 500 ladies of 
the court, wishes to enter the Order. He looks forward to 
my coming. Great King, I will go to the Island of Tambapanni." 
The King said, " My dear, my son the Elder Mahinda and my 
grandson the novice Sumana have gone to the Island of 
Tambapanni reducing me to the plight of a man with hands cut 
off. [92] The grief that arises in me because of not seeing them is 
allayed when I look at your face. Please, my dear, do not go." 

" Great King, I hold my brother's words dear. And Anula 
the royal princess, accompanied by a thousand women, greatly 
anxious to enter the Order, eagerly awaits me. Great King, 
I will go." 

" If that be so, my dear, take the Great Bodhi when you go." 

97. How did the King come to possess the Great Bodhi ? 
Some time prior to then, even before Sumana's visit for the 

purpose of removing the relics, the King was eager to send the 
Great Bodhi to the Island of Lanka. Debating within himself 
as to how he should send the Great Bodhi which it was not 
fitting to cut with a weapon, and not being able to find a 
method, he asked the minister named Mahadeva. He replied, 
" Sire, there are many wise monks." On hearing this the King 
offered a meal to the Order of monks, and at the end of the 

82 Inception of Discipline 

meal asked the Sangha, " Sirs, should the Bodhi of the Exalted 
One go to the Island of Lanka or not ? " The Sangha referred 
the question to the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa. The Elder 
replied, " Great King, the Great Bodhi should go to the Island 
of Lanka ; " and related the five great resolutions of will of 
the Exalted One. What are the five ? ^ 

Lying in His death-bed prior to passing away in perfect 
Nibbana, it is said, the Exalted One made the first resolution 
of will, " The great King Asoka will go to remove the Great 
Bodhi in order to have it established in the Island of Lanka- 
Then let the southern branch of the Great Bodhi sever of itself 
and plant itself in a golden vase." This was His first resolution 
of will. He next made the resolution of will, " Even at the time 
of planting itself there, let the Great Bodhi enter a bank of 
snowy clouds and remain there." This was the second resolution 
of will. He next made the resolution of will, " On the seventh 
day, when it plants itself again in the golden vase, having 
descended from the bank of snowy clouds, let it emit the six- 
hued rays from its leaves and fruits." This was the third 
resolution of will. He also made the resolution of will, " Let 
the right collar-bone, on the day of its enshrining in the cetiya 
at Thiiparama perform the twin-miracle." This was the fourth 
resolution of will. He finally made the resolution of will, 
" Let a dona measure ^ of my relics, at the time of their en- 
shrining in the Mahacetiya in the Island of Lanka, [93] assume 
the form of the Buddha, rise into the air and perform the twin- 
miracle." This was the fifth resolution of will. 

When he heard of these five great resolutions of will, the King 
was pleased in mind and, clearing the road from Pataliputta to 
the Great Bodhi, ^ he had brought to him a large quantity of 
gold for making a golden vase. At the same time the deity 
Vissakamma, knowing the King's thoughts, appeared before 
him disguised as a smith. Seeing him the King said, " My man, 
take this gold and make a vase." 

" Have you in mind its size. Sire ? " 

" Make it as you know best, my man." 

Saying, " So be it, Sire, I will make it," he took the gold and 
fashioning it with his hand, by his supernatural power, made 
a golden vase nine cubits in circumference, five cubits in height, 

Succession of Teachers 83 

three cubits in diameter, eight inches thick, with the outer rim 
the size of an elephant's trunk. 

98. Then the King set out from PataUputta with a large army 
seven yojanas long and three yojanas deep, and went to the 
vicinity of the Great Bodhi accompanied by the worthy 
Sangha. The army stood around the Great Bodhi which was 
dressed with banners and streamers, decked with various gems, 
adorned with divers ornaments, covered with various kinds of 
flowers, and resounding with the music of divers instruments. 
Taking with him about a thousand great Elders who were the 
leaders of groups, and surrounding himself and the Great 
Bodhi with a thousand consecrated kings ^ from the whole of 
Jambudipa, he stood at the foot of the Great Bodhi and gazed 
upon it. The whole of the Great Bodhi, except for the trunk and 
a portion of the great southern branch four cubits long, became 
invisible. With joy and fervour arisen within him as he beheld 
this miracle, the King said to the Order of monks, " Sirs, so 
am I pleased on beholding this miracle that I offer to the Great 
Bodhi the entire kingdom of Jambudipa," and he consecrated 
it. [94] Then, making offerings of flowers, perfumes, and so on 
(to the Bodhi tree), and going round it thrice with veneration, 
worshipping it at eight places, ^ rising, standing with clasped 
hands, wishing to remove the Bodhi by an act of asseveration 
of truth, having the golden vase placed upon a stool inlaid with 
all precious gems and elevated from the ground to the height 
of the southern branch of the Great Bodhi, himself climbing 
upon the jewelled stool and taking a golden pencil and drawing 
a line with red arsenic, he made the following asseveration of 
truth, " If the Great Bodhi should be estabhshed in the Island 
of Lanka and if I should be rid of doubts as to the Dispensation 
of the Buddha, let the Great Bodhi plant itself in this golden 
vase of its own accord." With this asseveration of truth the 
branch of the Bodhi tree broke away at the place marked with 
red arsenic and stood above the golden vase which was filled 
with perfumed muddy-soil. 

Its trunk was ten cubits in height. There were five large 
branches each four cubits in length, adorned with five fruits ; 
of small twigs it had a thousand. Then the King marked another 

84 Inception of Discipline 

circular line on the stem three inches above the marking at the 
bottom. Then instantaneously appearing as bumps ten large 
roots emerged. Again, at intervals of three inches above it 
he made nine other circular markings. From them too ninety 
roots emerged (each) having become ten bumps. The first 
ten large roots grew to a length of four inches only and the 
others emerged interwoven like the netting over a gabled 
window. Seeing the extent of those miracles, the King, 
standing on the jewelled stool itself, clasped his hands together 
and cheered aloud, the many thousands of monks shouted 
approval with cries of " Bravo ! ", the entire royal army 
cheered vehemently and waved a thousand garments aloft, 
the devas, from the terrestrial deities right to the hosts of 
Brahma, [95] applauded with cries of " Bravo ! " As the 
King stood there with clasped hands, his body completely 
pervaded with joy on beholding this miracle, the Great Bodhi 
with its hundred roots planted itself in the golden vase. The 
ten large roots remained touching the surface of the golden 
vase, the other ninety, growing in due course, embedded 
themselves in the perfumed muddy-soil. ^ 

99. Thus even as the Great Bodhi planted itself in the golden 
vase, the mighty earth trembled, loud peals of thunder roared 
in the sky, and it was one tumultuous uproar resounding from 
the surface of the earth as far as the world of Brahma, with 
the dancing of the mountains, the shouts of approval of the 
deities, the exclamations of the Yakkhas, the incantations of 
praise of the Asuras, the clapping of hands of the Brahmas, 
the roar of the rain-clouds, the cries of four-footed animals, 
the songs of birds and the display of the individual skill of each 
one of the musicians. From each of the fruits on the five 
branches the six-hued rays emitted making the universe appear 
as though covered with roof -beams made of jewels and reached 
as far as the world of Brahma. From that instant, for seven 
days, the Great Bodhi remained concealed in a bank of snowy- 
clouds and no one was able to see the Great Bodhi. Descending 
from the jewelled stool, the King, for seven days, caused 
offerings to be made to the Great Bodhi. On the seventh day, 
the snow and the six-coloured rays from all the quarters turned 

Succession of Teachers 85 

back and entered the Great Bodhi itself. When the snowy- 
clouds had disappeared and the vault of heaven become clear, 
the Great Bodhi, [96] complete with trunk, branches, and twigs, 
adorned with the five fruits and standing in the golden vase 
became visible. 

On beholding the Great Bodhi, the King, with joy and rapture 
arisen within him through those miracles, consecrated it 
thinking of honouring the young Great Bodhi with the 
sovereignty of all Jambudipa and remained for seven days in 
the vicinity of the Great Bodhi. The Great Bodhi first planted 
itself in the golden vase in the evening of the Invitation day ^ 
in the bright fortnight of the month of Pubbakattika.^ Seven 
days having passed (while the Great Bodhi was) in the snowy- 
cloud and seven days for its consecration, the uposatha day of 
the dark fortnight arrived and the King, in one day only, 
entered Pataliputta and placed the Great Bodhi at the foot of 
the Eastern Great Sala tree ^ on the first day of the bright 
fortnight of Kattika. On the seventeenth day of its planting 
itself in the golden vase fresh shoots sprouted on the Great 
Bodhi. The King, pleased on seeing them too, again consecrated 
the Great Bodhi honouring it with the sovereignty of all 
Jambudipa. The novice Sumana who had gone there on the 
full moon day of Kattika to obtain relics saw the Kattika 
festival offerings to the Great Bodhi. 

100. Thus it was with reference to the Great Bodhi which was 
brought from its platform and placed at Pataliputta that he 
said, " If that be so, my dear, take the Great Bodhi and go." 
She agreed to it saying, " So be it." 

For the purpose of guarding the Great Bodhi the King gave 
eighteen families of royal clan,^ eight families each of ministers, 
brahmins, wealthy householders, herdsmen, Taracchas,^ and 
natives of Kalinga,^ and for the purpose of sprinkling water 
he gave eight golden and eight silver vessels ; and placing 
the Great Bodhi together with its retinue, on board a ship in 
the Ganges, [97] and himself departing from the city and 
crossing the Viiijha forest * he arrived in due course at 
Tamalitti ^ in seven days. On the way, deities, Nagas, and men 
paid the highest homage to the Great Bodhi. The King too, 

86 Inception of Discipline 

keeping the Great Bodhi on the sea-shore for seven days, 
offered to it the great sovereignty of all Jambudipa. This is 
the third time that he dedicated the rulership of Jambudipa. 

loi. Having thus offered the great sovereignty the righteous 
monarch Asoka, on the first day of the bright fortnight of the 
month of Maggasira,^ raised the Great Bodhi and placed it on 
board the ship, wading into the water up to his neck. Telling 
the Elder(-nun) Sanghamitta to embark with her retinue, he 
spoke thus to the minister Arittha, " I have, my dear, thrice 
honoured the Great Bodhi with the sovereignty of all Jam- 
budipa, and descended neck-deep into the water whilst sending 
it to my friend ; let him too honour the Great Bodhi in the 
self-same way." Thus he gave his message to his friend, and 
lamenting, " Behold, there goes the Great Bodhi-tree emitting 
a glow of glorious rays of the Lord of Ten Powers ! " he stood 
there with his hands clasped and shedding tears. And the ship 
too, with the Great Bodhi placed upon it, even while the great 
King was looking on, sped over the surface of the great ocean. 
The waves of the mighty ocean became calm to the distance of 
a yojana all round, lotuses of the five colours blossomed, 
heavenly music resounded in the sky, and exceedingly splendid 
offerings were made from the sky by the tutelary divinities of 
the waters, the highlands, trees, and the like. The Elder(-nun) 
Sanghamitta, in the guise of a supanna ^ scared away hordes 
of Nagas in the great ocean. Those Nagas who were terrified 
came back again, and beholding its splendour begged of the 
Elder(-nun) and carried the Great Bodhi to the abode of 
the Nagas, and for seven days [98] made an offering of the 
Naga kingdom and placed it on the ship again. The same day 
the ship arrived at the port of Jambukola. And the great 
King Asoka who was overcome by the pangs of separation from 
the Great Bodhi, weeping and lamenting gazed on as long as 
it was within his range of vision and then turned back. 

102. And the Great King Devanampiyatissa, acting in 
accordance with the words of the novice Sumana, beginning 
on the first day of the bright fortnight of the month of Mag- 
gasira, had the road from the northern gate to the port of 
Jambukola cleared and decorated ; and on the day of setting 

Succession of Teachers 87 

out from the city, as he stood on the site of the Samudda- 
sala ^ situated near the northern gate, he saw by the super- 
natural power of the Elder, the Great Bodhi coming on the 
high seas in all its glory ; and glad at heart he set out, causing 
the whole length of the road to be strewn with flowers of the 
five colours, 2 placing flower-altars at intervals : and arriving 
at the port of Jambukola on the same day he descended neck- 
deep into the water attended by his whole train of musicians 
and making offerings of flowers, incense, perfumes, and so on, 
and overcome with great joy that the Bodhi tree had indeed 
come sending forth a glow of glorious rays of the Lord of Ten 
Powers, he raised the Great Bodhi and setting it respectfully 
upon his head with great devotion and coming out of the sea 
accompanied by sixteen noble families ^ who had come in 
attendance upon the Great Bodhi, he placed the Great Bodhi 
on the sea-shore and for three days honoured it with the 
sovereignty of the whole Island of Tambapanni * and entrusted 
the duties of state to the sixteen families of noble birth. 

Then on the fourth day, taking the Great Bodhi with him, 
making splendid offerings to it, he gradually reached Anura- 
dhapura. At Anuradhapura too, he paid great homage to it, 
and on the fourteenth day, at eventide, the time when long 
shadows are cast, he made the Great Bodhi enter the city by the 
northern gate ; and carrying it through the middle of the city, [99] 
he left through the southern gace and deposited the Great 
Bodhi at the gateway to the precincts of the Royal Grounds, 
a place situated 500 bow-lengths from the southern gate, 
where the ground had been first prepared at the request 
of the novice Sumana and had become the symbol of beauty 
to the pleasure park within the Mahamegha Pleasure-grove, 
and where our Enlightened One once sat in the attainment 
of cessation, where the three previous Perfectly Enlightened 
Ones had sat while reaching the attainments, and where 
stood the Great Sirisa Bodhi of the Exalted One Kakusandha, 
the Udumbara Bodhi of the Exalted One Konagamana, and the 
Nigrodha Bodhi of the Perfectly Enlightened One Kassapa. 
How ? The members of these sixteen noble families who came 
in attendance upon the Bodhi took upon themselves the duties 
of state. The King stationed himself as the gate-keeper. The 

88 Inception of Discipline 

sixteen families took the Great Bodhi and reverentially placed 
it on the ground. Scarcely had the Great Bodhi been released 
from their hands than it rose into the sky to a height of eighty 
cubits and emitted the six-hued rays. The magnificent rays 
spread over the entire Island and penetrated as far as the world 
of Brahma above. 

103. Ten thousand people with faith kindled at the sight of the 
miracle performed by the Great Bodhi developed insight in 
gradual order, gained arahatship, and entered the Order. Until 
sunset the Great Bodhi remained in the sky ; after sunset it 
established itself upon the earth, under the asterism of Rohini.^ 
With the establishing of the Bodhi, the great earth shook to 
its ocean-limits. Once it had established itself, the Great 
Bodhi, for seven days, remained enclosed within a bank of 
snowy clouds hidden to the view of the people. On the seventh 
day the sky was clear of clouds. The six-hued rays flashed 
radiant and dazzling. The trunk of the Great Bodhi, the 
branches and [100] the five fruits were visible. ^ 

The Elder Mahinda, the Elder (-nun) Sanghamitta, and the 
King, accompanied by their retinues, went to the place of the 
Great Bodhi. Inhabitants from all parts of the Island gathered 
there in large numbers. Even while they were looking on, one 
fruit on the northern branch ripened and fell from the branch. 
The Elder held out his hand and the fruit came to rest on his 
hand. The Elder gave it to the King saying, " Plant it, Great 
King." The King accepted it ; and scattering scented earth 
in a golden vase and filling it with perfumed muddy-soil, he 
planted it and placed it near the Great Bodhi. Even while 
every one was looking, eight Bodhi-tree saplings four cubits 
high sprang up. Seeing this wondrous happening the King 
made an offering of his white parasol of state to the young 
Bodhi-trees and consecrated them. They planted one of these 
Bodhi-trees at the port of Jambukola in the place where the 
Great Bodhi had been set down at the time of its arrival, one 
at the entrance to the village of the brahmin Tavakka,^ one at 
the Thuparama, one at the Issaranimmana Monastery,* one 
at the place of the Pathamacetiya, one at Cetiyapabbata, one 
at Kacaragama ^ in the province of Rohana, and the eighth at 

Succession of Teachers 89 

Candanagama ^ likewise in the province of Rohana. From 
the seeds of the remaining four fruits they planted thirty-two 
Bodhi saplings in aramas situated at intervals of a yojana 
from one another. 

When the Great Bodhi of the Lord of Ten Powers, which 
was like a banner of the Dhamma, was thus established for the 
benefit and well-being of inhabitants throughout the Island for 
generations from son to grandson, [101] the Princess Anula 
together with a thousand womenfolk consisting of 500 maidens 
and 500 ladies of the court entered the Order under the 
Elder(-nun) Sanghamitta, and before long, together with her 
followers, gained arahatship. The King's nephew Arittha ^ 
too, together with 500 men entered the Order under the Elder, 
and before long, together with his followers attained arahatship. 

104. Then one day, the King, when he had venerated the Great 
Bodhi, was going on his way to the Thuparama with the Elder. 
When he reached the place where the Lohapasada ^ was to 
stand, people brought him flowers. The King gave the flowers 
to the Elder. The Elder honoured the site of the Lohapasada 
with flowers. No sooner did the flowers fall on the ground than 
there was a great earthquake. The King asked, " Wherefore, 
Sir, did the earth tremble ? " 

" In this place. Great King, in the future, there will arise an 
uposatha hall for the Sangha. This is the prognostication of it." 

Continuing his journey with the Elder, the King reached a 
place called the Ambangana ^ where a mellow, sweet-smelling, 
and succulent ripe mango of exceedingly delightful taste was 
brought to him. The King offered it to the Elder so that he 
might partake of it. Then and there, the Elder ate it and said, 
" Have this planted just here." The King took the mango 
stone and having had it planted in that very place, sprinkled 
water over it. Simultaneously with the planting of the mango- 
seed the earth shook. The King asked, " Wherefore, Sir, did 
the earth tremble ? " 

" In this place, Great King, in the future, there will be a 
place of assembly for the Sangha named Ambangana. This 
is the prognostication of it." 

The King scattered eight handfuls of flowers there and 

9© Inception of Discipline 


venerated (the place) ; and continuing his journey with the 
Elder arrived at the place of the Mahacetiya. Champak 
flowers were brought to him there, and these the King gave to 
the Elder. The Elder honoured the site of the Mahacetiya with 
the flowers and paid homage, and immediately the great earth 
shook. The King asked, "Wherefore, Sir, did the earth tremble ? " 

" In this place. Great King, in the future, a unique and 
mighty thiipa will be erected in honour of the Buddha, the 
Exalted One. [102] This is a prognostication of it." 

" I myself will build it. Sir." 

" Not so. Great King, you have much work other than this, 
but your descendant,^ the King named Dutthagamani Abhaya, 
will have it erected. 

105. The King then replied, " If my descendant. Sir, will 
build it, it is as good as done by me," and he had a stone pillar 
twelve cubits high brought to him, and having the words, 
*' Let Dutthagamani Abhaya, the descendant of Devanampi- 
yatissa, build a thiipa at this spot," inscribed, he set it up there, 
venerated the place and asked the Elder, " Is the Dispensation, 
Sir, now established in the Island of Tambapanni ? " 

" The Dispensation, Great King, is established, but its roots 
have not yet descended deep." 

" When, Sir, will the roots have descended ? " 
" When, Great King, a youth born in the Island of Tam- 
bapanni, of parents belonging to the Island of Tambapanni, 
enters the Order in the Island of Tambapanni, learns the 
Vinaya in the Island of Tambapanni itself and teaches it in 
the Island of Tambapanni, then indeed, will the roots of the 
Dispensation have descended." ^ 
" But, is there. Sir, such a monk ? " 

" There is. Great King, the monk named Maha-Arittha who 
is capable of carrying out this task." 

" What, Sir, should be done by me in this matter ? " 

" Great King, it behoves you to build a pavilion." 

"So be it," said the King, and at the spot where Megha- 

vannabhaya the minister was to build a pari vena, ^ by means 

of his royal powers, he caused the erection of a pavilion 

resembling that built by the great King Ajatasattu at the time 


Succession of Teachers " 91 

of the Great Convocation ; and engaging a complete orchestra, 
each one to display his own art, he arrived at the Thuparama 
surrounded by many thousands of men, thinking, " I will see 
the roots of the Dispensation descend.'' 

106. And at this time 68,000 monks assembled at the 
Thiiparama. A seat facing the south was made ready for the 
Great Elder Mahinda, [103] and the preacher's seat facing 
the north was prepared for the Elder Maha-Arittha. There- 
upon the Elder Maha-Arittha, requested by the Elder Mahinda, 
sat in the preacher's seat which he deserved for his merit and 
assigned to him by order of precedence. The sixty-eight 
great Elders with the Elder Mahinda at the head sat down 
around the preacher's seat. The Elder Mattabhaya, the King's 
younger brother, taking the role of the chief in office ^ and 
thinking of learning the Vinaya sat down with 500 monks, 
likewise, surrounding the preacher's seat of the Elder Maha- 
Arittha. The remaining monks, and the people together with 
the King sat down in the seats that each one of them was 
assigned. Thereupon, the Elder Maha-Arittha preached the 
occasion of the Vinaya with the words, ^ " And at that time the 
Buddha, the Exalted One was living at Veraiija at the foot 
of the Nalerupucimanda." When the occasion of the Vinaya 
was preached by the venerable Elder Arittha the sky resounded 
with loud peals of thunder, lightning flashed out of season, 
the deities shouted applause and the great earth shook to the 
ocean-limits. Whilst many wondrous happenings were thus 
taking place, on the Invitation day, the first day of the month 
of Kattika, within the precincts of the Thiiparama Monastery 
the Venerable Arittha, surrounded by sixty-eight great Elders 
who were canker-waned and were each a leader of a group, 
with the great Elder Mahinda at their head, and also sur- 
rounded by 68,000 other monks, proclaimed the Vinaya Pitaka 
which reveals the Teacher's quality of benevolence and dispels 
the bodily and verbal transgressions of those who act in 
accordance with the admonition of the Teacher. He preached 
it and remaining till the end of his life, he taught it to many 
and established it in the hearts of many and passed away in 
the element of perfect Nibbana with no material substrate 

92 Inception of Discipline 

remaining. And they indeed, in that assembly with the Great 
Mahinda at their head : 

[104] The sixty-eight great Elders, disciples of the King 
of the Dhamma, each one the leader of a separate group, 
who had reached pre-eminence were gathered together. 

They who had destroyed their cankers, gained mastery 
over themselves, were endowed with the threefold higher 
knowledge, skilled in psychic phenomena, and had realized 
the highest end gave admonition to the King. 

Showing him the light and illuminating this earth, the 
great sages flamed forth like columns of fire and were 

After their passing away in perfect Nibbana, others too, 
the pupils of those Elders, Tissadatta, Kalasumana, Dighasu- 
mana, and others as well as the co-resident-pupils of the Elder 
Maha-Arittha and the co-resident pupils of those co-resident 
pupils — the successive generation of teachers thus mentioned 
above,^ have handed down this Vinaya Pitaka to the present 
day.* Therefore it is said : Starting from the time of the Third 
Convocation, it was first brought to this Island by Mahinda 
and others ; learning it under Mahinda it was, for a short period, 
handed down by the Elder Arittha and others, and from that 
time to the present day it was handed down by the succession 
of teachers who were their successive generations of co-resident 

107. Where was it established ? It should be known that it 
was established among individuals who were intent on training 
and were endowed with great mindfulness, courage, and 
endeavour, were modest and scrupulous, by whom it is retained 
to perfection both as regards the text and as regards its meaning, 
like oil poured into a crystal vessel, even a drop of which does 
not flow out. Therefore, in order to establish the Vinaya, a 
monk who is intent on training should consider the advantages 
arising from the learning of the Vinaya and the complete 
study of the Vinaya. Here are the advantages arising from 
learning the Vinaya : A person who is proficient in Vinaya- 
learning stands in the relationship of a father or mother to 
clansmen who have gained faith in the Dispensation ; for on 

Succession of Teachers 93 

them depend their ordination and higher ordination, the dis- 
charge of the major and minor obUgations and their skill in 
good conduct and resort (for alms). Besides, on account of his 
Vinaya-learning his code of moral precepts will be well guarded 
and protected, he becomes an arbiter to those who by nature 
are scrupulous,^ he goes about amidst the assembly of monks 
with confidence and checks firmly his adversaries in accordance 
with the Dhamma. [106] He is faring along for the persistence 
of the Good Teaching. Therefore has the Exalted One said ^ : 
" These O monks, are the five advantages accruing to a person 
adept in the Vinaya : His own code of moral precepts is well 
guarded and protected and so on and finally he is faring along 
for the persistence of the Good Teaching." And besides, 
whatever good qualities which have restraint as their basis 
that have been declared by the Exalted One, a person adept 
in the Vinaya is heir to them, on account of the fact that these 
qualities are based on the Vinaya. And so it has been declared 
by the Exalted One ^ : " Vinaya leads to restraint and restraint 
to absence of remorse, the absence of remorse leads to delight, 
and delight to joy, joy leads to impassibility and impassibility 
to ease, ease leads to concentration and concentration to 
knowledge and insight with correct perspective, knowledge and 
insight with correct perspective leads to revulsion and revulsion 
to detachment, detachment leads to emancipation, emancipa- 
tion to knowledge and insight into emancipation, knowledge 
and insight into emancipation leads to perfect Nibbana free 
from the material substrata. Discussion, deliberation, intensive 
study and lending attentive ear are for this purpose, namely, 
the emancipation of mind without the material substrata." 
Therefore, one should strive hard for learning the Vinaya. 

In so far as whatever tabulation has been laid down for the 
purpose of the exposition of the Vinaya, therein as * : 

By whom it was said, when, for what reason, held by 

whom, handed down by whom, where it was established : 

having thus explained this procedure, 
the meaning of the above stanza has been so far explained. The 
account of the External Story connected with the Vinaya has 
been fully explained as intended. 

Here ends the Account of the External Story. 

94 Inception of Discipline 


The Pali Texts referred to are the editions of the Pali Text Society. The 
references to the text and translation of this edition are by paragraph numbers 
and when the P.T.S. edition is referred to, the page number is followed by 
the letters P.T.S. 

A. Anguttara Nikaya 

AA. Anguttara Nikaya Atthakatha (Manorathapurani) 

AGI Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India 

ASC Archaeological Survey of Ceylon 

Bdhgh. Buddhaghosa 

BI Buddhist India 

CJSc The Ceylon Journal of Science 

Cp. Cariyapitaka 

Cvg. Cullavagga Vinaya (Vin. ii) 

D. Digha Nikaya 

DA. Digha Nikaya Atthakatha, see Sum. 

desid. desiderative 

Dh, Dhammapada 

DhA. Dhammapada Atthakatha 

Dhs. Dhammasangani 

DhsA. Dhammasangani Atthakatha (Althasalini) 

DPPN The Dictionary of Pali Proper Names 

Dpv. Dipavamsa 

Divy. Divyavadana 

EHBC The Early History of Buddhism in Ceylon 

It. Itivuttaka 

J A. Jataka Atthakatha 

JCBRAS Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 

JPTS Journal of the Pali Text Society 

Kh. Khuddakapatha 

KhA. Khuddakapatha Atthakatha (Paramatthajotika) 

Kvu. Kathavatthu 

M. Majjhima Nikaya 

MA. Majjhima Nikaya Atthakatha (Papaiicasudani) 

Mhv. Mahavamsa 

Mvg. Mahavagga Vinaya (Vin. i) 

Miln. Milinda Paiiha 

Pj . Paramatthaj otika 

PLC The Pali Literature of Ceylon 

P.T.S. The Pali Text Society 

PTS The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary 

Pv. Petavatthu 

S. Samyutta Nikaya 

SA. Sarhyutta Nikaya Atthakatha (Saratthappakasini) 

SBB Sacred Books of the Buddhists 

SBE Sacred Books of the East 

Sinh. Sinhalese 

Smp. Samantapasadika 

Sn. Sutta Nipata 

SnA. Sutta Nipata Atthakatha (Paramatthajotika) 

St. stanza 

subst. substantive 

Sum. Sumangalavilasni, see DA. 

Th. 1 Theragatha 

Th. 2 Therigatha 

Thup. Thupavamsa 

UCR The University of Ceylon Review 

Notes to the Translation 95 

Ud. Udana 

Vibh. Vibhanga 

VibhA. Vibhanga Attbakatha (Sammohavinodani) 

Vin. Vinaya Pitaka, Vols, i-v 

Vism. Visuddhimagga 

Yam. Yamaka 


[The references to Smp. in these notes are by paragraph numbers.] 

I. 1 Pubbacariya were the exponents of the Vinaya who preceded Bdhgh. 
and for whom he had the highest regard. The reference here may be 
to the succession of teachers commencing with Upali (Smp. 63) and the 
other early teachers of Ceylon whose tradition remained unbroken 
up to the time of Bdhgh. (cp. ajjapi tu abbhocchinno pubbacariya- 
vinicchayo — Pj. i, 11). The Porana, often quoted in Smp., the Sihala- 
atthakatha (stt. 10 ff.) and the Tradition of the Elders (st. 11) are evidently 
to be included among the pubbacariya. See EHBC, 2 1 fE. , and PLC, 92, n. i. 

2 The highest claims are made exclusively for the Vinaya in Smp., 
but not in Vinaya Cullavagga, xi ; cp. vinayo nama sasanassa ayu, 
vinaye thite sasanam thitam hoti. " The Vinaya is the very life of the 
Dispensation of the Enlightened One, so long as the Vinaya endures, the 
Dispensation endures " ; vide Smp. 3, 13. This affords a contrast to the 
Buddha's own statement which makes no distinction between the Dhamma 
and the Vinaya in this respect : Yo vo Ananda maya dhammo ca vinayo 
ca desito paiinatto so vo mam'accayena sattha. " O Ananda, the Doctrine 
and the Discipline I have declared to you and laid down before you 
(respectively) that itself will be your Teacher after my demise " (D. ii, 154, 
also quoted at Smp. 3). This, however, is preceded by the statement 
" As long as the Dhamma and the Vinaya endure so long will the Sacred- 
word be such that its Teacher has not passed into oblivion." 

^ Lit. " The Great Minster," the seat of Theravada Buddhism in 
Ceylon, s.v. DPPN. Also see C. W. Nicholas, JCBRAS, New Series, vi. 
The Historical Topography of Ancient and Medieval Ceylon, pp. 129 ff. 

* The allusion is to the Sihala-atthakatha, traditionally ascribed to 
Mahinda, which went out of use after the writing of the Pali Commentaries. 
The most important of these are mentioned in the next stanza in their 
order of importance, while there were others like the Andhaka, Sankhepa, 
and Vinaya Atthakatha in addition to several others of lesser importance 
dealing with various sections of the Canon. The Maha Attakatha is also 
called the Mula Atthakatha, " The Basic Commentary " ; while the 
Andhaka, probably originating from the Andhra Country in the Deccan, 
is generally cited to point out its erroneous interpretations. Vide 
PLC, 91 ff., EHBC. 10 ff., s.v. DPPN. 

5 The colophon of the Smp. says that Bdhgh. studied the three 
Sinhalese Commentaries, Maha Atthakatha, Mahapaccariya, and Kurundi 
under an Elder called Buddhamitta (Smp. 1415, P.T.S. ed.), who is to 
be identified as the above. The first part of Buddhamitta's name is 
evidently used with the honorific suffix -siri ; cp. the Pali usage in Kanha- 
sirivhaya for Asita — Sn. 689, Jambusirivhaya dipa for Jambudipa — 
Smp. 35. Buddhamitta may have found Bdhgh. to be an excellent pupil 
when he taught him the Sihala-atthakatha so that he was compelled to 
make this special request of him. This type of request by a senior Elder 
or a veteran scholar is a special feature of the literary tradition of Ceylon 
and may be but an expression of a mere formality. 

^ Lit. " The Great Commentary " belonging to the Mahavihara ; also 
vide EHBC, 11. 

' Lit. " The Great Raft ", so called because it is said to have been 
compiled on a raft ; vide EHBC, 12. 

96 Inception of Discipline 

* So named as it was compiled at Kurundivelu Vihara in Ceylon ; vide 
PLC, 92 ; EHBC, 12. Mhv. xlii, 15, refers to a Kurunda Monastery in 
Aggabodhi I's reign, and it may probably be the same, but different 
from Kurundavasoka Vihara built by Khallatanaga ; Mhv. xxxiii, 32, 
S.V., DPPN. 

" The Theravada (as opposed to the Acariyavada, " The Tradition of 
the Teachers," i.e. heresy), was held in high esteem and was the absolute 
authority. See st. 14. It traces its acariyaparampara, " Succession of 
Teachers " to Upali, the first of the Vinayadharas. See Smp. 63. 

1" The Sakyaputtiya samana, " Ascetics of the Sakyan Order " ; i.e. 
the Sangha. 

*^ This may even include the commentaries of Canonical antiquity 
such as the Niddesas, etc., but essentially the works recognized as Com- 
mentaries extant in Bdhgh.'s day are meant here. Bdhgh. generously 
dismisses the wrong interpretations as clerical errors — pamadalekha. 

^2 Sikkha also may refer to the sikkhapadani, the precepts embodied 
in the Vinaya Code. 

^' i.e. different from the language of the Texts. 

^* The terms sutta and suttanta are used indiscriminately as may be 
seen from this stanza and Smp. 30. The longer suttas, however, are 
usually given the name suttanta, and often the term sutta refers to 
a type of discourse as given in the Navanga division, (Smp. 31), while 
generally speaking, individual suttas and groups of suttas are called 
suttantas. The teachers versed in the suttas, i.e. implying the Sutta 
Pitaka, are called Suttantika. 

2. ^ i.e. Tena samayena Buddho bhagava Veranjayam viharati. See 
Smp. 2, n. 2. 

2 The opening words of Parajikapali, Vin. iii, i. 

3 Vin. ii, 284 ff. 

3. 1 The Sinhalese month of Vesak. See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 2, n. 3. 

^ The Malla Country was divided into two separate provinces with 
capitals at Kusinara and Pava respectively, situated not very far from 
each other, and the two branches of Mallas were looked upon as two 
distinct groups. They were separate claimants to Buddha's relics — 
D. ii, i65. Malla, though small, was included in the sixteen Mahajana- 
padas. See also Rhys Davids, BI, 26 ; Cunningham's Ancient Geography 
of India (AGI), 493 ff., 497 f., 712. 

3 Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, Vin. i, 10 ff., S.v, 420 ff. 

* The last disciple converted by the Buddha shortly before the 
Parinibbana, D. ii, 148 ff. 

^ See Mhv. Tika i, 142, for explanation. 

* Better known as Buddhapabbajita and different from the earlier 

' D. ii, 162 ; Vin. ii, 284. 
8 Not at Vin. ii, XI. 
» D. ii, 154. 

10 S. ii, 221. 

11 See also Etadaggapali A. i, 23 fif., where he is described as the highest 
among those disciples of the Buddha who inculcate punctiliousness. 

12 The six branches of higher knowledge or supernormal insight are 
enumerated at D. iii, 281, and elsewhere in the Canon as : 

iddhividha : psychic powers, 
dibbasota : clairaudience, 

cetopariyaiiana : knowledge of others' thoughts, 
pubbe nivasanussati : recollection of past lives, 
dibbacakkhu : divine eye, 

asavakkhayafiana : knowledge leading to the destruction of the 

Notes to the Translation 97 

*3 They consist of the four jhanas, the four ayatanas and saniiavedayita- 
nirodha and are enumerated at D. iii, 265, etc. ; jhana s.v., PTS. 
1* S. ii, 198. 

1 This and the subsequent quotations are from the Vinaya Cullavagga 
account of the First Council ; Vin. ii, 284 flf. 

2 This refers to the section commencing with para. 2 at Vin. ii, 284. 
» ibid., 285, para. 1. 

* The traditional explanation of pure here is " before " and not 
" formerly " ; and the trsl. then should read: Let us, friends, rehearse 
the Dhamma and the Vinaya before what is contrary to the Dhamma and 
the Vinaya shine forth and the Dhamma and the Vinaya are disregarded, 
before those who hold views contrary to the Dhamma and the Vinaya 
hold sway while those who profess the Dhamma and the Vinaya become 
powerless. See also Vin. ii, trsl. (The Book of the Discipline, 5 ; SBB xx, 
p. 394), which agrees with the traditional interpretation. To my mind 
pure here is a simple adverb of time meaning " in the past " ; and besides, 
pure . . . dippati and pure . . , patibahiyati look more like the historic 
present rather than having the conditional meaning as forced by the 
traditional interpretation. Smp. is silent on this. 

^ Their awakening of wisdom is spontaneous ; cp. aiiiia aradhita maya, 
etc., and the spontaneous utterances of Theras and Therls in Th. 1 and 
Th. 2. Khinasavas are of two categories : sukkhavipassaka and samatha- 
yanika. The latter category develop jhanapadakavidassana making 
use of the jhanas as a basis for the attainment of analytic insight whereas 
the former can dispense with the jhanas. 

* Vide Etadaggapali, A. i, 23 ff. 
' Vin. ii, 285. 

^ A sekha (subst. from sikkhati, desid. of root sak " to be able ") 
is a trainee on the path to Arahatship, i.e. he is one among the first 
seven categories of the attha ariyapuggala ; an asekha is one who requires 
no further training as he has become an Arahant. He is described as 
katakicca, as opposed to sa-karaniya, " one whose task is yet unaccom- 

2 Sutta and Geyya are the first two ahgas in the Navanga division 
explained at Smp. 31. 

3 Vin. ii, 285. 

* These are the four agati, the wrong courses of action. 

1 cp. Vin. ii, 285. 

2 Capital of Magadha, s.v., DPPN, vide Rhys Davids, BI, 36 f. 
Cunningham, AGI, 535. 

3 The observance of the Vassa was an institution common to all ascetic 
sects in India. The rainy months from Asalhi to Kattika (see Geiger, 
Mhv. trsl., 2, n. 3) were spent in quiet contemplation in peaceful 
surroundings. See Vin. i, 137 ff . The Book of the Discipline 4, SBB xiv ; 
Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism. See also Smp. 7, n. 2. 

* When the subject is of a more important nature it becomes fiatti- 
catuttha, where the natti gains formal ratification after the resolution 
has been passed thrice by unanimous assent. 

^ See Vin. ii, 285 : Atha kho ayasma Mahakassapo sahgham liapesi . . . 
etc. dealing with the First Council. 

1 i.e. to pay homage to the remains of the Tathagata and perform 
the ceremonies connected with the cremation and other funeral obsequies. 

98 Inception of Discipline 

2 Two days are prescribed for the vassupanayika : (1) purimika, the 
day after the Asajhi full moon, and (2) pacchimika, a lunar month later ; 
Vin. i, 137. Here the former is meant, i.e. exactly two months after the 

8. 1 Capital of Kosala, s.v., DPPN, vide BI, 25, 40 ; AGI, 467 ff. 

2 His love for the Tathagata prompted Ananda to visit His residence 
which he left together with the Buddha when He undertook His last 
memorable journey. 

3 Ananda himself was quite advanced in years, and the lack of his 
normal exercise when he personally attended on the Buddha may have 
affected his health. 

* The name of the messenger was Todeyyaputta : vide Subha Sutta, 
D. i, 204 ff. 

6 D.i, 204-210. 

9. ^ Vin. ii, 286. The details that precede this paragraph are not found 
in the Cullavagga account. 

10. ^ The Sattapanni Cave named after a sattapanni tree {Aristonia 
scholaris) growing nearby, was situated on the slope of Vebhara Hill, 
one of the five main peaks on the range of mountains skirting the hill- 
girt city of Rajagaha. See AGI, 531, where Cunningham identifies it 
as the present Son Bhandar Cave, s.v., DPPN. 

2 The divine architect, Tvastr of Vedic mythology. Vide J. Dowson, 
A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, s.v. Visvakarman. 

^ Lakkhi or Lacchi, Skr. Laksmi, the goddess of Prosperity ; Dowson, 
ibid., s.v. Laksmi. 

*' The highest god of the Hindu pantheon ; Dowson, ibid., s.v. 

^ Prescribed by the Vinaya as permissible. 

11. 1 Vin. ii, 286, para. 2. 

2 D.ii, 144. 

3 Not in Vin. ii, XI ; cp. the parable of the lute, Vin. i, 182. 

12. 1 There are various accretions in subsequent texts regarding this 
incident. The Chinese sources have greatly enlarged the story, while some 
of the bhanakas say that it was through the key-hole that Ananda 
came in ! See Mhv. iii, 29 (and Tika, i, 148), Jotipathena va. 

13. ^ See Smp. 1, n. 2. Even as early as the time of the finalizing of the 
Cullavagga account of the Council, the Vinaya appears to have been 
considered more important than the Dhamma though it is not explicitly 
stated there. This seems to be a special development in the Theravada 
with its emphasis on patipatti, and whenever pariyatti gains precedence 
over patipatti, a period of decay in the Sasana is generally reflected as 
may be seen from its subsequent history in Ceylon. Vide W. Rahula, 
History of Buddhism in Ceylon, 158 fif. 

2 This apparently is different from dhuraggaha, Smp. 106, n. 1 ; 
cp. Mhv. iii, 30 (Tika, i, 148), dhurandhare. 

3 A.i,25. 

* Vin. ii, 286, para. 3. 

^ Mahakassapa uses the appellative avuso, " friends," as he is the 
most senior Elder, while Upali, though himself a very senior Elder, 
addresses the assembly as bhante, " Sirs," as there were others senior 
to him present. 

« Not at Vin. ii, XI. 

Notes to the Translation 99 

14. ^ Vin. ii, 286. para. 3. 

2 See Vin. iii, 1 £f. Lit. Loss or Defeat ; the four grave offences which 
merit immediate expulsion from the Order are enumerated in the uddana 
verse at the end of the Parajikakanda at Vin. iii, 109, as : 

Methunadinnadanaii ca manussaviggah'uttari 

parajikani cattari chejjavatthu asamsaya : 
" Sexual intercourse, thieving, murder, and false claims to transcendental 
attainments are the four Defeats which undoubtedly lead to expulsion." 

3 Vesali, the capital of the Vajjian Confederacy, a city of considerable 
importance to be reckoned among the six great cities. See Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta, D. ii, 146. Also vide BI, 40 ; AGI, 507 ff. ; s.v., DPPN. 

* Vin. iii, 1 Iff. 

6 Vide E. J. Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought, 16 ff., for a brief 
introduction to the Vinaya rules mentioned here. All of them are dealt 
with in the Sutta Vibhahga, Vin. iii, iv. See also I. B. Horner, Book of 
the Discipline 1 (SBB, x). Introduction. 

« These rules are appended at the end of the Bhikkhuni Vibhanga 
and form a part of the Pacittiyapali ; Vin. iv, 211 ff. 

7 The Maha Vibhanga or Bhikkhu Vibhanga and Bhikkhuni Vibhanga 
together comprising Parajika and Pacittiya, the Mahavagga and CuUa- 
vagga forming the Kiiandhaka and lastly the Pari vara. 

15. 1 Vin. ii, 287. 

2 Not at Vin. ii, XL 

3 From here again at Vin. ii, 287. 

* D.i, Iff. 

5 Situated to the north of Rajagaha one yojana away. The ruins of 
the subsequent Buddhist University destroyed during the Moslem 
invasions are now excavated and preserved. See AGI, 536 ff. 

* Vin. ii omits this question and answer. 
7 D.i,47ff. 

^ There is nothing in common with the Cullavagga account after 
this except Smp. 18. 

* Here is an attempt to include the Abhidhamma Pitaka under the 
Dhamma rehearsed by Ananda at the First Council. The account here 
repeats the words of Vin. ii, XI, but attempts to read a new meaning 
into the term Dhamma. Perhaps the special division of the entire teaching 
of the Buddha into five Nikayas (Smp. 30) defining the Khuddaka 
Nikaya as : " The rest of the sayings of the Buddha including the entire 
Vinaya Pitaka, the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the fifteen divisions com- 
mencing with Khuddakapatha enumerated earlier (Smp. 20) leaving 
aside the four Nikayas ; " was intended to include the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka under Dhamma. Bdhgh. specifically states that Upali explained 
the Vinaya found in the Khuddaka Nikaya and Ananda, the remaining 
sections of the Khuddaka Nikaya, and therefore necessarily including 
the Abhidhamma. This division has some historical basis, but where the 
Pali tradition is concerned it completely went out of use in due course, 
though some schools of the Sarvastivadi group refer to the Khuddaka 
as a miscellaneous Pitaka (not a Nikaya) giving it more or less the status 
of the Vinaya Pitaka or the Abhidhamma Pitaka, while they insist 
on the division of the Sutta into four Agamas and not five. Elsewhere 
Bdhgh. recognizes the tradition of the Four Agamas (Sum. i, 2 st.) which 
is also reflected in Dp v. iv, 16 : 

Vaggapannasakam nama samyuttaii ca nipatakam 
agamapitakam nama akamsu suttasammatam : 
" (They divided into) Vaggas (groups — D.), Pannasakas (groups of fifties 
— M.), Samyuttas (kindred topics — S.), and Nipatas (sections — A.) and 
compiled the Pitaka of Agamas designated as Sutta." Perhaps here too. 

100 Inception of Discipline 

he unwittingly reproduces the tradition in which the Khuddaka has no 
real status. 

16. 1 cp. Ud. 56. 

18. ^ This explanation too makes room for the inclusion of the Abhi- 
dhamma Pitaka under Dhamma. 

2 Somewhat parallel to the statement at Vin. ii, 285, but not identical. 
See Smp. 4. 

19. 1 Dh. 153-4 ; cp. Th. 1, 183cd-4c. 

2 Vin. i, 2, also Ud. 1. 

3 D.ii, 156. 

20. ^ Bdhgh. , on the one hand, recognizes that many sayings of the Buddha 
had escaped the attention of the Sangitikarakas, and, on the other, 
that many additions to the collections were made at a date subsequent 
to that of the Council. 

2 Here the extant Khuddaka collection is given with no reference to 
the statement at Smp. 30 : What is the Khuddakanikaya ? The rest of 
the sayings of the Buddha including the entire Vinaya Pitaka, the 
Abhidhamma Pitaka, and the fifteen divisions commencing with the 
Khuddakapatha enumerated earlier, leaving aside the four Nikayas. 
The Dighabhanakas, however, include the Khuddaka Nikaya under the 
Abhidhamma. The whole problem has been carefully analysed by 
J. Dhirasekera in UCR, xv, 3-4, in his paper : Buddhaghosa and the 
Tradition of the First Council. 

21. 1 See I. B. Horner, Book of the Discipline, 1, xi £f. (SBB, x). 

2 Enumerated earlier at Smp. 14. 

3 The tabulated summary of Vinaya rules. 

* i.e. additional enactments or supplementary rules. 

23. 1 S.v, 80 : Bojjhanga Sutta. 

2 M. i, 20 : Bhayabherava Sutta. 

3 Sn. 553c ; Sela Sutta. 

4 Vin. i, 68 ; cp. Vin. i, 64 ; D. iii, 267 ; M. i, 472. 

5 Vv.i,9, 1. 
8 Dhs.97. 

' D.ii, 186. 

8 Dhs.27. 

9 cp. Dhs. 184. 

10 Dhs. 17 ; 23. 

11 cp. Dhs. 185 ; 225. 

24. 1 A. i, 189 : Kalama Sutta. 

2 M. i, 127 ; Kakacupama Sutta. 

3 Threefold training (tisso sikkha), threefold avoidance (tini pahanani) 
and fourfold profundity (catubbidho gambhirabhavo) are discussed below 
at Smp. 26. 

25. 1 The cpd. samvarasamvara = samvara + samvara, like phalaphala. 

2 Vide D. i, 12 ff. and trsl. (Dialogues of the Buddha, i, SBB). A brief 
summary of the sixty-two views is found in E. J. Thomas' History of 
Buddhist Thought, 74 £f. Also see B. M. Barua, Pre-Buddhistic Systems 
of Indian Philosophy. 

26. 1 This is different from Catupatisambhida, the fourfold analytic insight 
discussed at Smp. 29. 

27. 1 Vibh.294ff. 
2 Vibh.294ff. 

Notes to the Translation loi 

28. 1 M.i, 133f. ; Alagaddupama Sutta. 

2 The division into nine Angas is enumerated here. See explanation 
atSmp. 31. 
8 M.i, 134. 

29. 1 Vin. iv, 170 ff. 

2 M. i, 130 : Alagaddupama Sutta. 

3 A.ii,85ff. 

* M.i, 133. 
5 A.ii,80. 

30. 1 S. iii, 137. 

2 AtSmp. 20. 

3 See Smp. 15, n. 9. 

31. ^ All these are given as examples of Sutta, as representative of a type 
of discourse coming under this particular description. They cannot be 
classified under a precise division as pitaka, nikaya, vagga, khandhaka, 
or bhanavara. The texts mentioned here are (1) Vin. iii, iv ; (2) Culla 
and Maha Niddesas forming the eleventh book of the Khuddaka Nikaya 
(according to the Ceylon division) ; (3) Vin. i, ii ; (4) Vin, v ; (5) Sn. 
Nos. 16, 13, 37, and 52 respectively, representing no uniform class of 
teaching except that the entire Vinaya Pitaka is included. The better 
known suttantas of the Digha and Majjhima Nikayas find no mention 
here, though individual pieces from a " Nipata of Suttas " (Sn.) are 
included here. Judging from these examples and those that follow for 
the other eight Ahgas, it appears that the real significance of the early 
Navahga Division, whose existence is echoed even in the words of the 
Tathagata (M. i, 133 ; A. ii, 103, etc.) has been lost by the time Bdhgh. 
began to record the Theravada commentarial tradition. The more precise 
division into Pitakas and other subdivisions has ousted all the other 
divisions and classifications. 

2 The opening chapter of S. Geyya (from root gai " to sing "), judging 
from the explanation given here, seems to represent the " akhyana-type " 
containing stanzas interspersed with narrative prose. Unless there 
is an early confusion as to what geyya should be, the explanation here 
seems to be highly inadequate. If some discrimination is made against 
the narrative prose, restricting Canonical status to the stanzas only, 
there is some justification for the explanation. 

3 The phrase, " not included in the other eight Angas," further points 
to the Commentator's lack of familiarity with this ninefold classification. 

* There is perfect justification for Dh., Th. 1, and Th. 2 to be designated 
as gatha, but the criterion for judging whether a particular piece in Sn. 
is sutta or gatha is highly nebulous, except perhaps if Bdhgh. is taken 
very literally, when the Vatthugatha of Nalaka and Rahula Suttas and 
the whole of the Parayana Vagga together with the Vatthugatha and 
the epilogue are alone considered as gatha. This appears to be highly 
unsatisfactory and is perhaps far from what Bdhgh. meant. There 
seems to be no clear line of demarcation between sutta and gatha, except 
that prose is excluded from gatha. 

^ The extant collections, perhaps unknown during the life-time of the 
Buddha, and probably finalized centuries later are conveniently identified 
with the Angas bearing the same names. There are many udanas not 
only of the Buddha but also of his disciples and lay disciples, scattered 
all over the Pali Canon outside this meagre collection of eighty-two 
suttantas. So also are the quotations from Buddha's words found repeated 
in other discourses often prefixed with the statement, " For it has been 
said ..." (and sometimes with no such introduction), which have failed 
to find a place in the Itivuttaka collection of 112 suttantas. 

102 Inception of Discipline 

• As in the case of the Udana and the Itivuttaka there is no justifica- 
tion for equating the Anga called Jataka with the extant Jataka collection 
numbering about 550 stories. Firstly, the stories themselves have no 
Canonical status, which is reserved for the Jatakapali, the stanzas, only. 
Secondly, there is no reason why Jatakas of Canonical antiquity such as 
those incorporated in other suttantas, e.g. Kutadanta and Mahagovinda 
Suttas in D., should be excluded. The definition given here is highly 

' The example given here is not a suttanta by itself but a short dis- 
course incorporated in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta (D. ii, 145). Entire 
suttantas are hard to find though examples for abbhutadhamma are 
plentiful in the Canon. 

8 M. i, 299 fif. ; M. i, 292 fi. ; M. i, 46 ff. ; D. ii, 263 ff. ; M. iii, 99 ff. ; 
M. iii, 115 £f., respectively. 

^ Two of the examples given have the title Vedalla and the explanation 
is based on the word veda which is very faithfully rendered as " wisdom " 
though one would rather prefer " ecstacy " or " exhilarating joy " for it ; 
cp. vedajata. It seems rather strange that the list of twelve Angas at 
Mahavyutpatti 62, has substituted Vedalla with Vaipulya. This is a clear 
indication that the Mahayanists had already lost the significance of the 
term and found it necessary to substitute it with a more familiar term. 
For the Theravadins, at least, the memory of the term remained, and by 
the time of the Commentarial epoch attempts were made to revive 
meanings of unfamiliar terms in the light of the then-current tradition. 
Hence a curious secondary derivative of veda (whether it be wisdom or 
ecstacy) is conceived of whereas even the method of subtle analysis found 
in the six suttas quoted as examples has not touched a familiar chord. 
To my mind vedalla means "subtle analysis" coming from an older 
vaidarya from vi and root df "to tear apart " ; hence, " analyse or 
break down into fundamentals." Hence Vedalla should be rendered as 
" Analyses ". 

32. 1 Th. 1, 1024. 

2 The fuller reading favoured by Burmese Texts : atthi antarapatti, 
" there are secondary conditions of guilt," atthi apatti, " there are the 
offences," atthi anapatti, " there are the no-offences," makes better sense, 
but the pattern of the Vinaya rules in the Sutta Vibhahga to which the 
description applies, does not include apatti here, whereas it is found along 
with the rule itself. After padabhajaniya comes antarapatti followed 
by anapatti. 

^ The threefold category of offence pertaining to each ancillary Vinaya 
rule covered by antarapatti is stated in the Vinaya ; e.g. Pacittiya 36 
on anatirittabhojana at Vin. iv, 84 : Pavarite pavaritasanni anatirittena 
khadaniyena va bhojaniyena va abhihatthum pavareti apatti pacitti- 
yassa ; pavarite vematiko . . . apatti dukkatassa ; pavarite apavarita- 
sailiil . . . anapatti. The tikapariccheda is to be seen in the three con- 
ditions pavaritasaniii, vematiko, and apavaritasaiini. This is the general 
pattern of the threefold delimiting factors or determining factors. Follow- 
ing the above rule is given the ancillary rule about yamakalika, etc., 
which is followed by apavarite pavaritasanni apatti dukkatassa, apavarite 
vematiko apatti dukkatassa, apavarite apavaritasaiiiii anapatti. Here 
too the tikapariccheda is observable. Next follow various conditions of 
anapatti. Each of these categories comes under any one or more of the 
three dvaras, kaya, vaci, and mano, and it is not necessary for all the 
three dvaras to function with regard to every offence. 

34. 1 Vin. iii, 1. 

35. 1 ibid. 

Notes to the Translation 103 

2 cp. Smp. 63 ff. ; Dpv. iv, v ; Mhv. v, 104 ff. ; Vin. v, 2 f. See also 
Smp. 63, n. 1. 

36. ^ Co-resident pupil. The two pairs of teacher-pupil relationship in 
Buddhist monastic life are (a) acariya, " teacher " and antevasika, 
" resident-pupil," and {b) upajjhaya, " preceptor " and saddhiviharika, 
" co-resident pupil." The terms acariya and upajjhaya are explained 
later at Smp. 48. See also Vin. i, 44 ff. 

38. ^ See the account of the Second Council at Vinaya Cullavagga XII 
(Vin, ii, 294 £f.). From here onwards the Smp. version, though it stops 
short with the episode of the bronze bowl is a slight expansion of the 
account in the Vinaya. 

2 See Mhv. iv, 9 ff. and Tika i, 156 f. 

3 Uposatha (cp. Vedic upavasatha, the eve of the Soma sacrifice), 
the weekly sacred day even in pre-Buddhist times. Buddhists reckoned 
it from the phases of the moon, the new moon, the full moon, and each 
of the quarter moons. The day was generally set apart for expounding 
the Dhamma by the bhikkhus and for observing the uposatha vows by 
the laymen. The patimokkha was recited by the monks on the new 
moon (catuddasi) and the full moon (pannarasi) during which every 
member present confessed to the transgressions he had committed. See 
Vin. i, 101 ff., I. B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline, 1 (SBB, xiv), 
Introduction, also s.v., PTS. 

* Sima, the limits of the parish defined at Vin. i, 106 ff. The bhikkhus 
living within a sima, usually delimited by a natural barrier, such as a 
forest, mountain range, or river, assembled together for their uposatha 
meetings and each group within this boundary was considered an inde- 
pendent unit. The special enclosure for any formal act of the Order 
is also called sima. See I. B. Horner, ibid. 

^ Susunaga. See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xl ff., and the tables at xli and 
xlvi. See Mhv. iv, 1-8. 

* " A square copper coin weighing about 146 grains, and guaranteed 
as to weight and fitness by punch marks made by private individuals." 
Rhys Davids, BI, 100 ff. ; Ancient Measures of Ceylon, Miln. trsl. i, 239 ; 
s.v., PTS. 

' A small coin of very low value (masaka, lit. a little bean) made of 
copper, wood, or lac ; DhA. i, 318 ; s.v., PTS. 

8 The whole account at Vin. ii, 294 ff. is implied here and the sentence 
beginning with " At this rehearsal of the Vinaya . . ." bears a close 
resemblance to the concluding statement at Vin. ii, 307. Mhv. iv, 14 ff. 
continues the story in great detail. 

9 At Vin. ii, XII. 

1" See Vin. ii, 306 ff. The ten indulgences were pronounced unlawful 
by voting against them citing the Vinaya rules which were violated, thus : 

Sihgilonakappa involves the Pacittiya offence connected with the 
hoarding of food, Vin. iv, 86-7. 

Dvahgulakappa involves the Pacittiya offence regarding the eating 
of food outside prescribed hours, Vin. iv, 85-6. 

Gamantarakappa involves the Pacittiya offence of eating a fresh meal 
again which is not the leavings of a meal, Vin. iv, 81-3. 

Avasakappa involves a Dukkata offence of transgressing the Vinaya 
rule that two Uposatha halls within the same avasa cannot be permitted, 
Vin. i, 107. 

Anumatikappa involves a Dukkata offence for transgressing the Vinaya 
rule on Vaggakamma, Vin. i, 318. 

In Acinnakappa, some precedents are accepted while others are not. 

Amathitakappa involves the same Pacittiya offence as Gamantara- 

104 Inception of Discipline 

Jalogikappa involves a Pacittiya offence of indulging in spirits and 
liquors, Vin. iv, 108-110. 

Adasaka-nisidana involves a Pacittiya offence pertaining to the use of 
rugs larger than those of prescribed dimensions, Vin. iv, 170-1. 

Jatarupapatiggahana is a Nissaggiya-pacittiya offence involving the 
acceptance of gold and silver, Vin. iii, 236 ff. 

11 The Cullavagga account ends with the judgment passed on the ten 
indulgences and refers to the whole Council as the Recital of the Vinaya 
at which 700 monks, neither less nor more were present ; Vin. ii, 307. 
The First Council too is called a Recital of the Vinaya at Vin, ii, 292, 
There is no separate mention here of a rehearsal of the Dhamma and the 
Vinaya afresh, though this silence by itself provides no clue as to the 
proceedings of the Council after the ten indulgences were decided on. 
The concluding stanzas of Vin. ii are evidently later additions and the 
reference to the Rehearsal there has no bearing on the actual account. 

12 Dpv. iv, 49cd-51, and Mhv. iv, 56 ff. 

39. 1 The six deva worlds pertaining to the sensuous plane are enumerated 
as : Catummaharajika, Tavatimsa, Yama, Tusita, Nimmanarati, and 
Paranimmitavasavatti , 

2 Lit, " take conception in." 

3 " Sacred formulae," also " charms, hymns, incantations ", etc. Vide 
Smp. 42. 

40. 1 Lit. " passed away in Nibbana," cp. khinasnehapadipa va, Smp, 38; 
nibbanti dhlra yathayam padipo, Sn, 235, 

42, 1 This is the stereotyped formula describing the accomplishments of 
a learned brahmin, as explained at DA. i, 247, etc. by Bdhgh, 

2 i,e, in his normal course of studies, 

3 Yam.ii, 1. 

43, 1 Kh.No.3. 

2 Evidently it is considered discourteous to mention one's teacher's 
name in his presence. As a rule, even at the present day, the teacher is 
never addressed by his name, nor is his name mentioned in his presence ; 
cp. Miln. 14 f. for a similar instance. Also at Vin, i, 92, Ananda refuses to 
mention Mahakassapa's name on account of the esteem in which he held 
him, " garu me thero," 

44, 1 See Mhv, v, 19 ff, and Dpv. vii for parallels to Smp. 44-62. The 
tradition that he killed all his brothers but one is not supported by the 
edicts of Asoka which make reference to his brothers, e.g. RE, v. Also 
vide B. M, Barua, Asoka and his Inscriptions, i, 35 ff. The next state- 
ment regarding his consecration has confirmation in all the dated edicts 
of Asoka. P. H. L, Eggermont, The Chronology of the Reign of Asoka 
Moriya, 69 ff . has attempted to establish that Asoka underwent a second 
consecration after his conversion to Buddhism at the end of the vassa 
after the completion of the seventh year of his reign, i.e, eighth regnal 
year, in order to celebrate the event ; ibid., 42, n. 3. 

2 Fi(i(g Geiger, Mhv, trsl. xxii £f. ; Eggermont, ibid,, 4 fif, 

3 Carrying poles, 

* Lake situated in the Himavat with ever cool water ; an-ava-tap-ta, 
" never heated up," 

^ PTS suggests that this is the same as the naga-lata-rukkha or naga- 
rukkha, " the iron-wood tree," out of which wood the Buddha's tooth- 
stick was made, DhA, ii, 211. The description given above does not 
seem to agree with the rough, hard, and sap-free wood known as the 
iron-wood. Sinh. nd. 

Notes to the Translation 105 

" The home of the " Six-tusked " (chad-danta) elephant, and one of 
the seven great lakes of the Himavat. 
' A wagon-load. 

45. 1 S.V., DPPN. 

2 See Lakkhana Sutta, D. iii, 142 fE. 
' cp. the animisalocanapuja, J A, i, 77. 

46. ^ The Brahmagiri Edict i, the Rupnath and Maski Edicts refer to 
his conversion and progress in the Sasana, but they are themselves not 
dated by Asoka, unlike the majority of his other edicts. For reasons given 
by Hultzsch, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, xliv, Eggermont (ibid., 68) 
concludes : " So on the date of the Minor Rock Edicts there is only this 
certainty that they were engraved before the Rock Edicts, i.e. the annus 
ante quern of the Minor Rock Edicts is the 1 1th expired year of Asoka's 
reign. So the Minor Rock Inscriptions must have been engraved in the 
10th year of Asoka's reign or before." Also vide ibid. 69 ff., 180 ff., for his 
full discussion on the date of Asoka's conversion and a summary of the 
chronology of Asoka's reign. Smp. is found to be in support of other 
evidence as regards the date of Asoka's conversion. 

2 The balcony-window probably with a trellis work. 

47. ^ Asoka's accession to the throne and Nigrodha's birth are more 
or less simultaneous, and on the evidence of Smp., Asoka's conversion 
took place in the eighth year of his reign. Northern Buddhist accounts 
state that it was the Elder Upagupta who converted Asoka. 

2 Lit. a hall, Mhv. v, 42, has gharakam. 

' For want of a better word the Pali phrase is translated literally. The 
English " mistress " has deteriorated very badly semantically ! 

48. 1 See Smp. 47 beginning. 

2 See Mhv. v, 49 ff. 

3 J, No. 173 ; JA, ii, 235. 

* Dh. 21 ff. 
5 Dh. 2 lab. 

* i.e. converted them as ordinary lay-disciples (upasaka) with no 
pretensions to spiritual attainments ; puthujjana, " common man, 

49. 1 The four elementary needs of a bhikkhu : robes, food as alms, 
lodgings, and medicines ; see Vin. i, 58 f . 

2 See Smp. 31-2. 

3 The word navakamma usually signifies khandaphullapatisankharana, 
" renovations," as at Smp. 10, but in this context it definitely means 
new works or new undertakings. 

50. 1 S.V., DPPN. 

51. ^ Asoka's uterine brother according to Smp. 44, 56. 

52. 1 Apostle to Mahisamandala, see Smp. 64. 

2 Apostle to Kasmira-Gandhara, see Smp. 64. 

' The special enclosure meant for the ceremony. See also Smp. 38, n. 3. 

* See Smp. 26, n. 1. 

5 cp. Mhv. V, 209. Vide Eggermont, ibid., 180 ff. 

53. 1 See Mhv. v, 212-227 ; also Smp. 71, n. 2. Can he be Kassapagotta's 
brother ? 

2 Bhikkhacaravatta probably refers to the third dhutanga the pinda- 
patikanga, and may include dhutangas 4 and 7 as well. Vide Vism. 66 ff., 
but Mhv. V, 217 merely refers to it as pindaya caram. 

io6 Inception of Discipline 

54. 1 There is no parallel passage corresponding to Smp. 54, beginning, to 
this place, in the Mhv. account. The narrative continues from here at 
Mhv. V, 228. 

2 See Smp. 38, n. 2. 

3 S.V., PTS. The " Invitation " ceremony performed at the termination 
of the Vassa. See Smp. 6, n. 2, also I. B. Horner, The Book of the Discipline 
4 (SBB), Introduction. 

* Sanghakamma, " a formal act performed by the Order of Bhikkhus 
in solemn conclave " and generally sanctioned as iiattidutiya or iiatti- 
catuttha, the resolution gaining formal ratification by unanimous assent 
and preceded by one or three announcements respectively. See Vin. i, 123, 
and the explanation in trsl. SBE, xxii and SBB, xiv. 

^ Ganakamma apparently is restricted to a smaller group " chapter " 
originally consisting of ten or more for an upasampada ceremony (Vin. i, 
58) and later modified to five, a vinayadhara bhikkhu and four others 
(Vin. i, 197). The two groups sangha and gana, and puggala (Vin. ii, 170) 
are in descending numerical order. In Vinaya terminology ganakamma 
does not play a significant part. 

55. ^ Mhv. V, 233 says " further up the Ganges ". 

2 With four fires kindled in the four directions and the noonday sun 

3 See Mhv. V, 236 ff. 

* Mhv. omits this conversation. 

56. ^ The two episodes that follow are placed earlier in Mhv. See Mhv. v, 

2 The emphasis at Mhv. v, 155, is different : 

Miga pi evam kilanti araiiiie tinagocara 

na kilissanti kim bhikkhu sukhaharaviharino. 
G«iger renders it as, " Even the gazelles sport thus joyously, who feed 
on grass in the wild. Wherefore are not the bhikkhus joyous and gay, 
who have their food and dwelling in comfort ? " I do not agree with the 
reading in T. kiva nama kilikam, " how much sport indeed." 

3 Probably the same as Yonakadhammarakkhita who was despatched 
as the missionary to Aparanta (see Smp. 68), and not Mahadhamma- 
rakkhita who was sent to Maharattha. For Yona vide Smp, 64, n. 3 ; 
Mhv. trsl., 85, n. 5 ; 194, n. 3, with references. Mhv. v, 161, has Maha- 

4 Mhv.v, 171. 

^ Named Sumana. See Mhv, v, 169 f . 

57. ^ See Mhv, v, 241, to the end of the chapter which is more or less a 
summary of Smp. 57-62. 

58. * Forbidden to monks and nuns ; cp, Vin, i, 191 ; iv, 338 f,, etc. 
2 Used as rug, etc. ; cp. Vin. i, 192 ff. 

59. ^ Not at Mhv. v ; cp. Queen Maya's dream of a white elephant before 
she conceived the Bodhisatta, JA. i, 50. 

2 This episode too is missing in Mhv. 

61. ^ A. iii, 415. No parallel in Mhv. v from here to end of Smp. 61. 

2 J. No, 319; JA.iii,64ff. 

3 J. St. 580; JA,iii,64ff. 

4 J, St, 581; JA,iii,64ff,,cp.v,264. 

62. ^ The term samayam means " philosophy or system of philosophy ", 
but Mhv. V, 265, is more specific in referring to it as sambuddhasamayam, 
" the teaching of the Perfectly Enlightened One," while Dpv. vii, 53, 
merely uses the word sasana. Samaya can equally refer to the outside 

Notes to the Translation 107 

systems of philosophy, especially in the context of the King being able 
to recognize the titthiyas on account of his already having studied the 
" samaya " under Moggaliputta Tissa. 

2 cp. D. i, 12 ff., for a complete list of these theories. Also see introduc- 
tion to the Brahmajala Sutta in Dialogues of the Buddha, i (SEE). 

3 SeeSmp. 62, n. 1. 

* Asoka's statement, " Whosoever monk or nun will divide the Sangha 
shall be made to wear white garments and compelled to live in a non- 
monastic dwelhng," in the Minor Pillar Edicts of Sarnath, Kosambi, 
and Saiici affords a close parallel to this. The Saiici version further 
prefaces it with the words, " The Sangha of monks and nuns has been 
united to remain so to the time of my children and grandchildren and 
as long as the sun and the moon endure." The uposatha (see Smp. 62, n. 6) 
was one of the criteria for the unity of the Sangha (Sanghasamaggi) 
and this has been brought about, according to our sources, after a lapse 
of seven years, as a result of Asoka's endeavours. Also see, A Reference 
to the Third Council in Asoka's Edicts ? UCR, xvii, 3-4. 

^ " The analytical system." Pali tradition refers to early Buddhism 
by this term and it should not be confused with the later school of 
Buddhism which was designated by the same name, 

* The uposatha is. an essential feature in the unity of the Sangha ; 
hence the great emphasis laid on it. See also Smp. 38, n. 2 and n. 4 above. 

63. ^ Dpv. iv and v record several traditions of the acariyaparampara 
which have been carefully analysed by Eggermont, ibid., 4 ff. See also 
Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xlvii ff., and the chronological table at p. l. 

2 Vin.v,2. 

3 This refers to the time when the Porana tradition became crystallized. 
This is the source material for the traditions recorded in Smp. as well 
as the Chronicles right down to the works of the later Vamsa-literature. 
The Atthakatha Mahavamsa, no longer extant, can be presumed to 
have contained all this information. Vide Geiger, Mhv. trsl. x f., and 
PLC, etc. Also see EHBC, 87, for a discussion of the phrase yava aj jatana. 
Adikaram has shown that the list of teachers does not include any thera 
after the first century a.c. 

* " The Ancients." See PLC, 92 n., EHBC, 16 ff. The Parivara too 
contains the identical list of theras (Vin. v, 2 f.), but it appears to be quite 
out of place there, and is probably an interpolation. Both Smp. and 
Parivara lists go back to the same Porana tradition. 

^ i.e. Vinaya Pitaka. 

64. 1 See Dpv. viii, Mhv. xii regarding the missions described at Smp, 64 fl. 

2 Cunningham, The Bhilsa Topes, 289, refers to an inscription, sapurisa 
Mogaliputasa on a relic casket from Tope No. 2 of the Safici group which 
contained the relics of Moggaliputta Tissa. See also Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xx. 

2 Mahinda's acariya at the higher ordination, Smp. 52. 

* See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 82 ff, footnotes, for the place-names. Also 
s,vv, DPPN and in Cunningham's AGI. 

^ Mahinda's acariya at the ordination, Smp. 52. 

* D. R. Bhandarkar, Asoka, identifies this as a Greek settlement 
within the Empire near the north-west frontier between the Kophen 
and the Indus where the Shahbazgarhi Edicts were located. He explains 
the name as being derived from Old Iranian Yauna through Old Aryan 
Yavana, the lonians being the first people of Hellenic origin known 
to the Indo-Iranians and that all Greeks were known by that name 
subsequently. He dates this Ionian colony to pre-Alexandrian times. 
It is, however, quite possible that the term Yonakaloka meant the 
Hellenic Kingdoms beyond the north-west border, particularly the terri- 
tories of Antiochos Theos of Syria, Ptolemy Philadelphos of Egypt, 

io8 Inception of Discipline 

Antigonas Gonatas of Macedon, Magas of Cyrene and Alexander of 
Epirus all of whom are mentioned in RE, xiii. There is every possibility 
that Asoka's dhamma-vijaya extended far beyond his immediate neigh- 
bours in the north-west, i.e. the Bactrian provinces of Arachosia and 
Kabul (see Mhv. xxix, 39 — Yonanagara Alasanda), as in the case of the 
south. See also D. R. Bhandarkar, Asoka, 161 fE., where he adduces 
various reasons for the influence of Buddhism over Western Asia, and 
poses the question : Can there be the slightest doubt that the spread of 
Buddhism to Western Asia was due to Asoka's missionary activities ? 

' Dpv. viii, 10, reads, 

Kassapagotto ca yo thero Majjhimo Dundubhissaro 
Sahadevo Mulakadevo Himavante yakkhaganam pasadayum, 
agreeing with Smp. 71 though there is a slight discrepancy in the exact 
spelling of the names. Cunningham, The Bhilsa Topes, 119 ff., 287 ff., 
316-17, refers to inscriptions on relic urns which mention the names 
of Majjhima, Kassapagotta, and Dundubhissara (Dadabhisara in the 
inscription, Durabhisara Dpv. Oldenberg's ed.). See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xx. 
Cunningham identifies Dadabhisara with the district and not the Elder. 

8 Anujanami bhikkhave sabbapaccantimesu janapadesu vinayadhara- 
paficamena ganena upasampadam, Vin. i, 197. 

65. ^ The Aravala episode cp. Mhv. xii, 9 ff. ; cp. also the Marayuddha, 

2 Lit. created a rain called hail-rain. 

3 Lit. smoke him out. 
« Mhv. xii, 16-18. 

^ Mhv. xii, 21, gives the yakkha's name as Pandaka and his wife's 
Harita. All of them attained sotapattiphala. 
6 Mhv. xii, 22-3ab. 
' S. iv, 172 ff . ; A.ii, llOff. 
* cp. Dpv. viii, 4. 

66. 1 SeeGeiger, Mhv.trsl.84,n. 5. 

2 M.iii, 178 ff. ; A.i, 138ff. 

3 cp. Dpv. viii, 5 ; Mhv. xii, 29. 

67. 1 See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 84, n. 7. 

2 S. ii. 178 ff., 187 ff. ; iii, 149 ff.. 151 ff. 
' cp. Dpv. viii, 6 ; Mhv. xii, 31. 

68. ^ Within Asoka's Empire. See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 85, n. 1. 
2 A.iv, 128 ff. 

^ cp. Dpv. viii, 7 ; Mhv. xii, 34. 

69. ^ The Maharastra. 

2 J. No. 544; ',219ff. 
8 cp. Dpv. viii, 8 ; Mhv. xii, 37. 

70. ^ See Smp. 64, n. 4. There is sufficient corroborative evidence to estab- 
lish the historicity of some at least of these missions though not all of 
them are in that happy position. The contents of RE, xiii, should be taken 
in conjunction with this tradition. See also Smp. 64, n. 6. 

2 A.ii, 24. 

3 cp. Dpv. viii, 9 ; Mhv. xii, 39. 

71. 1 See Smp. 64, n. 6. 

2 The name is given as Kasapagota Hemavatacariya, Kotiputa Kasa- 
pagota Hemavatacariya, and Gotiputa Kasapagota in three relic urn 
inscriptions. See Cunningham, Bhilsa Topes, 119 ff., 287 ff., 316-17. 
Cunningham takes Kotiputa and Gotiputa as two distinct Elders, not 
taking into account the change of g > k in north-western Pkr. dialects. 

Notes to the Translation 109 

' Dpv. viii, 10 and Mhv. Tika i, 317, give his name as Mulakadeva. 

* Dpv., loc. cit. (Oldenberg's ed.) gives his name as Durabhisara, v.l. 
Dundubhissara, Mhv. Tika i, 317, Dundubhissaratthera, and relic urn 
inscription, Dadabhisara. 

^ Dpv. loc. cit., Sahadeva. Also see v. 11. 

« Vin.i, 10ff..S.v,420fE. 

' cp. Dpv. viii, 10 ; Mhv. xii, 41. 

72. 1 See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 86, n. 2. 

2 i.e. adhiggahita, " taken possession of, possessed." 

3 D.i, Iff. 

* cp. Dpv. viii, 1 1 ; Mhv. xii, 44 ff. 

73. ^ The fact that a lengthy independent account of the mission to Ceylon 
is given in all the Pali sources, by reason of its importance from the 
Ceylon point of view, does not necessarily imply that Moggaliputta had 
nothing to do with the mission though no reference is made to him in the 
fuller account. In fact, every one of the missions is described with an 
independent introduction with no particular reference to the Council nor 
to Moggaliputta Tissa after making, at the outset, the general statement 
that Moggaliputta Tissa requested each group of monks to go to their 
assigned country. The statement that several monks at Asokarama 
reminded Mahinda that it was the time to establish the Sasana in Ceylon 
(Dpv. xii, 7 ff.) and requested him to go, should be taken along with 
Dpv. viii, 1 ff. A short delay is inevitable prior to undertaking a journey 
of this nature as elaborate preparations were necessary for the despatch 
of each of the missions, and in the case of a journey overseas it is to be 
expected all the more. By taking Dpv. xii, 7 ff. with no reference to 
Dpv. viii, 1 ff. one would naturally fall into the error of dissociating the 
Ceylon mission from Moggaliputta Tissa, as Eggermont 36 ff. has done, 
as it presents a completely different picture. Smp. records here the request 
of both Moggaliputta Tissa and the Order of monks. Also see Mhv. xiii, 1 . 

2 According to Mhv. he reigned for sixty years (307-247 B.C.) and 
was responsible for the laying out of the Mahameghavana which came 
to play an important part in the history of the Sasana in Ceylon. He 
ascended the throne in the fourteenth year of Candagutta's reign in 
India. Devanampiyatissa was his second son. 

3 i.e. the message of the Dhamma. 

* There seems to be a good deal of confusion regarding the location 
of this district, but the details here appear to be correct ; also vide DPPN 
s.v. There is nothing at Mhv. xiii, 5, to justify Geiger 's identification of 
it as " a vihara in Ujjeni " (Mhv. trsl. 88, n. 3), as the stanza that follows 
refers to Mahinda next going to Vedisa which is actually situated between 
Kosambi and Ujjeni. Hence Dakkhinagiri has to be located beyond 
Rajagaha on the way to Vedisa. Probably a trade route from Pataliputta 
through Rajagaha and Dakkhinagiri connected the great southern trade 
route to Patitthana which ran through Vedisa, Ujjeni and Mahissatl. 
Mahinda and his companions naturally followed this route and arrived 
at Vedisa. According to Pj . II, 136 it is the hilly district south of Rajagaha. 

^ Vedisa also called "the Forest City" (Sn. 1011), is identified as 
Bhilsa in Gwalior State, See Cunningham, The Bhilsa Topes, and Geiger, 
Mhv. trsl. 88, n. 4. 

74. 1 Asoka was Viceroy at Avanti during his father Bindusara's reign. 
Its capital was Ujjeni not far from modern Ujjain in Gwalior State. See 
Geiger, Mhv. trsl., 29, n. 1. 

2 Dpv. vi, 16, and Mhv. xiii, 9, do not give the name of the setthi, 
but mention the daughter's name as Devi, as given below. Note the 
verb aggahesi, " seized," in the text. 

no Inception of Discipline 

* This is consistent with the statement at Smp. 52 that at the time 
of Mahinda's ordination at the age of twenty, the King was in the sixth 
year after consecration. 

* The second consecration of Devanampiyatissa is often looked upon 
as a " Buddhist " consecration. Eggermont, The Chronology of the 
Reign of Asoka Moriya, 25 if., attempts to prove, on the evidence from 
Dpv. that Asoka celebrated his conversion to Buddhism by undergoing 
a second consecration. The interpolated stanza Dpv. vi, 24, according 
to him " suggests that the whole story of the conversion is a commentary 
on the second anointment of Asoka ". He next concludes, " This view 
has the advantage of making it conceivable why Asoka sent the necessaries 
for a second anointment to King Devanampiya Tissa . . . (whose) . . . 
double coronation is analogous to Asoka's." See also Smp. 78, n. 7. 

^ The festival of the Jetthamulanakkhatta (see Smp. 77) or the 
Anuradhajetthanakkhatta, according to Dpv. xi, 44, was celebrated as a 
public holiday. The King's celebration of the festival took the form of a 
deer-hunt, but Mahinda purposely avoids mentioning it as he would be a 
party to the contemplated panavadha of the King if it forms a part of his 
resolution of will. 

* This was the earlier name of Mihintale which was changed to Cetiya- 
pabbata or Cetiyagiri after Devanampiyatissa's construction of dwellings 
for monks there. See Smp. 75. Mihintale is situated 8 miles to the east 
of Anuradhapura. See C. W. Nicholas, JCBRAS, New Series, vi, 1959. 
The Historical Topography of Ancient and Medieval Ceylon. 

' The name of the month is given here as Jetthamula, " the commence- 
ment of Jettha," though the usual name for the month following Vesakha 
it Jettha (Sinh. month of Poson, now reckoned as May- June). Also 
cp. Mhv. xiii, 14. 

8 cp. Dpv. xii, 12-13, 38-9. 

" The grandson of Mahinda's mother, Devi's sister. Mhv. xiii, 16. 

75. ^ S.V., DPPN. See also C. Godage's monograph : The Place of Indra in 
Early Buddhism, UCR, iii, 1. 

2 See Mhv. xiii, 15 ; Dpv. xii, 17 ff., 29 f. 

3 Dpv. xii, 20, byakatam c'assa nagassa ; Mhv. xiii, 15, Sambud- 
dhenapi vyakato. 

* The stanzas are almost identical with Dpv. xii, 35-7 ; cp. Dpv. xii, 
14; Mhv. xiii, 6 fE. 

* The reading at Dpv. xii, 35, Vedisagiriye (for -girimhi) ramme 
makes better sense. The translations, " in Vedisagiri in Rajagaha," 
or " in Vedisagiri and in Rajagaha," would both be wrong in the context. 
The older reading ramme in Dpv. fits in beautifully with the Anustubh 
^loka metre of these verses in addition to giving the correct meaning. Or 
should Rajagaha here be taken as " royal mansion " ? 

* Dpv. xii, 37, 41, have Missakakutamhi for kutamhi. The name 
Missaka there serves the purpose of a gloss as it cannot be included in the 
metre. Mhv. xiii, 20, has Silakuta. See footnote in text, and Smp, 77, n. 1. 

' All this embellishment is missing at Mhv. xiii, 19 f. 

76. ^ Regarding problems of chronology see Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xxii ff, 
with references, G. C. Mendis, UCR, v, 1 (1947) ; Eggermont, chapter II ; 
S. Paranavitana, UCR, xviii, 3-4 (1960). 

2 cp. Dpv. xi, 8 a., Mhv. iv, 1 £E. See tables, Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xii, xlvi. 

' Lit. " Abhaya the Crook ". Smp. consistently uses the name Pakun- 
daka but Dpv. gives both Pakunda xi, 1 ff. (or Pakundaka xi, 12, etc.), 
and Panduka x, 9, while Mhv. has only Panduka. The earlier sobriquet 
may have been subsequently changed to a less pungent one, after his 
consecration, and, in the Mhv. he has become " Abhaya the Pale " (fair- 
skinned ?). 

Notes to the Translation iii 

* Pakundakabhaya reigned for seventeen years without being con- 
secrated, and the previous one year refers to the Vijaya-Panduvasadeva 
inter-regnum. The consecration perhaps brought about the change in 
the name from Pakundaka to Panduka ! 

77. ^ The small tableland below the stony peak Silakuta at Cetiyapabbata 
(Mhv. xiii, 20 ; Dpv. xvii, 14, give Silakuta among other names as else- 
where. See Smp. 75, n. 6) . Could it have been earlier known as Silakuta ? 
The plateau below was named as Ambatthala, " the Mango Plateau," 
after the riddle of the Mango tree (Smp. 80) . King Mahadathika Mahanaga 
(66-78 A.c.) built the Ambatthala thupa there, on the ruins of which now 
stands a cetiya of more recent date. See also C. W. Nicholas, JCBRAS, 
New Series, vi, p. 163 f. 

2 cp. Bimbisara's reflexion at J A, i, 66, on seeing the Bodhisatta 

* Mhv. xiv, 8. 

78. 1 Situated about two yojanas south-east of Anuradhapura. Later 
Saddhatissa (77-59 b.c.) built the Cetavihara there. C. W. Nicholas, 
ibid., 157, suggests that this hill may be the present Gatalagam-kanda. 

2 Dpv. xi, 15 ; cp. xi, 16-17 ; Mhv. xi, 10-13. 
' Terminalia Arjuna. 

* Geiger, Mhv. trsl. (xi, 30) takes vaddhamanam as an epithet of 
kumarikam and gives a colourful but erroneous translation " a maiden 
in the flower of her youth ". See Mhv. Tika, i, 304. 

* Mhv. xi, 30, has sankhaii ca nandiyavattam, " a spiral shell winding 
in auspicious wise," Geiger. Also see Mhv. trsl. 80, n. 1. 

* It is usually a very young girl of Khattiya clan who does the anointing. 
See Mhv. Tika, i, 305 fE., for more details on the abhiseka. 

' The Smp. account has the requisite number of items (sixteen) men- 
tioned in traditional lists in addition to the five insignia of royalty. 
The gifts sent by Tissa appear to be of immense value and share the nature 
of an extravagant expression of his friendship with Asoka. A gift of such 
magnificient proportions, as a token of friendship, is unthinkable except 
in terms of tribute paid in kind by a bhoja-raja to his cakkavatti. It is all 
the more striking when the five ensigns of royalty required for use on 
ceremonial occasions and the sixteen requisites for a consecration are 
sent in return, though nominally Asoka's gift in return was the gift of the 
Dhamma. However, there is no evidence to indicate that Tissa accepted 
Asoka's suzerainty. Besides, it may be on the suggestion of his artful 
ministers, who were perhaps schooled in Canakya's tradition, (cp. saha- 
maccehi mantetva, Mhv. xi, 27), that the five ensigns of royalty and 
articles needed for a consecration were chosen as a return gift after 
Asoka himself on his own had conferred upon the members of the embassy 
various high honours (Mhv. xi, 25-6 ; also see Mhv. Tika, i, 302 ff.). 
The only influence of Asoka over Ceylon was his " Conquest by the 
Dhamma " of the Island as were the other border kingdoms won to the 
Faith as mentioned in his RE, xiii. The argument that Tissa underwent 
a second consecration to celebrate his acceptance of Buddhism (Smp. 74, 
n. 4) appears weak in the light of the typical brahmanical anointment 
as seen from the articles used at the consecration. It is difficult to explain 
why Tissa submitted himself to this second consecration, and further 
investigation is necessary to establish whether Tissa even nominally 
accepted Asoka's suzerainty, but one thing is certain, that Asoka may 
have looked upon Tissa as a very useful friend and ally from a strategic 
point of view, with the independent Dravida Kingdoms of Colas, Pandyas, 
Keralaputras, and others situated between his southern borders and 

8 Dpv. xi, 1-4 ; xvii, 83-86 ; cp. Mhv. xi, 28-32. 

112 Inception of Discipline 

» Dpv. xii, 5-6 ; cp. Mhv. xi, 34-5. 

1° See Asoka's Brahmagiri Edict i, RQpnath and Maski Edicts, which 
are now dated as having been issued in the tenth regnal year, in which 
he says that he has been a lay disciple for two and a half years and so on. 
Also vide A Reference to the Third Council in Asoka's Edicts ?, UCR, 
xvii, 3-4. 

^^ See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xix. 

79. ^ Mhv. xi, 40, refers to his first consecration as having taken place 
on the first day of the bright half of Maggasira while Dpv. xi, 14, refers 
to it in a different way : " under the asterism of Asajhi in the second 
winter month ; " but in both cases it fell five months before the uposatha 
day of Vesakha. See also Eggermont, 31 ff. ; Geiger, Mhv. trsl. xxxi ff., 
who have attempted to fix the exact date with various kinds of data. 

2 See last st. at Smp. 78. 

3 Dpv. xii, 52 ; cp. Mhv. xiv, 10. 

* Mahinda awaited the arrival of the King's followers to reveal the 
presence of the rest of his party lest the King be frightened at the sight 
of too many unfamiliar figures. 

^ Dpv. xii, 56 ; cp. Mhv. xiv, 14. 

80. ^ For Smp. 80-3, cp. Mhv. xiv, 15 to end of chapter. 

81. ^ M. i, 175 ff., see also Dpv. xii, 57 : " suttantam Hatthipadam." 

2 It is rather significant that the King knew that it was not permissible 
for monks to eat after midday. One who is totally unacquainted with the 
daily life of bhikkhus would not have known it. It is very unlikely 
that he would have learned all this from his envoys who had returned 
from Asoka's court but recently. Also at Smp. 87 the King realizes that 
the Thera is eager to have a cetiya built when he merely mentions that 
Buddha's bodily relics remain. These and several other stray references 
in the Pali accounts which their monastic authors have failed to suppress, 
point to the fact that Buddhism was not unknown in Ceylon prior to 
its official introduction by Mahinda. See EHBC, 46 ff. for further data. 
It is unsatisfactory to explain this minor detail as an anachronism. 

3 Vin. iv, 85. 

* Vikala is defined at Vin. iv, 86. 
^ i.e. anagamiphala. 

82. 1 Jhana, s.v., PTS. See references where the jhanas are discussed 
fully as regards theory and practice. 

2 cp. the description at the end of the preaching of the Dhammacakka, 
Vin. i, 11 ff. 

3 A. i, 64 ff. 

83. ^ A cetiya in Anuradhapura, untraced to date in the ruins, though 
popularly identified with the ruins now known as the Padhanacetiya. 
It is tentatively located in the map attached to Memoir I of the Archaeo- 
logical Survey of Ceylon, along the ancient road from the eastern gate 
of the city to Mihintale, slightly south-east of Nakha Vehera and between 
Malvatu Oya (Kadambanadi) and the Halpanu Ala (D. T. Devendra). 

2 Included in the dasasikkhapada, Kh. No. 2. 

3 The word in the text is tattika, and is explained at Smp. 357 (P.T.S.) : 
talapannehi va vakehi va katatattika, i.e. woven from palm-leaf or 
fibrous bark. 

4 S.v, 414 ff. 

^ Hatthisala, not identified. 

« See Smp. 102, n. 2. 

' M. iii, 178 ff. ; A. i, 138 ff. 

8 See Mhv. xv, 1 £f. for parallels to Smp. from here. 

Notes to the Translation 113 

» The park situated outside the southern wall of the city and extending 
as far as the Mahameghavana. It is bounded on the west by the Abhaya- 
vapi and on the east by the Kadambanadi. The Thuparama and the 
Mahathupa are situated within this park. It was renamed Jotivana after 
the conversions effected there by Mahinda. See Smp. 84, Mhv. xv, 202. 
See also C. W. Nicholas, Historical Topography of Ancient and Medieval 
Ceylon, JCBRAS, 1959, New Series, vi, 127 ff. 

i» S. iv, 172 ff. ; A. ii, 110 fE., but Dpv. xiii, 13, Mhv. xv, 4 differ, 
and mention the Balapanditasuttanta, M. iii, 163 ; S. ii, 23 £f. ; A. i, 101 ff. 

84. 1 Lit. The Grove of the Mighty Rain Cloud. It was laid out by Mutasiva 
and named so on account of an unseasonal downpour at the time of the 
selection of the site ; Mhv. xi, 2 f. It lay further south of the Nanda- 
navana (Smp. 83, n. 9). The Mahavihara was founded there by Devanam- 
piyatissa. In dedicating the Mahameghavana to the Sangha it was 
renamed Tissarama ; Dpv. xiii, 33, For a full description of the dedication 
see Dpv. xiii, 18 ff., and for the religious edifices built there, Mhv. xv. 
See also Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 77, n. 1, and C. W. Nicholas, ibid. 

2 cp. the full description of a saruppa senasana at Vin. i, 39. The 
account of the dedication of Veluvana by Bimbisara has been freely 
drawn upon, and is faithfully rendered into verse, with additions, in 
describing the dedication of the Mahameghavana at Dpv. xiii, 18 ff. ; 
and Mhv. xv, 17, actually cites the acceptance of the Veluvanarama. 

3 Mhv. XV, 10, adds that the cetiya built at the spot where the Elders 
turned back was called the Nivattacetiya. Also see C. W. Nicholas, 
ibid., p. 137. 

4 Vin. i, 39. 

^ So also in the description of the acceptance of the Veluvana at 
JA, i, 85. 

« S. ii, 178 ff., 187 ff. 

' A. iv, 128 ff. 

Mhv. XV, 195 ff. states that on the fifth day, i.e. the day after he preached 
the Anamataggiya, the Thera preached the Khaj janiya Suttanta, probably 
the Siha Suttanta of the Khajjaniya Vagga ; S. iii, 86 ff. (See Geiger, 
Mhv. trsl.. Ill, n. 4) ; that on the sixth day, the Gomayapindi Sutta, 
S. iii, 143 ff., and on the seventh day, the Dhammacakkappavattana, 
Vin. i, 10 ff. In the first of the two independent accounts in Dpv. com- 
mencing at xiv, 8, the suttas that are said to have been preached by 
Mahinda at the Nandanavana are Aggikkhandha and Asivisupama, and 
in the second account at xiv, 41 ff., Asivisupama, Anamataggiya, Cariya- 
pitaka, Gomayapindi, and Dhammacakka which " he preached repeatedly 
there itself in the Great Nandana, and for seven days he preached with 
this suttanta ". 

85. ^ There are several discourses called Appamada Sutta and it is not 
easy to say which one was referred to as Maha-appamada Sutta. Vide 
Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 31, n. 3 ; s.v,, DPPN. Smp. fails to mention that the 
Dhammacakkappavattana was preached on the seventh day at the 
Nandanavana. See previous note. Smp. and Mhv. xvi, 3 agree as regards 
Maha-appamada Sutta but not Dpv. xiv, 53 which mentions Mahasamaya 

2 Same as Cetiyapabbata or Missakapabbata (Mihintale). See Smp. 74, 
n. 6. 

86. ^ There are two Aritthas if we are to accept the sequence of the narra- 
tive in Smp. and the chronicles. See also Adikaram, EHBC, 53 f. Both 
Dpv. and Mhv. refer to the minister (Maha) Arittha as Devanampiyatissa's 
first envoy to the imperial court of Pataliputta (Dpv. xi, 29 ff. ; Mhv. xi, 
20 ff.). Mhv. further refers to him as the King's nephew. Both chronicles 
again refer to him as Maha Arittha, the King's nephew (Dpv. xiv, 68 ff. ; 

114 Inception of Discipline 

Mhv, xvi, 10 ff.) in describing his entry into the Order with fifty-five 
others who are described as his " brothers ". It is, however, rather curious 
to note that Smp. omits the epithet Maha and refers to him as Arittha 
here, though one of the two Aritthas is again referred to as Maha-Arittha 
later on (Smp. 105, 106). Further, he is not called the King's nephew 
at Smp. 86 and the King addresses him and his fifty-five brothers as 
bhane, " my men ", instead of the usual tata, " my dears," as one would 
expect ; see Smp. 95 where he addresses the other Arittha as tata. 
The name of the second envoy who was despatched to bring Sanghamitta 
and the Bodhi tree is consistently given as Arittha and not as Maha- 
Arittha in all three sources : Dpv. xv, 82 ff., Arittho nama khattiyo ; 
Mhv. xvii, 1 ff., the minister Arittha, the King's nephew ; Smp. 95, the 
King's nephew. On the evidence of Mhv. and Dpv. Adikaram's contention 
(ibid.), that the two ministers named Arittha were brothers and that the 
older of the two was called Maha-Arittha and the younger plain Arittha 
may be accepted though the indirect evidence from the Smp. seems to 
make the issue highly complicated. In Smp. Arittha (1) was no relation 
of the King, while the reference to Maha-Arittha as a mere bhikkhu 
at Smp. 105, when his name is suggested as a suitable candidate to receive 
the Vinaya and teach it in Ceylon, is intended to point to the more junior 
of the two Aritthas in the Sasana. He is, however, referred to as an Elder 
in the next section. Arittha (1) was already an arahant according to the 
last sentence of Smp. 86. See note 4 below. All three sources agree 
that the envoy sent to bring Sanghamitta was the King's nephew, who 
later entered the Order with 500 others and (not a mere fifty-five !) in 
keeping with his royal status. Further, in two instances in Mhv. (xviii, 13 ; 
xix, 12) it is the second Arittha who is referred to as Maha-Arittha, 
while all other references either clearly point to Arittha (1) as Maha- 
Arittha or can be interpreted as such. Evidently, the earlier chronicle 
Dpv. (and Smp.) recognized the fact that there were two Aritthas while 
the author of Mhv. has forgotten the sequence of events in the narrative 
and confused one Arittha with the other. The two names cannot refer 
to one and the same individual if the above sequence is correct, but if not, 
the second envoy has to be identified with the first. If that be so, the 
suggestion that the story of the arrival of Sanghamitta with the Bodhi 
tree and that of Mahinda refer to the first propagation of Buddhism in 
Ceylon (Eggermont, 56 ff.) will have to be taken seriously into con- 
sideration. On the other hand, from the evidence of Smp. there is 
nothing to prevent one from identifying Arittha (2) with Maha-Arittha 
on the ground (1) that he alone was the King's nephew, (2) he was not a 
bhikkhu of long experience, and (3) that the important office of custodian- 
ship of the Vinaya is best entrusted to one connected with the royal family. 
Buddhaghosa appears to have been convinced that Arittha (2) was 
Maha-Arittha though nowhere does he explicitly state so. The evidence 
from Smp. is of an inferential nature and may be even termed an argument 
from silence while the positive information in Dpv. and Mhv., in spite of 
the two discrepancies referred to above in the latter, appears to indicate 
that Arittha (1) was Maha-Arittha. 

2 On the Missakapabbata. The ruins of some of these cells, some 
partly restored, are to be seen to the present day. The Kantakacetiya 
too is partly renovated by the Ceylon Archaeological Department. All 
this lies on a plateau further south-west of Ambatthala. See Smp. 77, n. 1. 

3 The ten sons of Mutasiva of whom Devanampiyatissa was the second. 
See list at Dpv. xi, 6 ; viii, 75, and Smp. 94, n. 7. 

* Dpv. xiv, 80 ; Mhv. xvi, 17 also agree with the number sixty-two. 
The number of monks was sixty-three and Bhanduka is earlier referred 
to as an agataphala (Smp. 81, n. 5), while Sumana was yet a novice 
as may be seen from Smp. 87. 

Notes to the Translation 115 

87. ^ See Dpv. xv, 1 ff., Mhv. xvii, 1 ff. which take up the narrative from 
here to end of Smp. 89. 

2 The three sentences beginning with this are missing at Mhv. See 
Dpv. XV, 2-3. 

3 The King already knows what a thupa is and that rehcs are enshrined 
in thupas. See Smp. 80, n. 2. 

* Situated outside the eastern gate of the city, probably beyond the 
Kadambanadi, with the road to Cetiyapabbata passing through it, and 
also extending further south to the eastern boundaries of the Nandanavana 
and the Mahameghavana. 

^ Mhv. xvii, 12 refers to the bowl relic as well. 
" See Smp. 75. 

88. 1 The Culamani Cetiya, cp. Mhv. xvii, 20 ; s.v., DPPN. 

89. ^ Those who wish to get wet get wet, while others who do not wish 
so remain dry " like water not adhering to a lotus leaf ". See JA, i, 88. 

2 cp. Dpv. XV, 20, 

Catumasam komudiyam divasam punnarattiya 

agato ca mahaviro gajakumbhe patitthito. 
" And the great hero (i.e. the relic) arrived on the day of full moon of the 
month of Kattika and established (lit.) himself on the frontal of the 
elephant." See next note. 

3 Catumasini punnama is the full moon day of Kattika commencing 
on the Uposatha day of Asalhi, and marks the end of the later period 
for keeping Vassa, and thus the end of the fourth month of the Rains- 
period, usually in the phrase komudi catumasini (Miss I. B. Horner). 

* Pandukabhaya built at this site, a shrine dedicated to the cult of 
the yakkha Maheja (Mhv. x, 90). Perhaps Geiger is correct in translating 
Mahejjaghara as the House of the Great Sacrifice : mahd + ij (from 
root yaj-) + ya. The reading at Mhv. xvii, 30, is the same as here, while 
there are many variants which are corruptions due to the term becoming 
unfamiliar quite early. See also JPTS, 1903, p. 46 ; JCBRAS, xxxi, 
p. 306 f. ; s.v., DPPN. 

^ i.e. where the Thuparama was to be built. 

90. 1 For Smp. 90-2, cp. Dpv. xv, 34-64 ; Mhv. xv, 56-159. 

92. 1 Is it an echo of Mandativ off the Jaffna Peninsula ? 
2 Belonging to this kappa. 

93. 1 cp. Mhv. xvii. 32 ff. 

2 Mhv. xvii, 34, is different, 

Attano khandhasamake thane thapanam icchati, 
" Wishes to place it at a height on an equal level with its shoulders." 

^ Built by Pandukabhaya (Mhv. x, 88) ; its modern name is Abhaya- 
vava or Basavak-kulama. 

* Thup. 50. Also see S. Paranavitana, The Stupa in Ceylon. 
5 See Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 119, n. 3. 

^ The miracle of the double which consists of projecting the identical 
double image of the Buddha. Vide DhA. iii, 206 ff. 
7 See J A, iv, 264 ff., s.v., DPPN. 

* cp. Mhv. xvii, 50. 

» Mhv. xvii, 56 ; cp. Divy. 79, 469. 

94. ^ See Mhv. i, Dpv. i-ii. 

2 Mahodara and Culodara : Mhv. i, 45 ; Dpv. ii, 7, 

^ The Ruvanvali Dagoba, built by Dutthagamani and completed by 

Saddhatissa. See Mhv. xxviii, 2 ff. ; Dpv. xix, 10 ; xx, 1 ff. ; Thup. 66 ff. ; 

C. W. Nicholas, ibid., 134 ff. ; s.v.. DPPN, Mahathupa. 

ii6 Inception of Discipline 

*' In Badulla, capital of the Uva. There is no reference to it in Dpv. and 
Mhv. in this connexion, 

^ Built by Saddhatissa, Mhv. xxxiii, 10. Vide Mhv. trsl. 8, n. 1. See 
C. W. Nicholas, ibid., 24 ff. 

* The places mentioned at Dpv. ii, 53 ff. are Kalyani, the sites of the 
Dighavapicetiya, the Bodhi tree at Mahameghavana, and the Megha- 
vanarama, and those at Mhv. i, 71 ff. are Kalyani, Sumanakuta, the foot 
of the Sumanakuta (later called Divaguha), DIghavapi, and the sites of 
the Mahameghavanarama, the Mahabodhi, the Mahathupa, the Thupa- 
rama, and the Silacetiya (the core of the Abhayagiri — Dpv. xix, 16 ?), 
while Smp. mentions three of the places common to both lists and Maha- 
cetiya (-thtipa) and Thuparama in common with the Mhv. list, and 
Mutiyarigana Cetiya is not found in either of the above. 

' Mhv. xvii, 57, refers to him as Mattabhaya, the King's younger 
brother as distinct from his elder brother Abhaya who appears at the 
head of the list of ten brothers with two Tissas, Devanampiya and Sura 
as second and ninth, and Mattabhaya comes fifth in the list. This is no 
other than Mattabhaya as he is referred to later by that name at Smp. 106 
as having been the dhuraggaha at Maha Arittha's Vinaya Recital. See 
also Smp. 86, n. 3. 

* Also called Cetavigama, Mhv. xvii, 59, a village situated to the south 
of the city. 

* Other places mentioned at Mhv. xvii, 59 f. are Viharabija, Galla- 
kapitha and Upatissagama. Dvaramandala was a village near the Cetiya- 
pabbata, Mhv. xxiii, 23. There is at present a village called Dora- 
mandoluwa in the Anuradhapura District. See also W. Rahula, ibid., p. 22. 

95.. 1 SeeVin. ii, 271 ff. 
2 See Smp. 102. 
^ See Smp. 86, n. 1. 

* A seaport in North Ceylon, probably Sambilturai near Kankesanturai 
in Nagadipa (Jaffna Peninsula). See H. W. Codrington, JCBRAS, 1923. 
It appears to have been the principal port of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, 
especially in its intercourse with the countries in the Bay of Bengal. The 
earlier port of Mahatittha on the north-west carried on trade with the 
countries on the western seaboard of India and the lands on the Arabian 
Sea. It was often used by invaders from the Malabar Coast, e.g. Bhalluka — 
Mhv. XXV, 79, seven Damila usurpers — Mhv. xxxiii, 39. See also Mhv. xi, 
23, 38. Jambukola was five days' journey from Anuradhapura and seven 
days' voyage to Patahputta (Mhv. Tika, i, 303). See C. W. Nicholas, 
ibid., 83 ; s.v., DPPN. 

96. 1 Additional line : And thus he informed her, " Your brother the Elder 
Mahinda has sent me here." See footnote in text. 

97. 1 cp. Mhv. xvii, 46 ff. 

2 A dry measure made of wood for measuring corn, etc. Four alhakas 
= one dona. See Rhys Davids, Ancient Measures of Ceylon. 

3 i.e. from Pataliputta to Gaya. See Cunningham, AGI, 521 ff. 

98. ^ Probably a reference to his bhoja-rajano, " feudatory kings." 

2 The eight cardinal points. 

3 It is perhaps due to the fact that the Bodhi tree is a cutting (and not 
a seedling) that it has not grown to the usual gigantic proportions of other 
Bo trees to be seen in India and Ceylon. In spite of its age of nearly 
2,200 years it is a dwarf among Bo trees. See also Smp. 103, n. 1. 

99. 1 The last day of the Vassa. See Smp. 54, n. 3. 

2 i.e. Assayuja, Sept. -Oct. The Sinh. month of Vap. 

3 S.V.. DPPN. 

Notes to the Translation 117 

100. ^ Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 128, translates it as, " eighteen persons from 
royal families and eight from families of ministers . . . etc.," though the 
text does not indicate it. See also Smp. 102, n. 3. 

2 " The Hyena Tribe " — Geiger, Mhv. trsl. 128, n. 2. According to 
him both names Taraccha and " Kulinga ", Mhv. xix, 2, are of totemistic 
origin. These two names appear quite out of place both in the shorter list 
of seven groups in Smp. and the longer list in Mhv. which adds weavers, 
potters, families representative of all the trade-guilds, nagas, and yakkhas. 
Mhv., in addition to changing Kalihga to Kulinga, replaces kutumbikakula 
with setthikila. Taraccha appearing after gopa may suggest that the 
name stood for some occupation (hunters ?) while Kulinga, if the Mhv. 
rendering is correct, can mean " fowlers " who hunt with the kulinga 
or kulinka bird, like those who hunt with the falcon, a bird of the same 
family as the sparrow-hawk (kulinka) . 

3 All Smp MSS. and printed editions agree on the reading Kalihga. 

* Not to be confused with the Vindhya mountains which lie further 

5 Identified with modern Tamluk, then situated on the Ganges estuary. 

101. ^ November-December, Sinh. month of Unduvap. 

2 A winged mythical creature, deadly foe of serpents, cp. garuda. 

102. ^ Also called Samuddapannasala, Mhv. xix, 26, with v. 11. Samudda- 
sannasala, " Hall by the Sea," Samuddasanasala, " the Hall by the Sea 
where it Reposed," and explained in the next stanza, " The edifice that 
was erected there to commemorate the miracle (referred to in the text, 
both Smp. and Mhv.) came to be known here (in Ceylon) as the Samudda- 
pannasala." But according to Smp. the Samuddasala was outside Anura- 
dhapura. Thup. 53 agrees with Smp. If the Mhv. tradition is correct, it 
should refer to another edifice and not to this one. See also C. W. Nicholas, 
ibid., p. 83. 

2 i.e. five flowers with laja, " Dalbergia arboria " as the fifth in the 
usual phrase laja-paiicamani pupphani, s.v. PTS laja. The traditional 
Sinhalese explanation of laja is puffed paddy. 

^ Smp. 100 speaks of eighteen families of royal clan and eight each 
of six other groups while Mhv. xix, 1 ff. has a few more additions. See 
Smp. 100, n. 1. It is difficult to explain the number sixteen, given also 
at Mhv. xix, 31, and lower down in this section in Smp. Probably the 
two numbers reflect two different traditions, the smaller number repre- 
senting the earlier one. Mhv. xix, 67, which refers to the eight setthi 
families only, presents still another problem. 

* As Asoka himself did. See Smp. 99, 100. 

103. 1 Rohini is the ninth asterism corresponding to the constellation 
Tauri with its five stars. From the above description it is to be inferred 
that the Great Bodhi was planted together with the vase. This perhaps 
may be another explanation of its stunted growth. See Smp. 98, n. 3. 

2 See Smp. 97, 99. 

3 Mhv. consistently gives the name as Tivakka. This village was 
situated along the road to Jambukola — Mhv. xix, 37. 

* In all other Pali sources the name occurs as Issarasamanarama, 
" The Monastery for Monks from the Nobility," and not Issaranimmana, 
" Built by the King (or Chieftains)," Mhv. xx, 14 f., also explains the two 
names Issarasamanarama and Vessagiri. It is identified by S. Parana- 
vitana, CJSc (Sec. G), Vol. ii, 182, as the monastery now popularly known 
as the Vessagiri3^a though the set of ruins on the banks of the Tissavapi 
(Tisavava) which Geiger too has mentioned in Mhv. trsl. 133, n. 2, at 
present bears the name Isurumuniya. Popular identifications of places in 
Anuradhapura are often liable to error in view of the jungle tide that 

Il8 Inception of Discipline 

swept over the city for over six centuries prior to the commencement of 
restoration work in 1890. Parana vitana identifies the Issarasamana 
Vihara (also called Kassapagiri) from lithic records of the sixth century 
A.c. in situ (Vessagiriya Inscriptions Nos. 606-609). He also refers to 
rock inscriptions of about the first century a.c, found at Vessagiriya 
which refer to the place as Isiramana, " Hermits' Delight " which he 
thinks represents the earlier name whose learned but inaccurate restora- 
tion in the Chronicles is Issarasamana, while modem Isurumuni is a 
natural development of the former. There, however, is still a possibility 
of the popular identification being correct if the sixth century inscription 
followed those of the first century in interpreting Isiramana as Issara- 
samana for the term Isiramana is certainly a more elegant cpd. in Pali 
than Issarasamana and the Chroniclers would certainly have preferred it 
if it was known to them. The sixth century inscription is more reliable 
as the term Isiramana may have been an epithet and not a name. He 
next attempts to identify the other set of ruins, now known as Isuru- 
muniya, as an ancient Megha-giri-vihara (Artibus Asiae, Vol. xvi, 1953, 
pp. 181 1). See also C. W. Nicholas, ibid., 148. 

^ Modern Kataragama on the right bank of the Manik-gariga. 

* Not identified (Handungama ?). 
' See Smp. 86, n. 1. 

104. ^ See Mhv. xxvii, with Geiger's notes and references in trsl., C. W. 
Nicholas, ibid., 133 f., s.v. DPPN. The reference at Mhv. xv, 205, attri- 
buting a Lohapasada to Devanampiyatissa, also at Mhv. Tika, ii, 364, 
has led most secondary sources to state that this king built the first 
Lohapasada which was rebuilt several times afterwards after the many 
vicissitudes it underwent. 

2 Lit. The Mango Courtyard, not identified ; s.v. DPPN. 

3 Lit. grandson. Mhv. xv, 169 also calls him natta, but explains 
the relationship as Devanampiyatissa's brother Mahanaga's great-great- 

105. 1 See EHBC, 56. 

2 Parivena, perhaps in the later meaning of College. Meghavannabhaya 
was the faithful minister of King Mahasena (a.c. 325-352) who rebelled 
against him for destroying the Mahavihara but was later reconciled when 
the King undertook to restore it. Mhv. xxxvii, 29, refers to several 
parivenas built by Meghavannabhaya. In addition to the parivenas 
of his minister, the King built several edifices at the Mahavihara ; see 
Mhv. xxxvii, 17 ff. 

106. * Lit. " he who has taken the yoke upon himself," i.e. the responsibility 
of handing down the Vinaya tradition. 

2 Vin. iii, 1. 

3 See the Account of the Succession of Teachers, Smp. 63, for the 
full list. 

* The list of Teachers is not brought up to date to the time of Bdhgh., 
but stops short at a point where the Porana tradition and other sources 
of the Pali Commentaries, like the Sihala-atthakatha were finalized. 
See Smp. 63, n. 3, and the Introduction. 

107. 1 Lit. well-conducted. 

2 cp. A. V, 2 ; 312. 

3 Vin. V, 164. 

* See Smp. 2. 

Index I 


The numbers refer to paragraphs. The Index of Proper Names is appended 
at the end of this Index. The letter n after a number indicates that there is 
a note on it in the paragraph referred to. See the Index to the Pali Text for 
untranslated Pali words. 

abiding, the ninefold successive modes 

ablutions, 47 

act(s), bodily and verbal, 21, 106 ; 
misguided, 56, 57 

Act of the Chapter, 54n ; of the 
Order, 6n, 38, 54n 

action, consequent, 61 

adaptability, 25 

admonition(s), 24, 27 (sasana) ; 48, 
85 (ovada) ; 106 (anusitthi) 

aeon, 1, 45 

aggregates, 19, 28, 83, 107 

alms, 38,41.46, 48, 53, 74 

analysis, formal, 25 

Analysis (Vedalla, the Anga), 3 In 

Anga(s), the, 16, 31. 38, 49; the 
Nine, 4, 33, 49 

annihilationists, 62 

application, unitary and multiple, 32 

approval, 13 ; see also sanction 

Arahant, see arahanta, Pali Index ; 
dry-visioned, 4n ; see also canker- 

Arahatship, 11, 12, 43, 47, 52, 86, 103 

army, the fourfold, 50 

artisans, 10 

ascetic, 48, 61 ; naked, 46 ; white- 
robed wandering, 46 

Asoka's campaigns, 44 ; consecra- 
tion, 44, 46, 52, 53. 56, 74 ; con- 
version, 48 ; revenue, 54 ; super- 
natural royal powers, 44 ; Asoka 
disrobes heretics, 62 ; ruler of 
Ujjain, 47 

asseveration, act of, 98 

attainment (s), 1. 29, 94, 102 ; trans- 
cendental, 3n ; see also cessation 

authority, 25 

avoidance. 24. 26, 27 ; the threefold, 

awakened. 1 

bamboo shoots, the three, 78 
banyan tree, 47 

Baskets and, the Three. 4, \Q passim ; 

see pitaka, tipitaka ff., Pali Index 
bathing mantle. 92 
behaviour, repeated wrong, 48. 
being, a pure, 42 
belt. 83. 91 

Birth Stories (Jataka. the Anga). 3 In 
body and speech, the disciplining of, 

bondage, to release from, 65, 66 
border (country, district), 55, 64, 89 
bowl, 48, 83, 88 ; bowl and robe, 8, 9, 

12, 43, 47, 56, 87 
Brahma, see Proper Names ; brah- 

mas, 45 ; cpdd. of brahma, see 

Proper Names and Pali Index 
Brahmanism, 46 
brahmin(s), 41, 42, 46, 48 
brahmin youth, 8, 15, 42 
brothers, the killing of (Asoka's), 44 ; 

the royal family including the ten 

(Devanampiyatissa's), 86 ; the ten 

sons of (Kala) Asoka, 76 
burden, to lay aside, 38 

calamity, 39 

campaigns, Asoka's, see Asoka 
candala (chieftain), 47 ; village, 47 
cankers, 1, 11, 106; cankerless, 11, 

38 ; canker-waned, 4, 28, 36-8, 40, 

49, 50, 79, 106 ; the destruction of, 

carpets, 29 

carriage, 58 ; see chariot 
casuists, 62 
causal modes. 19 
cause. 27 
caves, 86 
cell, 9, 43 
censure, 55 
cessation, 28 ; the attainment of, 94, 

Chapter, the, 54. 55 ; of five, 64 
chapters, the arrangement into, 30, 33 
character, traits of, 25 
characteristics, own, 23 



Inception of Discipline 

charge, to place in, 13, 15 

chariot, 81-3, 85 ; see carriage 

chief in office, 37, 106 

circumambulate, 43, 98 

circumstances, adapted to, 25 

cloisters, see cankama, Pali Index. 

clouds, snowy, 97, 99, 103 

collar-bone, 87, 88. 93, 97 

collection, see compilation, -s, 16 

command, the wheel of, 10 

commentary, 2, 43 ; commentaries, 

compilation, 14 passim ; see sangaha 
and sangiti (recital), Pali Index 

composure, 41, 46 

comprehension, 26 

concentration. 1, 26, 29, 107 

condition(s), 23 ; of innocence, 32 ; 
secondary, of guilt, 32 ; pile of, 25 ; 
transcendental, 23 

conduct, virtuous, 72 

confusion of mind, 29 

connotation. 21-3 

consecration; articles required for 
the, 78 ; Asoka's, see Asoka ; 
Devanampiyatissa's, 74, 79 ; of the 
Great Bodhi, 98, 99 ; of the young 
Bodhi trees, 103 

constructions, new, 49n 

contact, 23 

convent, 95 

conversion, Asoka's, see Asoka ; of 
the Border Kingdoms, 64 ff. ; of 
Ceylon, 73 fi. ; Devanampiya- 
tissa's, 81 

convert, to, 67-72, 75. 86 

(Convocation) of the Elders (Therika) , 
33 ; pertaining to the Five Hun- 
dred, 33 ; pertaining to the One 
Thousand, 62 ; of the Seven 
Hundred, 38 

Convocations, 33 ff., 38 ff.. 62 ff. 

Convocation (s), the, 38, 52. 53 ; the 
(first), 5 ; the First, 20 ; the First 
Great. 2, 3, 33, 34 ; of the Five 
Hundred, the Section Dealing with, 
2n ; the Great, 105 ; the Second, 
38, 40 ; Section dealing with the. 
(i.e., the first), 6n ; the Third, 35. 
37. 62, 63, 64. 106 

convocation hall, 12 ; see dhamma- 

corollaries, 14, 2 In 

couch (of the brahmin youth). 42 ; 
high and comfortable, 83 

course, the wrong, 5n 

court, ladies of the, 83, 95, 96, 103 

criticism, hostile, 5 

day, to the present, 63n. 65, 106 

death, connected with in-breathing 
and out-breathing, 56 

dedication, festival of, 49 ; water of, 

deer-hunt, 56. 77 

defilements, the stains of, 1 . 26. 28 

deity (deities). 47 passim ; assembly 
of. 82 ; king of, 87, 88 ; lord of. 
75. 87. 88 ; of the realm of Brahma, 
98 ; terrestrial, 82 ; world of, 39, 
89 ; see divinity and deva, devata, 
in Pali Index. 

delight, 31, 107 

delusion, 5 

deportment in movements, 47, 48 

desire, 5 

destitutes, to live as, 87 

detachment, 107 

Dhamma, see Pali Index and Proper 
Names ; the fundamental tenets of 
the. 23 ; the realization of the, 65 
passim ; Units of the, 16, 32, 33, 
38, 49 ; the Wheel of the, 3n. 10. 71 

digits, two. 38 

diligence, 11, 19.48.53 

disciple(s), 13, 77-9, 90. 106 ; the lay, 
73, 74 

Discipline, 1 ; adept in the purport 
of, 21 ; amenable to, 22 ; the 
Basket of, 18 ; see vinaya and 
cpdd., Pali Index ; the Code of, 1 

discourse(s). 1, 5, 24, 25. 27. 31, 48, 
61, 65 ff., 81-3; see sutta ff., 
katha and desana, Pali Index ; 
doctrinal, 65 ; on transciency, 8 

Discourse (Sutta, the Ahga), 3 In 

Dispensation, 1, 3 passim ; see 
sasana, Pali Index ; the heir of the. 
50, 51 ; the mainstay of the, In ; 
the roots of the, 105 ; of the 
Buddha, 13. 39, 46, 48, 50. 98 ; of 
the Lord of Ten Powers. 50 ; of 
the Teacher, 53 ; the Ninefold, 4 

dispositions, divers, 25 

dispute. 38, 40, 55, 60, 92 

distraction, 11 

districts, border, see border 

divan, 42 passim ; see pallanka, Pali 

divinity, tutelary, 77, 101 

Doctrine, the Analytical, 62 ; see 
Vibhajjavada, Proper Names 

dogma, philosophical, 39, 54 

dona measure, 97n 

doubt, 58, 60 

General Index 


dream (Asoka's), 59 
duty done, 38 
dyad, 32 

earthquake. 60, 84, 89. 94, 99, 103, 
104, 106 ; see mahabhumicala and 
pathavikampana, Pali Index 

ease, 107 

eel-wrigglers, 62 

efifort, 11 

ego, 25 

Elder(s), 1-12 passim ; see thera, Pali 
Index ; (Mahinda) 52, 55, 64, 73-7 
79-87, 90, 93-5. 103-7 ; (Mogga- 
liputta). 37, 43, 50-2, 55, 58-64 ; 
leader of a group, 98 ; leading, in 
the Sangha, 3, 74 ; the sixty-eight 
Great, 106 ; the Tradition of the, 
1, 52 

Elder (-nun), 51, 95 passim ; (Sahgha- 
mitta) 95, 96, 101, 103 

element, component, 19 ; of Nib- 
bana, 3. 17, 106 

elephant, the state, 83, 87-9 

elephant's frontal, 89 

elephants' stall, 83, 93 

emancipation, 1, 107 ; knowledge and 
insight into, 107 ; the taste of, 17 ; 
of mind, 107 

Enlightenment, the Perfect, 17 ; the 
eye of, 75, 90-2 

end, the highest, 106 

eternalists, 62 ; the qualified, 62 

ethics, popular, 25 

etymology, 42 

evil, 57, 61 

evil-conduct, 29 

exegesis, protracted, 1 

exercises, preliminary, 43 

exertion, 11 

existence, theory of , (1) conscious. 62 ; 
(2) non-conscious. 62 ; (3) neither 
conscious nor non-conscious. 62 

existence to existence, 1 

expediency, 21-3 

expert, 4 passim ; see etadagga, Pali 

exposition, 1, 2, 26, 27 ; method of. 1 

Expositions. 31 ; (Veyyakarana. the 
Anga). see Pali Index 

eye-tooth, 82, 88 

factions, 3 
Factors, 16 
faculties, 46 

failure, 24, 28, 29 

families, eight, of ministers, 100; 
eighteen of royal clan, lOOn ; six- 
teen noble. 102n 

fan inlaid with ivory, 10, 13-15 

fear, a factor among the four wrong 
courses, 5 

festival, 74, 93 ; see dedication 

festivities, 77 ; sacred, 7n 

fifties, groups of, 33 

finiteness, theory of, 62 

fire, the sacrificial, 55 

fires, the five, 55n 

floor-carpets, 83 

flowers of the five colours, 83, 102n 

food, when permissible, 81 

food and raiment, 54 

form, the arising of, 23 

friends who had not seen each other, 

fruits, attained the, 81 ; of the Bodhi 
tree, 99, 103 ; of the First Stage, 
65; of the path, 69-71 ; ofStream- 
Entrantship, 43, 83 

gain and honour, 39, 54 

garments, 29, 78 ; to wave aloft, 98 ; 
white, 62 ; yellow patch-work, 65. 

gate-keeper (Devanampiyatissa as). 

gaze, the offering of, 45 

Gems, the Triad of, 1, 74 

gifts, to Asoka from Devanampiya- 
tissa, 78 ; of Asoka to D.. 78 ; see 
dhammapannakara, Pali Index 

glossaries. 42 

goblins. 72 

gold and silver, the acceptance of, 38 

Great Being, characteristics (32) of, 
45 ; the minor marks (80) of, 45 

group, leader of, 106 


habitation, human, 76 

habits, good moral. 72 

hail-storm, 65 

hall (of justice), 54 ; of meditation. 56 ; 

of tonsure, 47, 86 
halo, 45 

heresy, propounders of, 38 
heresies, the refutation of, 25 
heretical schools, the criticism of, 9 ; 

sects, outside. 46 ; theories. 62 ; 

the sixty-two. 25n ; teachers born 

of the brahmin caste. 46 


Inception of Discipline 

heretics, 9, 39, 54, 55, 62 
hide, the piece of, 58 
humours, 8 

see chajabhiiina ; penetrative, 27 ; 
the threefold, 4n, 29, 62, 106 ; and 
insight, 107 ; of others' minds, 79 

ignorance, 1 

ill-will, a factor among the four wrong 

courses, 5 
immortality, 48 
impassibility, 107 
impermanence, 40 
individual, undesirable, 6 
indolence, 48 
Indulgences, the Ten, 38 
infinitude, the theory of, 62 
influence, 37, see anubhava, Pali 

injunctions, 21 ; authoritative, 25 ; 

the exposition of, 25 
insight, analytic, 4, 29, 38-40, 42, 52, 

62 ; in gradual order, 103 ; of a 

learner, 5 ; of one perfected, 5 ; 

the fourfold, 29 
insight into the Dhamma, 66 ; into 

emancipation, 1 
instruction, 17, 48 ; understood the, 

intention(s), 22, 57, 61 
intercourse, sexual, 14 
intoxicants, drinking of, 72 
Invitation, the (ceremony), 54n, 55 ; 

day, 87, 99n, 106 
Island, the (i.e. Lanka), 63, 75-7, 84, 

94, 102, 103, 106 

Jataka, the Anga, 3 In 

joy, 48, 89, 98, 102, 107 ; and fervour, 

50, 89, 98, 99 
Joy, the Stanza of, 19 
Joy, the Utterance of (Udana, the 

Anga), 3 In 
judgment(s), 1, 39 


kindred topics, 33 ; sections, 33 
King, the (Asoka), 44-6, 48-62, 74, 
87, 88, 96-101 ; (Devanampiya- 
tissa), 75, 77-87, 89, 93-5, 102-6 
kings, consecrated, 98n 
kinsmen, 61, 73 ; the question on, 80 
knowledge, 27 ; analytical, 1, 4, 27, 
29, 38-40, 42, 52, 62 ; the higher, 
3n, 29, 55, 60, 82 ; see abhififia, 
Pali Index ; higher, the sixfold, 35 ; 

labour, 10 

language of the Island, In 

lay-devotee, 47 

Learner, 5n, 1 1 ; the analytic insight 
of a, 5 ; conditions pertaining to a, 

Learning, 4, 13, 24, 28, 29 ; the 
divisions of, 28, 29 ; men of, 1 ; 
the three modes of, 28 ; of the 
Three Pitakas, 62 ; of the Vinaya, 
13, 107 

legacy, 36 

life, the higher, 1 ; the destruction of, 

lineage, 36 ; the protector of the, 3 

lion-window, 46n-8 

liquor, unfermented, the indulgence 
in, 38 

lists, of contents, 33 ; stanzas con- 
taining, 33 

lore, traditional, 42 

lotus-shower, 89n 

love, 23, 48, 65 

lust, 25 


mango, ripe, 104 
mango-tree, the riddle of, 80 
Marvellous Phenomena, 31n ; (Ab- 

bhutadhamma, the Anga), see Pali 

mastery, 40, 106 
mat, 83n 

Matika, 2ln, see Pali Index 
meal, to subsist on one, a day, 72 
meaning, 22, 26, 27 ; differentiated, 

means, the diversity of, 21 
medicaments, 53 
medicines, 54 
meditation, topics of, 43 
mendicants, religious, 46 
merit, 11, 45, 48, 78, 106 ; the field 

of, 1 ; flow of, 1 
meritorious deed, 27 
Message, 83 ; see sasana, Pali Index 
metrical compositions, 32 
mind, pacified, 47, 48 ; concentrated, 

82 ; the emancipation of, 107 
mindfulness as to the body, 1 1 

General Index 


ministrations, 8 

minor marks, eighty, 45 

miracle, 50, 60, 61, 93, 94, 98, 99, 
102. 103, 106; see also twin- 

misdeeds, 21, 25 

missions, the despatch of, 64 ff. 

monastery, the first, 84 

monastery, monasteries, see vihara, 
Pali Index 

monasteries of Rajagaha, 9, 10 

monk(s), 1, 4-10 passim ; seebhikkhu 
and samana, Pali Index ; the 
assembly of, 11, 13, 55, 57. 107; 
the Order of. see Sangha and 
bhikkhusahgha, Pali Index ; at- 
tendant, 8 ; overseas, 1 

morality, 1, 26 ; see also sila, Pali 

moral precepts, the aggregate {or the 
code) of, 28, 83, 107 ; eightfold. 
49 ; the five, 48 ; see precepts 

moral training, 1, 24, 26, 27, 107 

mutability, 28 


Naga King(s), 44, 45, 65 ; the two, 

uncle and nephew, 94 
Naga Kingdom, the offering of, 101 
Name and Form, the distinction 

between, 25 
Nibbana, see nibbana f. and parini- 

bbana ff., Pali Index ; of this Ufe. 

the theory of, 62 
Nikaya(s), 15. 16, 30, 38 ; the five, 

15, 16. 63 ; the four, 15 
Nissaggiyapacittiya, 14 
Non-Returner, 36, 37 
novice, 43, 47, 48, 73 passim ; 

(Sumana), 73, 74, 82, 87-9, 96, 99, 

nun, 50, 52 ; see also Elder(-nun) 


object, visual and auditory, 23 

objective, 22 

obligations, major and minor, 107 

oblivion, 3 

obstacles, 1 

occasion, 2, 14, 15, 34. 35 ; of the 

Vinaya, 106 
offence(s), 14, 25 ; the demarcation of 

the threefold delimiting factors of, 

office, chief in, 37, 106 

Omniscience, 19 

Once-Returner, 36, 37 

Order, the. 1, 6, 13, 15, 38, 49, 52, 
54, 62, 78, 97, 98, 104 ; of monks, 
see bhikkhusangha, Pali Index ; to 
admit into the, see pabbajeti, Pali 
Index ; to enter the, see pabbajati, 
Pali Index 

ordination, 42, 43, 48, 51, 54, 107 ; 
aspirant for. 81 ; the higher. 48. 
52. 64, 107 ; of womenfolk, 95 

Pacittiya, 14 

paddy, a heap of, 93 

palace, inner apartments of the, 46, 

palanquin, 58, 78 
Parajika, 14, 2 In, 34 
parasol of state, 45, 48, 78, 87-9, 103 
partridge, 61 
past, in the. In 
path, developed the, 28 ; the fruits 

of the, 69-72 ; skilled in the, 63 
Patidesaniya, 14 
Patimokkha, 20, 2 In 
pavihon, 10. 83. 105 
pearl, eight varieties of, 78 
perfected, the man, 23 
perfection, 5 
person, the, 14, 15, 34 
phantoms, 72 
phenomena, of excellence, 23, 27 ; 

psychic, 106 
phonology, 42 
pillar, stone, 105 
Pitakas, the Three, 4, 38, 40, 43, 44, 

52, 62, 63 ; see tipitaka ff. and 

pitaka, Pali Index 
pleasures, sensual, 3 
Porana, 63n. 74. 75 
postures. 1 1 passim ; see iriyapatha, 

Pali Index 
potentialities, latent, 47 
power, psychic, 40, 49, 65-7, 72, 74, 

79, 89, 106 ; and see cpdd. of iddhi, 

Pali Index 
powers, royal, 44, 105 ; supernatural 

(or potency), 12, 44, 45. 47, 49, 56, 

78, 91-3, 97, 102 ; see anubhava, 

Pali Index 
practices, manifold distinctive modes 

of, 21 
praise and blame, 15 
precedence, the order of, 106 
precedent, to follow (the indul- 
gence). 38 


Inception of Discipline 

preceptor, 43, 47, 48. 52, 73 
precepts, 28, 48, 49, 72 ; see moral 

precepts (sila), the ten, 95 
pre-eminent, 13 
pregnancy, 47 
principles, 48 
profundity, 24, 26, 27 ; the fourfold, 

26n, 27 
pupils, resident, 52, 59, 63, 106; 

co-resident, 36n-8, 64, 106 
purgative in milk, 8 


qualifications, sufficing, 55 ; inherent 

sufficing, 51 
Queens, the two (Devanampiya- 

tissa's), 85 
questions, the settlement of, 14 


Rains-residence, 6n, 7n, 8, 43, 85-7 

raw-flesh, the smell of, 1 1 

rays, the glorious, 101, 102; six- 

hued, 97, 99, 102, 103 
reality, in accordance with, 25 
realization, 27 ; unequivocal, 27 ; of 

the Dhamma, 65, 67, 72, 82-4, 

recital, see sangiti and cpdd., Pali 

Recital, the Second, 38, 39 
Recitation (Geyya, the Anga), 31n ; 

see Pali Index 
recluse, 41, 42, 46 ; shaven-headed, 

65, 77 
Recluse, the Great, 3 
reflexion, 17 
refuge, to seek, 78 
Refuges (The Three), 48, 65, 72, 78, 

81, 82, 87 
regions, the six heavenly, 39n 
rehearsal, see sangaha, Pali Index 
Rehearsal, the Third, 64 
release, 28 
relic(s), 87-9, 93. 94, 97 ; the casket 

of, 89 ; the ceremony in honour of. 

93, 94 ; pay homage to, 7 
remissness of conduct, 21, 25 
remorse, the absence of, 107 
repairs, 8 ; of dilapidations, 9, 10 
repetitions, 33 
reproach, 28 
requisites, 28, 51, 53, 87 ; the four, 

49n, 54 ; the giver of, 50, 51 

resort (for alms), 107 

restraint, 25, 107 

revulsion, 107 

ritual. 42 

robe(s), 43, 56, 83 ; the outer, 83 ; 

upper, 56 ; yellow, 54, 94, 95 ; 

aglow with the yellow, 65, 79 ; to 

arrange over one shoulder, 13, 15 ; 

to wear yellow (i.e. heretics), 54 
royal grounds (rajavatthu), 102 
royalty, ensigns of, 78 
ruddy-deer, 77 
rugs, lOn, 38 
rule, 14 ; -s, rigid, 21 
rulers, the succession of, 76 

Sacred-word, 3 

sacrifice, 50, 51 

sage(s), 69, 70, 106 ; breeze hallowed 
by, 65, 79 ; sinless (naga), 63, 65, 74, 

Sage of great stability, 1 

salt in horn (the indulgence) , 38 

sanction, 38 

Sanghadisesa, 14 

saplings (the three bamboo-), 78; 
Bodhi-tree, 103 

Saviour, 50 ; see World 

screens, an enclosure of, 62 

seat, preacher's 10, 13-15, 106; 
president's, 10, 14 

Sekhiya, 14 

self -controlled, 47, 48 

seniority, the order of, 12 

sensations, 23 

sense-data, 23 

senses, controlled, 48 ; guarded, 47, 

sentiment, uniformity in, 16, 17 

service, 50 

sima, 38n, 52n ; see Pali Index 

Sons (of the Buddha), In 

sooth-sayers, 83 

sovereignty of Jambudipa, the dedi- 
cation of the, 99-101 ; of Tamba- 
panni, the dedication of the, 102 

speech, see body and speech 

stains (of the Dispensation), 62 

Stanzas (Gatha, the Ariga), 3 In, see 
Pali Index 

state, immortal, 40 ; -s, waxed great, 
immeasurable, incomparable, 23 

statements, incorrect, 1 

Stream-Entrant, 4, 36, 37, 43. 83 

striving. 11 

General Index 


subject (vatthu), 14, 15, 32, 34 

subjective, 22 

substratum, free from the material, 3, 

success, 24, 28, 29 
sun-worship, 55 
Sutta, Suttanta, see Pali Index ; 

versed in the, 1 
sword-bearers, 59 

tabulation, 2, 21, 32, 34, 107 

tanks filled with medicaments, 53 

task yet unaccomplished, 5,11 

teacher, 42, 43, 47, 48, 52 (Pali, 
acariya) ; -s, heretical, see heretics, 
fi. ; of yore. In ; the succession of, 
35, 37, 63, 106 

Teacher, the (Sattha), see Proper 

Teaching(s), the, 1, 3-5, 55, 92, 94 ; 
see also sasana, Pali Index (sa- 
maya), 62 ; the Exalted Universal 
Monarch of the Good, 45 ; the 
Good, 1, 3, 38, 40, 63, 107 ; of the 
Master, 55 

teachings, 28 ; adapted to circum- 
stances, 25 ; the exposition of 
popular, 25 ; necessitated by trans- 
gression, 25 ; set out in accordance 
with reality, 25 

tendencies, latent, 27 

terms, the analysis of, 32 

Texts, Sacred, 1, 14, 26; and 
meaning, 107 

thought-process, 32 

Thus Saids (Itivuttaka, the Anga), 
31n ; see Pali Index 

tongue, different. In 

tooth cleaner, 43, 44 ; stick, 43 

tour, missionary, 8 

tradition, textual, 1 

training, see sikkha, Pali Index 

training, the methods of. In ; in- 
dividual intent on, 107 ; the three- 
fold, 26 

transgressions, 25, 26 ; physical and 
verbal, 21, 106 

treasurer, the mode of learning of a, 

treasures (Devanampiyatissa's) , 78 ; 
of the Dhamma, to shower upon, 

Treatises, the seven (Abhidhamma), 

triad. 32 

truth, the absolute, 25 ; ultimate, 25 ; 

he who had visioned the, 74 
Twin-miracle, 93, 97 


undertaking, gigantic, 6 
upheavals in the Dispensation, 55 
uposatha, 38n passim ', see Pali 

Index ; -hall, 104 ; the day of 

the, 87, 99 
uprising, frontier, 55 
Utterance, mixed prose and verse, 5n 

passim ; see Recitation, and geyya, 

Pali Index 

vase, golden, 97-9, 103 
Viceroy (Prince Tissa), 51, 56 
views, divergent, 62 ; perverse, 25 ; 

wrong, 29 ; see also heretical 
Vinaya and cpdd., see Pali Index ; 
the essential rules of the (abhi- 
vinaya), 23 ; the learning of the, 
13, 107 ; the legacy of the, 36 ; 
the lineage of the, 36 ; the perfec- 
tion of knowledge in the, 36, 37 ; 
the retention of the, 13 ; tradition, 
36 ; in the Khuddakanikaya, 15n 
virtues, 1, 29; transcendental, 48 
volition, 61 


water-snake, the simile of the, 28 

water-strainer, 90 

whey, the indulgence in, 38 

will, to, 61 ; resolution of, 42, 60, 
77, 82, 93, 95, 97 ; the five great 
resolutions of, 97 ; determination 
of, 42, 95, 97 

wisdom, 1,26, 31 

wish, the express, 5 

womenfolk, to admit, into the Order, 

World of Brahma, see Brahma, 
Proper Names 

world of men, 39 

World, the Lord of the, 3 ; the 
Saviour of the, 50 ; the Unveil- 
ing of the, 50 

yellow-robe, see robe 


Inception of Discipline 

Index II 

Abhaya (1), Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Abhaya (2), king of Ceylon, 76 
Abhaya(3).kingof Ojadipa, 90 ^ 
Abhaya (4), Devanampiyatissa's 
brother, 94n ; see Mattabhaya 
Abhaya (5), see Dutthagamani 

Abhayapura, capital of Ojadipa, 90 
Abhaya vapi, 93n 
Abhidhammapitaka, 20, 24-6, 30, 31, 

Aggibrahma, Asoka's son-in-law, 51, 

Aggikkhandhupama Suttanta, 68n, 

Ahoganga, 55n 
Ajatasattu, 10, 15, 76, 105 
Alakadeva, missionary to the Hima- 
layan region, 7 In 
Amaravati, 50n 
Ambalatthika, 15 
Ambangana, 104n 
Ambatthala, 77n 
Anamatagga, -ggiya, 67, 84n ; -pari- 

yaya, 67n 
Ananda, the Elder, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11-13, 

15. 18,31,38 
Ahguttaranikaya, 15, 20, 30, 33 
Anotatta, the lake (Anotattadaha) , 

44n, 78 
Anula, the Princess (AnuladevI), 83, 

95, 96, 103 
Anuradhapura, 75, 83, 93, 102 
Anuruddha (1), the Elder, 7, 8, 38 
Anuruddha (2), king of Magadha, 76 
Apadana, 20 
Apannakajataka, 31 
Aparanta, 64, 68n ; -ka, 68; see 

Western Lands 
Appamadavagga, 48 ; see Diligence, 

the Chapter on 
Aravala (1), the lake, 65 
Aravaja (2), the Naga King, 65n 
Arittha (1), 63, 86n, 106 ; see Maha- 

Arittha (2), 95, 96, 101. 103 ; see 86n 
Asandhimitta, Asoka's Queen, 44 
Asivisopama Suttanta. 65n, 83 
Asoka (1), 44, 46-8, 51-3, 74, 
76, 78. 79. 87, 88, 97, 101 ; see also 
Dhammasoka, the Kingand General 

Asoka (2), 76 ; see Kalasoka 

Asoka Monastery, the Great (Asoka" 

mahavihara). 49, 55, 56. 62, 73 

see the next 
Asokarama, 48, 49, 50 
Ayupali, the nun, 52 

Bhadda, Mahinda's companion, 63 ; 

same as the next 
Bhaddasala, 64, 74 
Bhagava, see Exalted One 
Bhanduka, the lay companion of 

Mahinda, 73. 74 
Bhikkhunivibhahaga. 14 
Bindusara. 44. 46. 47. 76 
Bodhi, the Bodhi Tree, 75, 93, 95. 

97. 103 
Bodhi, the young Bodhi-trees. 103 
Bodhi, the Great. 94-104 
Brahma. lOn, 39-42. 45, 51. 82, 98. 

99, 102 
Brahma, the abode of, 10 
Brahma, the world of, 39-42, 51. 82. 

99. 102 
Brahma, the deities of the hosts of, 98 
Brahmadatta, the brahmin youth, 15 
Brahmajala, 15n, 20, 30. 72 ; see the 

Brahmajala Suttanta, 72 
Buddha. 1. 2, 10. 11, 32. 34. 35. 45, 

54, 78, 79, 91, 104, 106; see also 

Enlightened One. 
Buddha, the Dispensation of the. 13. 

39. 46. 48. 50. 98 
Buddha, the form of the, 97 
Buddha, the power of the. 90, 93 
Buddha, the word of the [or sayings 

of). 15, 16. 18. 19. 29-33, 39-41, 

43, 82 
Buddhas, 11, 45, 92, 93; see also 

Enlightened One(s) and the Pre- 
vious Enlightened Ones 
Buddha-manta, 42 
Buddharakkhita, Vinaya teacher of 

Ceylon, 63 
Buddhasiri, the Elder, 1 
Buddhavamsa, 20 

Candagutta, 76 
Candanagama. 103n 
Candavajji. the Elder, 40, 43 

Index of Proper Names 


Cariyapitaka, 20 

Cetaka. the Elder, 8 

Cetaligama, 94n 

Cetiyagiri, 85-8 ; see the next 

Cetiyapabbata, 75, 90, 103 ; see 

Chaddanta lake, 44n 
Chata(ka) mountain (Chatakapab- 

bata), 78n 
Cittapariyadana Sutta, 20, 30 
Cittayamaka, 42n 
Culabhaya, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Culadeva, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Culahatthipadopama Sutta, 81 n 
Culanaga, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Culavedalla Sutta, 31n 


Dhammapalita, Vinaya teacher of 

Ceylon, 63 
Dhammarakkhita, the Yona, 56n, 64, 

Dhammasangani, 20 
Dhammasoka, 39 ; see Asoka (1) 
Dhatukatha, 20 

DTgha, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 
Dighanikaya, 8, 15, 20, 30, 33 
Dighasumana, Vinaya teacher of 

Ceylon, 63, 106 
Dighavapicetiya, 94n 
Diligence, the Chapter on, 48 
Dipavamsa, 78 
Divine Messengers, see Devaduta 

Dundubhissara, missionary to the 

Himalayan region, 7 In 
Dutthagamani Abhaya, 104, 105 
Dvaramandala. 94n 

Dakkhinagiri, the district (-jana- 

pada), 73n 
Dasaka, the Elder, 35, 36, 63 
Death (Maccu), 48 
Deva (1), Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Deva (2), the Alderman, 74 
Devaduta Sutta (nta), 66n, 83 
Devakutapabbata, 90 
Devanampiyatissa, 73-8, 87, 96, 102, 

105 ; see also Tissa (5) and the 

King, in the General Index 
Devatasamyutta, 30 
Devi, Mahinda's mother, 74 
Dhamma, the, 1, 3-6, 9, 13, 15, 19. 

26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35, 38, 49, 52, 54, 

55, 62, 78, 81, 90-2, 107 ; the 

banner of, 103 ; the compilation 

of, 10, 35 ; discourse on, 65, 83 ; 

the eye of (insight into), 66 ; the 

gift of 78 ; the King of, 77, 79, 106 ; 

listening to, 82 ; the nectar of, 68 ; 

the noble, 1 ; preachers of, 58 ; 

the reahsation of, 65, 67, 72, 82-4, 

90-2 ; the rehearsal of, 5, 64 ; 

shower of the treasures of, 83 ; 

Units of, 16, 32, 33, 38, 49 ; versed 

in, 54 ; wheel of, 10. 
Dhamma, the Turning of the Wheel 

of the, 71 
Dhamma and Vinaya, 3, 16, 18, 33, 

43, 55 ; the compilation of, 10 
Dhammacakkappavattana Suttanta, 

Dhammapada, 20, 31, 48 
Dhammapali, the nun, 52 

Enlightened One, 1, 3, 13, 102 ; see 
Buddha ; the functions of, 3 ; 
the Perfectly, 13, 45, 62, 75, 76, 
87, 89, 94, 102 

EnUghtened Ones, three previous, 
93 ; Perfectly, 90, 92, 95, 102 

Exalted One, 2, 3, 5, 8-11, 14, 17, 
25, 29, 34-6, 38, 75, 76, 90-3, 95, 
97, 102, 104. 106, 107 ; see Bhagava. 

Fragrant Chamber (Gandhakuti), 8 

Gabled Hall (Kutagarasala). 38 

Gandamba, 93 

Gandhara, see Kasmira-Gandhara 

Ganges, 58, 59, 78, 100 

Gotama, the Recluse, 9 

Great Wood (Mahavana), 38 


Himalayas, 44, 65, 71 ; the districts 
bordering the, 64, 71 

Iddhiya, see Itthiya 
Inda, 23 ; see also Sakka 
Indagutta, the Elder, 49 
Issaranimmana Monastery, 103n 


Inception of Discipline 

Itivuttaka, 20, 31 

Itthiya, Mahinda's companion, 63, 
64, 73-5 

Jambudipa, 35, 37. 39, 44, 48, 50, 

63, 75-7, 79. 87. 98-101 ; see 

Jambukola. 95n, 101-3 
Jambusiri, the (is) land of (Jambu- 

sirivhaya dipa), 35, 63 ; see 

Jataka,20, 31 

Jayanta, king of Mandadipa, 92 
Jeta Grove. 8 ; see the next 
Jetavana Monastery, 8 
Jetthamula, the month. 74 ; the 

asterism (nakkhatta), 77 
Jivaka's Mango Grove (-ambavana), 

Joti Grove (-vana), Nandanavana 

renamed, 84 


Kacaragama, 103n 
Kakandakaputta, see Yasa 
Kakusandha, the Buddha, 90, 102 
Kala, the Naga King, 45 
Kalakarama Suttanta, 70n 
Kalasoka, 38, 76 ; see Asoka (2) 
Kalasumana, Vinaya teacher of 

Ceylon, 63, 106 
Kalinga, the natives of (Kalihga- 

kula), 100 
Kalyanicetiya, 94 n 
Kantakacetiya, 86n 
Kasmira-Gandhara, 64, 65 
Kassapa, the Buddha, 92. 102 
Kassapa, the Elder, see Mahakassapa 
Kassapagotta, missionary to the 

Himalayan region, 7 In 
Kathavatthu, 20, 62 
Kattika, the month. 87. 99 
Khandhaka, 14. 19, 20, 31 
Khattiya, 56, 68 

Khema, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 
Khuddakanikaya. 15. 20n, 30, 33 
Khuddakapatha, 20, 31 
Khujjasobhita, Ananda's saddhi- 

viharika, 38 
Konagamana, the Buddha, 91, 102 
Kontiputtatissa, the Elder, 53 
Kurundi, In 
Kusinara, 3n, 4 
Kutagarasala, see Gabled Hall 

Lanka, the Island of, 74, 83. 97, 98 ; 

see also Tambapanni and the Island 

(General Index) 
Lohapasada. 104n 
Lord of great compassion. 1 ; of Ten 

Powers. 5 passim ; see dasabala in 

Pali Index ; of the World. 3 
Lands, the Western, 64, 68n ; see 



Maccu, see Death 
Maggasira, the month. 101. 102 
Maha-appamada Sutta. 85n 
Maha-arittha, 63, 86n. 105, 106 ; see 

also Arittha (1) 
Maha-atthakatha, In 
Mahabodhi, see Bodhi and Bodhi. the 

Mahabrahma, see Tissa (6) 
Mahacetiya, 94n, 97, 104 
Mahadeva (1), Mahinda's acariya at 

ordination and missionary to 

Mahimsakamandala, 52n. 64n, 66 
Mahadeva (2), companion of Maj- 

jhima (v.l.. Sahadeva), 7 In 
Mahadeva (3), Buddha Kakusandha's 

disciple. 90 
Mahadeva (4). Asoka's minister. 97 
Mahadhammarakkhita, missionary to 

Maharattha, 64, 69 
Mahakassapa, the Elder, 3-8, 13-5, 

33-5, 38. 62 
Maha-Mahinda, 87. 106 ; see Mahinda 
Mahamegha Pleasure-grove (-van'uy- 

yana). 84, 102 ; see Meghavana 
Mahanaga, Vinaya teacher of 

Ceylon, 63 
Mahanaga Grove (-vana), 89 ; see the 

Mahanaga Pleasure-grove (-van'uy- 

yana), 87, 88, 102 
Mahanaradakassapa Jataka, 69n 
Mahapaccariya, In 
Mahapunnama Sutta 3 In 
Maharakkhita, missionary to the 

Yonaka Kingdoms, 64, 70 
Maharattha, 64, 69 
Mahasahgiti, see Convocation, the 

Great (General Index) 
Mahasirisabodhi, see Sirisabodhi, the 

Mahasiva, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Mahasumana. disciple of Buddha 

Konagamana. 91 

Index of Proper Names 


Mahavaruna, the Arahant, Nigrodha's 
acariya, 47 

Mahavibhanga, 14 

Mahavedalla Sutta, 3 In 

Mahavihara, In, 84 

Mahejavatthu, 89n 

Mahinda. 51. 52, 55, 63. 64, 73-7, 
82, 83, 87, 88. 90, 94, 103, 106; 
see also Maha-Mahinda and the 
Elder (General Index) 

Mahisa, Mahisaka, Mahimsaka- (man- 
dala and rattha), 64, 66 

Majjhantika, Mahinda's acariya at 
higher ordination and missionary 
to Kasmira-Gandhara, 52n, 64. 65 

Majjhima, missionary to the Hima- 
layan region, 64n, 71 

Majjhimanikaya, 15, 20, 30, 33 

Malla, 3 

Mandadipa, 92n 

Mahgala Sutta, 3 In 

Mattabhaya, Devanampiyatissa's 
brother, 106 ; see Abhaya (4) 

Meghavana Park, 84 ; Pleasure- 
grove, 94 ; see Mahameghavana 

Meghavannabhaya, the minister, 105 

Missaka mountain (-pabbata), 74. 75. 
77, 83, 84 ; see Cetiyapabbata and 

Moggali, the brahmin, 39-41 

Moggaliputta Tissa, the Elder, 35, 
37, 43, 50-2, 55, 58, 62-4, 97 

Mulakadeva, see Alakadeva 

Mulapariyaya Sutta, 20, 30n 

Munda, king of Magadha, 76 

Mutasiva, king of Ceylon, 73n, 75, 76 

Mutiyanganacetiya, 94n 


Paclnamahasala, see Sala, Eastern 

Pakundaka, Pakundakabhaya, 76n 

Paiicaka (v.l., Pandaka). 65 

Panduvasadeva, 76 

Parajika. the Chapter on (-kanda), 14 

Parivara, 14, 20, 31 

Patahputta, 39, 50, 59, 65, 87, 95, 

Pathamakacetiya, 83n, 103 

Pathamakattika, 106 ; see also Pub- 

Patisambhidamagga, 20 

Patiyarama, 90 

Patthana, 20 

Pava, 4 

Petavatthu, 20, 83 

Phussa, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 

Phussadeva, Vinaya teacher of 
Ceylon, 63 

Pubbakattika, 99 ; see Pathama- 

Puppha, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 

Rajagaha, 6n, 7-9, 15, 73, 75 
Rakkhita, missionary to Vanavasi, 

Ratana Sutta, 3 1 
Revata, the Elder, 38 
Rohana, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 
Rohana, the province of (-janapada), 

Rohini, the asterism (-nakkhatta), 


Naga, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 

Nagadasaka, king of Magadha. 76 

Nalanda. 15n 

Nalaka Sutta. 3 In 

Nalerupucimanda. 106 

Nandana Grove (-vana). 83. 84 ; see 

the next 
Nandana Pleasure-grove (-van'uy- 

yana). 83, 84 ; see Joti Grove 
Nandas, Nine, 76 
Niddesa, 20, 31 

Nigrodha, the novice, 47, 48, 54 
Nigrodha Bodhi, 102 

Oghatarana Sutta, 20, 30 
Ojadipa, 90 

Sabbakami, the Elder, 38, 40 

Sabbananda, disciple of Buddha 
Kassapa, 92 

Saccasamyutta, 83 

Sagatha-vagga, 31 

Sahadeva, see Mahadeva (2) 

Sakka, lord of the deities, 75, 87, 88 ; 
the king of the d. , 87, 88 

Sakkapafiha Sutta, 31 

Sakyan Clan, 5 

Sakyas, the Son of the, 78 

Sala, Eastern, Great (Paclnamaha- 
sala) ,99 

Salha, Ananda's saddhiviharika, 38 

Samacitta Suttanta, 82n 

Samaiifiaphala Sutta, 15 


Inception of Discipline 

Sambala, Mahinda's companion, 63, 

64, 74 
Sambuddha, the Enlightened One, 

Samiddha, king of Varadipa, 91 
Sammaditthi Sutta, 3 In 
Samuddasala, 102n 
Samyutta Collection (-sarigaha) , 

classification into groups of kindred 

topics, 33 
Sanasambhuta, Ananda's saddhivi- 

harika, 38 
Sangha 1 , passim ; see Sangha fi. , 

Pali Index, and Order, General 

Sanghamitta, the Elder (-nun), 51, 

52,56,73,95,96, 101. 103 
Sankharabhajaniya Sutta, 3 In 
Sariputta, the Elder, 82 
Sattapanni Cave. lOn 
Sattha. see the Teacher 
Savatthi, 8n, 93 
Siggava, Vinaya teacher of India, 

Moggaliputta's preceptor, 35, 37, 

Siha. Vijaya's father, 76 
Sihala, the Island of (-dipa), 1 

Sirisa Bodhi, the Great, 102 
Siva, Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 63 
Sonaka (1), Vinaya teacher of India, 

35-7, 63 
Sonaka (2), missionary to Suvan- 

nabhumi, 65, 72 
Sona and Uttara (Sonuttara), mis- 
sionaries to Suvannabhumi, 72 
Subha, the brahmin, 8 
Subhadda (1), the wandering ascetic, 

Subhadda (2), the Buddhapabbajita, 

3n ; the Section dealing with 

(Subhaddakanda) , 4n 
Subhakuta, 92 
Subha Sutta, 8n 
Sudinna, son of Kalandaka (K- 

putta), 14 
Sumana (1), Anuruddha's saddhivi- 

harika, 38 
Sumana (2), Asoka's brother, 47 
Sumana (3), the novice, 73, 74, 82, 

87, 88, 96, 97, 99, 102 
Sumana (4), Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Sumana (5), another Vinaya teacher 

of Ceylon, 63 
Sumana, wife of Sumana (2), 47 
Suppiya, the wandering ascetic, 15 
Susunaga, 38n, 76 

Suttanipata, 20, 31 
Suttantapitaka, 20 ; see the next 
Suttapitaka, 24-6, 33 
Suvannabhumi, 64, 72 
Suvarinakuta, 91 

Tamalitti, lOOn 

Tambapanni, 63, 64, 73-8, 82, 83, 

87, 88, 93. 94, 96, 102, 105 ; see 

Taraccha, lOOn 
Tathagata, 1, 5, 7, 31, 35, 38, 44, 50 ; 

the sayings of the T., 31 
Tavakka, the village of the brahmin, 

Teacher, the (Sattha), 3, 4, 7-9, 48. 

Theragatha. 20, 31 
Theravada, 1 , 52 
Therigatha, 20, 31 

Thuparama, 89, 90, 92, 94, 97, 103-6 
Tipitaka, 4 passim ; see Pali Index, 

S.V., and Baskets, General Index 
Tissa (1), Asoka's brother, 44, 51, 56, 

Tissa (2), Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Tissa (3), another Vinaya teacher of 

Ceylon, 63 
Tissa (4). still another Vinaya teacher 

of Ceylon, 63 
Tissa (5), 77 ; see Devanampiyatissa 
Tissa (6), the Great Brahma, 39-41 
Tissa (7) . see Moggaliputta Tissa 
Tissadatta. Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

63, 106 
Tittira Jataka, 61 
Tuvataka Sutta, 31 


Udana, 20, 31 

Udayabhadra, king of Magadha, 76 

Udumbara Bodhi, 102 

Ujjeni, 47, 74n 

Upali (1), the Elder, 2. 13. 14, 18. 

34-6, 63 
Upali (2), Vinaya teacher of Ceylon, 

Upatissa, king of Magadha, 76 
Upavattana, the Sala Grove, 3 
Uttara, missionary to Suvannabhumi, 

64, 72 
Uttiya, companion of Mahinda, 63, 


List of Untranslated Pali Words 


Vaddhamana, city of Samiddha, 91 

Vajji, 38 

Vajjiputtaka, 38 

Valukarama (in Vesali) , 38 

Vanavasi, 64, 67 

Varadipa, 91 

Vasabhagami, Anuruddha's saddhi- 

viharika, 38 
Vebhara mountain (-pabbata), lOn 
Vedas, the three, 42 
Vedisa, 73, 74 
Vedisagiri, 75 ; the Great Monastery 

of, 74 
Vedisa mountain (-pabbata), 75 
Vediya, see Vedisa 
Veraiija, 2, 34, 35, 106 
Vesali, 14n, 38 
Vibhajjavada, 62 
Vibhaiiga (in Abhidhamma), 20 
Vibhanga (in Vinaya), 14, 20, 21, 31 
Videhan Princess, the son of (Vedehi- 

putta), 15 
Vijaya, first king of Ceylon, 76 

Vimanavatthu, 20, 83 

Vinayapitaka, 2, 14, 18, 20, 24-6, 
30, 33-5, 37, 43, 63, 106; see 
also vinaya ff. in Pali Index, Disci- 
pline, and Basket of Discipline, in 
General Index, 

Viiijha forest (Viiijhatavi), lOOn 

Visakha, the month, 3n, 79 

Visala, city of Jayanta, 92 

Vissakamma, lOn, 97 

Vuttiya, see Uttiya 

Yamaka. 20 

Yasa, son of Kakandaka, 38, 62 

Yona, Yonaka, 70 

Yonaka Kingdom (Yonakarattha) , 

70n ; see the next 
Yona World, 64n, 70 
Yonakadhammarakkhita, see Dham- 

marakkhita, the Yona 
Yonakamahadhammarakkhita, 56n ; 

see Dhammarakkhita, the Yona 

Index III 






















































T. Samantapasadika, Vol. I, edited by J. Takakusu and 
M. Nagai, Pali Text Society, London, 1924. 

P. Samantapasadika nama Vinayatthakatha, edited by Ven. 
Baddegama Piyaratana and Ven. Valivitiye Sorata, Simon 
Hewavitarne Bequest, Vol. XXVII, Colombo, 1929. 

0. The Historical Introduction to Buddhaghosa's Samanta- 
pasadika, in the Vinaya Pitakarn, Vol. Ill, edited by 
Herman Oldenberg, London, 1881. 

E. Samantapasadika nama Vinayasamvannana, Vol. I, U. P. 

Ekanayaka, Colombo, 1915. 
V. Samantapasadika, Vol. I, Ven. K. Siri Visuddhi, Kosgoda, 

Ay. Vinaya Samantapasadikay'atthayojana, PaMasekhara 

Maha Nayaka Thera, Colombo, 1924. 

Sp. Siamese printed text of Samantapasadika. 
Bp. Burmese printed text of Samantapasadika. 

Sum. Sumangalavilasini, Vol. I, edited by T. W. Rhys Davids 
and J. E. Carpenter, Pali Text Society, London, 1886. 



Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa. 

Samvannanaya Arambho 

Yo kappakotihi pi appameyyam 

kalam karonto atidukkarani/ 

khedam gato lokahitaya natho : 

namo mahakarunikassa tassa. i 

Asambudham ^ buddhanisevitam yam 

bhavabhavam gacchati jivaloko, 

namo avijjadikilesajala- ^ 

vidhamsino dhammavarassa tassa. 2 

Gunehi yo silasamadhipaiina- 
vimuttinanappabhutihi yutto, 
khettam jananam kusalatthikanam 
tarn ariyasangham sirasa namami. 3 

Ice' evam accantanamassaneyyam * 
namassamano ratanattayam yam, 
punnabhisandam vipulam alattham ; 
tassanubhavena hat'antarayo. 4 

1 T. karani ; all other texts read dental n. 

2 T. -buddham ; all other texts agree on -budham, explained as abhisam- 
bujjhanto in Ay. 

3 Differences in orthography from T. and O. will not be noted down here. 
In this text long vowels are transliterated as a, i, u, except when they are 
sandhi-products when they are represented as a, i, u. The niggahita alone is 
represented as rn and the nasal followed by a letter of the guttural class as n. 
The apostrophe is not used when the initial i of iti coalesces with the final 
vowel of the preceding word. T. uses the macron for all long vowels including 
sandhi-products while O. uses the circumflex mark throughout. O. does not 
use the symbol h at all, while T. is not uniform. The variation in the use of 
the cerebral letters n, 1, will also not be noted unless there is a special reason 
for noting it down. 

* P. -niyam. 


136 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Yasmim thite sasanam atthitassa 
patitthitam hoti susanthitassa, 
tarn vannayissam vinayam amissam 
nissaya piibbacariyanubhavam. 5 

Kamafi ca pubbacariyasabhehi 
[2] visuddha vi j j apatisambhidehi 

saddhammasamvannanakovidehi, 6 

Sallekhiye no sulabhupamehi 
Mahaviharassa dhajupamehi, 
samvannito 'y^-^ vinayo nayehi 
cittehi sambuddhavaranvayehi. 7 

Samvannana Sihaladipakena ^ 
vakyena esa pana sankhatatta, 
na kind attham abhisambhunati 
dipantare bhikkhujanassa yasma, 8 

Tasma imam palinayanumpam 
samvannanam dani samarabhissam, 
ajjhesanam Buddhasirivhayassa 
therassa samma samanussaranto. 9 

Samvannam tan ca samarabhanto 
tasma ^ Maha-atthakatham sariram 
katva Mahapaccariyam tath'eva 
Kurundinamadisu vissutasu, 10 

Vinicchayo atthakathasu vutto 
yo yuttam attham apariccajanto, 
tato pi antogadhatheravadam 
samvannanam samma ^ samarabhissam. 11 

1 T. Sihara- ; all texts agree on Sihala-. 

2 P.E.V. tassa. 

3 metri causa. 

Arambho 137 

Tarn me nisamentu pasannacitta 
thera ca bhikkhu navamajjhima ca 
dhammappadipassa Tathagatassa 
sakkacca dhammam patimanayanta.^ 12 

Buddhena dhammo vinayo ca vutto 

yo tassa puttehi tatheva fiato, 

so yehi tesam matim accajanta 

yasma pure atthakatha akamsu, 13 

[3] Tasma hi yam atthakathasu vuttam 
tarn vajjayitvana pamadalekham, 
sabbam pi sikkhasu sagaravanam 
yasma pamanam idha panditanam. 14 

Tato ca bhasantaram eva hitva 
vittharamaggan ca samasayitva, 
vinicchayam sabbam asesayitva 
tantikkamam kafici avokkamitva, 15 

Suttantikanam vacananam attham 
suttanurupam paridipayantT, 
yasma ayam hessati vannana pi 
sakkacca tasma anusikkhitabba ti.^ 16 

2. Tattha : tarn vannayissam vinayan ti vuttatta vinayo tava 
vavatthapetabbo, ten'etam vuccati : vinayo nama idha saka- 
1am Vinayapitakam adhippetam. Samvannanattham pan'assa 
ayam matika : 

Vuttam yena yada yasma dharitam yena cabhatam, 
yatthappatitthitan c'etam etam ^ vatva vidhim tato. 

1 T. pati-. 

2 T. p. 3, n. 3, observes : The Chinese translation, a.d. 498, omits the verses 
6-16 chiefly referring to the Sihala atthakatha, while it adds six other verses 
which are not found in Pali. The general purport is something like this : 
(I expound the meaning of Vinaya) " so that the Good Law may long remain 
in the world and all beings fully enjoy its benefit. By the merit of this I desire 
to dispel all evils (hat'antarayo). If one wishes to keep the precept (sila) 
one should keep it (until one is) freed from all sufferings." As to vv. 4 and 5, 
only the first half of 4 and the second half of 5 are reproduced in Chinese, 
though not precisely. 

* T. Differences due to errors in printing will not be generally pointed out. 

138 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhirantddne 

Tenati adipathassa attham nanappakarato 
dassayanto karissami vinayass* atthavannanan ti. 

Tattha : vuttarn yena yada yasma ti idam tava vacanam 
tena samayena Buddho bhagavd Veranjdyam viharatUi evam 
adivacanam sandhaya vuttarn. Idam hi Buddhassa bhagavato 
attapaccakkhavacanam na hoti, tasma vattabbam [4] ev'^etam, 
idam vacanam kena vuttarn, kada vuttarn, ^ kasma ca vuttan 
ti. Ayasmata Upalittherena vuttarn, tarn ca pana pathama- 
mahasangitikale. Pathamamahasangiti nama c'esa kincapi 
Pancasatikasangitikkhandhake suvutta,^ nidanakosallattharn 
pana idhapi imina nayena veditabba. 


3. Dhammacakkappavattanarn * hi adirn katva yava Subhad- 
daparibbajakavinayana katabuddhakicce Kusinarayarn Upa- 
vattane ^ Mallanarn salavane yamakasalanam antare Visakha- 
purinamadivase paccusasamaye anupadisesaya nibbanadhatuya 
parinibbute bhagavati lokanathe bhagavato parinibbane ^ 
sannipatitanarii sattannarn bhikkhusatasahassanarn sanghat- 
theroayasma Mahakassapo, sattahaparinibbute bhagavati Subh- 
addena buddhapabbajitena : alarn avuso ma socittha ma 
paridevittha, sumutta mayarn tena mahasamanena, upadduta ca 
homa, idarn vo kappati idarn vo na kappatiti, idani pana mayarn 
yarn icchissama tarn karissama, yarn na icchissama na tarn "^ 
karissamati vuttavacanarii anussaranto, thanarn^ kho pan'etarn 
vijjati yarn papabhikkhu : atltasatthukarn pavacanan ti 
mannamana pakkharn labhitva na cirass'eva saddhammarn 
antaradhapeyyurn. Yava ca dhammavinayo titthati tava 
anatitasatthukam eva pavacanarn hoti. Vuttarn h'etarn 

1 P.E.V. omitev'. 

2 T, omits. 

3 P.E.V. vutta. 

* O. commences here and proceeds as far as acariyaparamparaya abhatan 
ti at Smp. 106, but omits the lengthy discussion on the division and classifica- 
tion of the pavacana, Smp. 19-33. 

^ Sum. Upavattam, 

^ Sum. dhatubhajanadivase. 

' T. tarn na for na tam. 

8 Sum. adds here : edisassa ca sanghasannipatassa puna dullabhabhavam 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand 139 

bhagavata : yo vo Ananda maya dhammo ca vinayo ca 
desito [6] pannatto so vo mam'accayena satthati. Yannuna- 
ham dhamman ca vinayafi ca sahgayeyyam yatha^-y-idam 
sasanam addhaniyam assa ciratthitikam. Yan caham bhaga- 
vata : dharessasi pana me tvam ^ Kassapa sanani ^ pam- 
sukulani nibbasananiti vatva civare sadharanaparibhogena 
c'eva * : aham bhikkhave yavad eva akankhami vivicc' eva 
kamehi pe pathamajjhanam upasampajja viharami, Kassapo 
pi bhikkhave yavad eva akankhati vivicc' eva kamehi pe 
pathamajjhanam upasampajja viharatiti evam adina nayena 
navanupubbaviharachalabhinnadibhede ^ uttarimanussadham- 
me attana samasamatthapanena ca anuggahito, tassa me kim 
aiiiiam ananyam bhavissati. Nanu mam bhagava raja viya 
sakakavaca-issariyanuppadanena attano kulavamsapatittha- 
pakam puttam : saddhammavamsapatitthapako me ayam 
bhavissatiti mantva imina asadharanena anuggahena anugga- 
hesiti cintayanto dhammavinayasangayanattham bhikkhiinam 
ussaham janesi.® 

4. Yathaha : atha kho ayasma Mahakassapo bhikkhu 
amantesi : ekam idaham avuso samayam Pavaya Kusinaram 
addhanamaggapatipanno mahata bhikkhusanghena saddhim 
pancamattehi bhikkhusatehiti sabbam Subhaddakandam "^ 
vittharato veditabbam. 

[6] Tato param aha : handa mayam avuso dhamman ca 
vinayafi ca sangayeyyama,^ pure adhammo dippati dhammo 
patibahiyati, avinayo dippati vinayo patibahiyati, pure adham- 
mavadino balavanto honti dhammavadino dubbala honti, 
avinayavadino balavanto honti vinayavadino dubbala hontiti. 
Bhikkhii aharnsu : tena hi bhante thero bhikkhii uccinatuti. 

Thero sakalanavangasatthusasanapariyattidhare puthuj jana- 

1 T.O. yatha. 

2 T. tvam me for me tvam. 

3 T, sanani. 

* T. anuggahito instead of c'eva. 
5 P.E.V. -abhifiiiappabhede. 

* E. janesiti. 

' Sum. adds : attham pan'assa mahaparinibbanavasane agatatthane eva 

* T. sangayama agrees with Yin. ii, XI. 

140 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

khu anekasate anekasahasse ca vajjetva tipitakasabbapariyat- 
tippabhedadhare patisambhidappatte mahanubhave yebhuy- 
yena bhagavata etadaggam aropite tevijjadibhede khinasava- 
bhikkhu yeva ek'unapancasate pariggahesi. Ye sandhaya 
idam vuttam : atha kho ayasma Mahakassapo eken'unapafica- 
arahantasatani ucciniti. 

5. Kissa pana thero eken'unam akasiti. Ayasmato Anandat- 
therassa okasakaranattham. Tena h'ayasmata sahapi vinapi 
na sakka dhammasangiti katum. So h'ayasma sekho ^ 
sakaraniyo, tasma saha 2 na sakka. Yasma pan'assa kinci 
dasabaladesitam suttageyyadikam ^ bhagavato * asammukha 
patiggahitam nama n'atthi, tasma vinapi na sakka. Yadi 
evam sekho ^ pi samano dhammasangitiya bahupakaratta 
therena uccinitabbo assa. Atha kasma na [7] uccinito ti. 
Parupa vada vi va j j anat o . 

Thero hi ayasmante Anande ativiya vissattho ahosi, tatha hi 
nam sirasmim paHtesu jatesu pi : na v'ayam kumarako 
mattam aniiasiti kumarakavadena vadati.^ Sakyakulappasuto 
cayam ayasma Tathagatassa bhata culapituputto/ tatra hi 
bhikkhu chandagamanam viya maiiiiamana bahii asekhapati- 
sambhidappatte ^ bhikkhu thapetva Anandam sekhapatisam- 
bhidappattam ® thero ucciniti upavadeyyurn. Tarn parupa- 
vadam parivajjento : Anandam vina sangiti na sakka katurn, 
bhikkhunarn yevanumatiya gahessamiti tarn na uccini. 

Atha sayam eva bhikkhu Anandass'atthaya therarn yacirnsu. 
Yathaha : bhikkhu ayasmantarn Mahakassaparn etad avocurn : 
ayarn bhante ayasma Anando kificapi sekho abhabbo chanda 
dosa bhaya moha agatim ganturn, bahu c'anena ^ bhagavato 

1 P.Sp.V. sekkho. 

2 P.E.V. sahapi. 

3 T. suttam geyyadikam. 

* Sum. omits up to patiggahitam and has apaccakkham instead and adds 
after nama natthi : 

dvasitim Buddhato ganhim dvesahassani bhikkhuto, 
caturasiti sahassani ye 'me dhamma pavattino. 
See Smp. 32. 
5 T.O. ovadati. 
8 T.O. cula-. 
' P.E.V. asekkha- 
8 P.E.V. sekkha-. 
" T.O. bahu vata tena, Vin. ii, XI, bahu ca tena. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand 141 

santike dhammo ca vinayo ca pariyatto. Tena hi bhante thero 
ayasmantampi Anandam uccinatuti. Athakho ayasmaMahakas- 
sapo ayasmantam pi Anandam uccini. Evam bhikkhunam 
anumatiya uccinitena tenayasmata saddhim panca therasatani 

6. Atha kho theranam bhikkhunam etad ahosi : kattha nu 
kho mayam dhammafi ca vinayaii ca sangayeyyamati. Atha 
kho theranam bhikkhunam etad ahosi : Rajagaham [8] kho 
mahagocaram pahutasenasanam. Yanniina mayam Rajagahe 
vassam vasanta dhamman ca vinayafi ca sangayeyyama, na 
afifie bhikkhu Rajagahe vassam upagaccheyyun ti. Kasma 
pana tesam etad ahosi. Idam amhakam thavarakammam koci 
visabhagapuggalo sanghamaj jham pa visit va ukkoteyyati. Ath^- 
yasma Mahakassapo nattidutiyena kammena savesi. Tarn 
Sangitikkhandhake vuttanayen' eva veditabbam. 

7. Atha Tathagatassa parinibbanato sattasu sadhukTlanadi- 
vasesu sattasu ca dhatupujadivasesu vitivattesu addhamaso 
atikkanto. Idani gimhanam diyaddho maso seso, upakattha 
vassupanayikati mantva Mahakassapatthero : Rajagaham 
avuso gacchamati upaddham bhikkhusangham gahetva ekam 
maggam gato. Anuruddhatthero pi upaddham gahetva ekam 
maggam gato. 

8. Anandatthero pana bhagavato pattacivaram gahetva 
bhikkhusanghaparivuto Savatthim gantva Rajagaham gantu- 
kamo yena Savatthi tena carikam pakkami. Anandattherena 
gatagatatthane mahaparidevo ahosi : bhante Ananda kuhim 
sattharam thapetva agato 'siti. Anupubbena pana Savatthim 
anuppatte there/ bhagavato parinibbanadivase viya maha- 
paridevo ahosi. Tatra sudarn ayasma Anando aniccatadi- 
patisamyuttaya ^ dhammiya kathaya tarn mahajanam saiiiia- 
petva Jetavanam pavisitva dasabalena vasitagandhakutiya 
dvaram vivaritva mancapitharn niharitva pappothetva ^ 
gandhakutirn sammajjitva milatamalakaca[9]varam chad- 
detva maiicapitham atiharitva puna yathatthane thapetva 
bhagavato thitakale karaniyam vattam sabbam akasi. Atha 

^ T.O, add ca. 2 j q. aniccatapati-. ' P.E. papphotetva. 

142 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

thero bhagavato parinibbanatoppabhuti thananisajjabahulatta 
ussannadhatukam kayam samassasetum dutiyadivase khira- 
virecanam pivitva vihare yeva nisidi. Yam sandhaya Subhena 
manavena pahitam manavakam etad ^ avoca : akalo kho 
manavaka, atthi me ajja bhesajjamatta pita, app'eva nama 
sve pi upasankameyyamati. Dutiyadivase Cetakattherena 
pacchasamanena gantva Subhena manavena puttho Dighani- 
kaye Subhasuttam nama dasamam suttam abhasi. Atha kho ^ 
thero Jetavanavihare khandaphullapatisankharanam kara- 
petva upakatthaya vassupanayikaya Rajagaham gato. Tatha 
Mahakassapatthero Anuruddhatthero ca sabbam bhikkhu- 
sangham gahetva Rajagaham eva gato. 

9. Tena kho pana samayena Rajagahe attharasa mahavihara 
honti. Te sabbe pi chadditapatita-uklapa ahesum. Bhagavato 
hi parinibbane sabbe bhikkhu attano attano pattacivaram 
gahetva vihare ca parivene ca chaddetva agamamsu. Tattha 
thera bhagavato vacanapujanattham titthiyavadaparimocanat- 
than ca pathamarn masam khandaphullapatisankharanam 
karomati cintesurn. Titthiya hi evarn vadeyyurn : samanassa 
Gotamassa savaka satthari thite yeva vihare patijaggirnsu, 
parinibbute chaddesun ti, tesarn vadaparimocanatthafi ca 
cintesun ti vuttarn hoti. 

[10] Vuttam pi c'etam : atha kho theranam bhikkhunam 
etad ahosi : bhagavata kho avuso khandaphullapatisankhara- 
narn vannitarn, handa mayarn avuso pathamarn masam 
khandaphullapatisankharanarn karoma, majjhimarn masam 
sannipatitva dhammaft ca vinayail ca sangayissamati. 

10. Te dutiyadivase gantva rajadvare attharpsu. Ajatasattu 
raja agantva vanditva, kim bhante agata 'tthati attana 
kattabbakiccarn patipucchi. Thera attharasamahavihara- 
patisankharanatthaya hatthakammain pativedesurn. Sadhu 
bhante ti raja hatthakammakarake manusse adasi. Thera 
pathamarn masam ^ sabbavihare patisankharapetva * ranilo 

1 T.O. etam. 

2 P.E.V. omit. 

3 T.O. pathamamasam. 

* E. sabbaviharapatisankharanam karapetva. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand 143 

arocesum : nitthitam maharaja viharapatisankharanam, idani 
dhammavinayasangaham karomati. Sadhu bhante vissattha 
karotha ; mayham anacakkam, tumhakam dhammacakkam 
hotu, anapetha me bhante kim karomiti. Dhammasangaham 
karontanam bhikkhunam sannisajjatthanam maharajati. 
Kattha karomi bhante ti. Vebharapabbatapasse Sattapanni- 
guhadvare katum yuttam maharajati. 

Sadhu bhante ti kho raja Ajatasattu Vissakammuna nim- 
mitasadisam suvibhattabhittitthambhasopanam ^ nanavi- 
dhamalakammalatakammavicittam abhibhavantam iva raja- 
bhavanavibhutim apahasantam ^ iva devavimanasirim siriya 
niketam iva ekanipatanatittham ^ iva ca devamanussanayana- 
vihanganam * lokaramaneyyakam iva sampinditam datthabba- 
saramandam mandapam karapetva, vividhaku[ll]sumadama- 
olambakaviniggalantacaruvitanam ^ ratanavicitramanikotti- 
matalam iva ca nam nanapupphupaharavicitrasuparinitthita- 
bhumikammam brahmavimanasadisam alankaritva, tasmim 
mahamandape pancasatanam bhikkhiinam anagghani panca 
kappi3^apaccattharanasatani panilapetva, dakkhinabhagam nis- 
saya uttarabhimukham therasanam, mandapamaj jhe purattha- 
bhimukham Buddhassa bhagavato asanaraham dhammasanam 
panilapetva, dantakhacitam vijanim ^ thapetva bhikkhusah- 
ghassa arocapesi : nitthitam bhante mama kiccan ti. 

II. Tasmim ' kho pana samaye ekacce bhikkhii ayasmantam 
Anandam sandhaya evam ahamsu : imasmim bhikkhusanghe 
eko bhikkhu vissagandham vayanto vicaratiti. Thero tarn sutva 
imasmim bhikkhusanghe aiino vissagandham vayanto vicarana- 
bhikkhu nama n'atthi, addha ete mam sandhaya vadantiti 
samvegam apajji. Ekacce "^ bhikkhu ayasmantam Anandam 
ahamsu : sve avuso sannipato ; tvaii ca sekho ^ sakaraniyo, 
tena te na yuttam sannipatam gantum, appamatto hohiti. 

Atha kho ayasma Anando : sve sannipato, na kho pana ^ 
me tarn patiriipam yv'aham ^^ sekho ^ samano sannipatam 

1 T.O. -bhittithambha- ^ x.O. avahasantam iva. 

3 P.E.V. -nipatatittham. * T.O. -vibhanganam. 

5 P.E.V. -viniggilanta-. » P.E.V. add c'ettha. 

'-' P.E.V. omit this passage and begin with : Bhikkhu ayasmantam Anan- 
dam ahamsu. ® P.V. sekkho. 

» Yin. ii, XI, omits. i" P.E.V. sv 'aham, Vin. ii, XI, yo 'ham 

144 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

gaccheyyan ti bahud eva rattim kayagataya satiya ^ vitina- 
metva rattiya paccusamayam cankama ^ orohitva viharam 
pavisitva ^ nipajjissamiti kayam avajjesi, dve ^ pada bhumito 
mutta, appattan ca sisam bimbohanam,^ etasmim antare 
anupadaya asavehi cittam vimucci. Ayam hi ayasma [12] 
cankamena bahi vitinametva visesam nibbattetum asakkonto 
cintesi : nanu mam bhagava etad avoca : katapunno * 'si 
tvam Ananda padhanam anuyunja, khippam hohisi anasavo 
ti. Buddhanafi ca kathadoso nama n'atthi, mama accaraddham 
viriyam, tena me cittam uddhaccaya samvattati. Handaham 
viriyasamatam ^ yojemiti cankama orohitva padadhovanat- 
thane thatva pade dhovitva viharam pavisitva, maficake 
nisiditva thokam vissamissamiti kayarn mailcake upanamesi. 
Dve pada bhumito mutta, sisam bimbohanam asampattarn. 
Etasmirn antare anupadaya asavehi cittam vimuttam ; catu- 
iriyapathavirahitarn therassa arahattani ahosi.® Tena imasmirn 
sasane anipanno anisinno atthito acankamanto ko bhikkhu 
arahattam patto ti vutte, Anandatthero ti vattum vattati. 

12. Atha thera bhikkhu dutiyadivase katabhattakicca patta- 
civaram patisametva dhammasabhayam sannipatita. Anandat- 
thero pana attano arahattappattirn napetukamo bhikkhiihi 
saddhirn na gato. Bhikkhu yathabuddham attano attano 
pattasane ' nisidanta Anandattherassa asanam thapetva nisin- 
na. Tattha kehic'api ^ etam asanarn kassati vutte, Anandassati. 
Anando pana kuhim gato ti. Tasmim samaye thero cintesi : 
idani mayharn gamanakalo ti. Tato attano [13] anubhavarn 
dassento pathaviyarn nimujjitva attano asane yeva attanam 
dassesi. Akasenagantva ^ nisiditi pi eke. 

13. Evam nisinne tasmim ayasmante Mahakassapatthero 
bhikkhu amantesi : avuso kirn pathamarn sangayama dham- 
mam va vinayam vati. Bhikkhu aharnsu : bhante Mahakas- 
sapa, vinayo nama Buddhasasanassa ayu, vinaye thite sasanarn 

^ P.E.V. kayagatasatiya. 2-2 vin. ii, XI, omits. 

2-3 The two phrases are interchanged in Vin. ii. 
* T. -pafiilo evidently a printer's devil, all others -pufino. 
5 T.O. -samatham. « P.V. omit. 

' T.O. asane. * T.O. kehici pi. 

" T.O. akasena gantva. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand 145 

thitam hoti, tasma pathamam vinayam sangayamaLti. Kam 
dhuram katvati. Ayasmantam Upalin ti. Kim Anando 
nappahotiti. No nappahoti, api ca kho pana Sammasambuddho 
dharamano yeva vinayapariyattim nissaya ayasmantam Upa- 
lim etadagge thapesi : etadaggam bhikkhave mama savakanam 
bhikkhunam vinayadharanam yad idam Upaliti. Tasma 
Upalittheram pucchitva vinayam sangayamati. Tato thero 
vinayam pucchanatthaya attana Va attanam sammanni, 
Upalit thero pi vissajjanatthaya sammanni. 

Tatrayam pali : atha kho ayasma Mahakassapo sangham 
iiapesi : sunatu me avuso sangho. Yadi sanghassa pattakallam, 
aham UpaHm vinayam puccheyyan ti. Ayasma pi ^ Upah 
sangham iiapesi : sunatu me bhante sangho. Yadi sanghassa 
pattakallam, aham ayasmata Mahakassapena vinayam puttho 
vissajjeyyan ti. Evam ^ attanam sammannitva ayasma 
Upali utthayasana ekamsam civaram katva there bhikkhii 
vanditva dhammasane nisidi dantakhacitam vijanim gahetva. 

14. Tato ayasma ^ Mahakassapo therasane nisiditva ayasman- 
tam Upalim vinayam pucchi * : pathamam avuso Upali 
parajikam kattha ^ [14] paiinattan ti. Vesaliyam bhante ti. 
Kam arabbhati. Sudinnam Kalandakaputtam ® arabbhati. 
Kismim vatthusmin ti. Methunadhamme ti. 

Atha kho ayasma Mahakassapo ayasmantam Upalim patha- 
massa parajikassa vatthum pi pucchi, nidanam pi pucchi, 
puggalam pi pucchi, panfiattim pi pucchi, anupaiinattim ' 
pi pucchi, apattim pi pucchi, anapattim pi pucchi. Yatha ca 
pathamassa tatha dutiyassa tatha tatiyassa tatha catutthassa 
parajikassa vatthum pi pucchi pe anapattim pi pucchi. Puttho 
puttho Upalitthero vissajjesi. 

Tato imani cattari parajikani Parajikakandam nama idan ti 
saiigaham aropetva thapesum ^ terasa sanghadisesani terasakan 
ti thapesum, dve sikkhapadani aniyataniti thapesum, timsasik- 
khapadani nissaggiyapacittiyaniti thapesum, dvenavutisik- 

^ Yin. ii, XI, omits. ^ p.E.V. add attana va after evam. 

3 T. omits. O. generally agrees with T. in most readings and will be referred 
to when only he differs from T, 

* As at Yin. ii, 286. The next sentence is a summary of the rest of Yin. ii, 
XI, 1, 7. 

^ T. adds bhagavata. ' P.E.Y. Kalandaputtam. 

' T. anuppaiinattim. * T. omits. 

146 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

khapadani pacittiyaniti thapesum, cattari sikkhapadani patide- 
saniyaniti thapesum, paficasattatisikkhapadani sekhiyaniti 
thapesum, satta dhamme adhikaranasamathati thapesum. 

Evam Mahavibharigam sangahani aropetva Bhikkhunivi- 
bhange atthasikkhapadani Parajikakandam nama idan ti 
thapesum. Sattarasa sikkhapadani sattarasakan ti thapesum, 
timsasikkhapadani nissaggiyapacittiyaniti thapesum, chasatthi- 
satasikkhapadani pacittiyaniti thapesum, attha sikkhapadani 
patidesaniyaniti thapesum, pancasattati sikkhapadani sekhi- 
yaniti thapesum, satta dhamme adhika[15]ranasamatha ti 
thapesum. Evam Bhikkhunivibhangam sangaham aropetva 
eten' eva upayena Khandhaka-Parivare pi aropesum. 

Evam etam sa-ubhatovibhahgakkhandhakaparivarena Vina- 
yapitakam sangaham ariilham. Sabbam Mahakassapatthero 
pucchi, UpaUtthero vissajjesi. Pucchavissajjanapariyosane 
paiica arahantasatani sangaham aropitanayen' eva ganasajjha- 
yam akamsu. Vinayasangahavasane UpaUtthero dantakhaci- 
tam vijanim nikkhipitva dhammasana orohitva buddhe 
bhikkhii vanditva attano pattasane nisidi. 

15. Vinayam sangayitva dhammam sangayitukamo ayasma 
Mahakassapo bhikkhii pucchi : dhammam sangayantehi kam 
puggalam dhuram katva dhammo sangayitabbo ti. Bhikkhii : 
Anandattheram dhuram katvati ahamsu. 

Atha kho ayasma Mahakassapo sangham napesi : sunatu me 
avuso sangho. Yadi sanghassa pattakallam, ah am Anandam 
dhammam puccheyyan ti. Atha kho ayasma Anando sangham 
napesi : sunatu me bhante sangho. Yadi sanghassa patta- 
kallam, aham ayasmata Mahakassapena dhammam puttho 
vissajjeyyan ti. Atha kho ayasma Anando utthayasana 
ekamsam civaram katva there bhikk?iii vanditva dhammasane 
nisidi dantakhacitarn vijanirn gahetva. Mahakassapatthero 
Anandattheram dhammam pucchi : Brahma jalarn avuso 
Ananda kattha bhasitan ti. Antara ca bhante [16] Rajagaham 
antara ca Nalandam rajagarake Ambalatthikayan ti. Karn 
arabbhati. Suppiyaii ca paribbajakani Brahmadattaii ca 
manavakan ti. Kismirn ^ vatthusmim. Vannavanne ti.^ Atha 

1-1 P.E.V. (also Yin. ii, 287) omit this question and answer. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand 147 

kho ayasma Mahakassapo ayasmantam Anandam Brahma- 
jalassa nidanam pi pucchi, puggalam pi pucchi. 

Samailnaphalam pan'avuso Ananda kattha bhasitan ti. 
Rajagahe bhante Jivakambavane ti. Kena saddhin ti. Ajata- 
sattuna Vedehiputtena saddhin ti. Atha kho ayasma Maha- 
kassapo ayasmantam Anandam Samannaphalassa nidanam pi 
pucchi, puggalam pi pucchi. Eten' eva upayena panca pi ^ 
nikaye pucchi. 

Panca nikaya nama Dighanikayo Majjhimanikayo Samyut- 
tanikayo Anguttaranikayo Khuddakanikayo ti. Tattha 
Khuddakanikayo nama cattaro nikaye thapetva avasesam 
Buddha vacanam. 2 Tattha vinayo ayasmata Upahttherena 
vissajjito, sesa-Khuddakanikayo cattaro ca nikaya Anandat- 

16. Tad etam sabbam pi Buddhavacanam rasavasena ekavi- 
dham, dhammavinayavasena duvidham, pathamamaj jhimapac- 
chimavasena tividham, tathapitakavasena, nikayavasena panca- 
vidham, ahgavasena navavidham, dhammakkhandhavasena 
caturasitisahassavidhan ti veditabbam. 

17. Katham rasavasena ekavidhani. Yarn hi bhagavata 
anuttararn sammasambodhirn abhisambujjhitva yava anupa- 
disesaya nibbanadhatuya parinibbayati, etthantare pafica- 
cattalisavassani devamanussanagayakkhadayo anusasantena 
paccavekkhantena va vuttarn sabbarn tarn ekarasam vimut- 
tirasam eva hoti. Evam rasavasena ekavidham. 

18. [17] Katharn dhammavinayavasena duvidham. Sabbam 
ev' etam dhammo ca vinayo cati sankham gacchati. Tattha 
Vinayapitakam vinayo, avasesam Buddhavacanara dhammo. 
Ten'evaha : yannuna mayarn avuso dhamman ca vinayan 
ca sangayeyyamati, aham Upahrn vinayarti puccheyyam 
Anandaru dhammam puccheyyan ti ca. Evam dhammavina- 
yavasena duvidharn. 

19. Katham pathamamaj jhimapacchimavasena tividhara. 
Sabbam eva h'idarn pathamabuddhavacanarn majjhimabud- 

1 P.E.V. Vin. ii, XI, omit. 2 q omits from here. 

148 Samantapdsadikdya Bdhiraniddne 

dhavacanam pacchimabuddhavacanan ti tippabhedam hoti. 
Tattha : 

Anekajati samsaram sandhavissam anibbisam, 
gahakarakam gavesanto, dukkha jati punappunam. 
Gahakaraka dittho 'si puna geham na kahasi, 
sabba te phasuka bhagga gahakutam visankhitam, 
visankharagatam cittam tanhanam khayam aj jhagati ; 

idam pathamabuddhavacanam. Keci : yada have patu- 
bhavanti dhammati Khandhake udanagatham ahu. Esa pana 
patipadadivase sabbannubhavappattassa somanassamayana- 
nena paccayakaram paccavekkhantassa uppanna udanagatha 
ti veditabba. Yam pana parinibbanakale abhasi : handa 
dani bhikkhave amantayami vo vayadhamma sankhara, 
appamadena sampadethati idam pacchimabuddhavacanam. 
Ubhinnam ant are yam vuttam etam majjhimabuddhava- 
canam.^ Evam pathamamajjhimapacchimavasena tividham. 

20. [18] Katham pitakavasena tividham. Sabbam pi h'etam 
Vinayapitakam Suttantapitakam Abhidhammapitakan ti tip- 
pabhedam eva hoti. Tattha pathamasangitiyam sangitaii ca 
asangitan ca sabbam pi samodhanetva, ubhayani Patimok- 
khani, dve Vibhangani, dvavisati Khandhakani, solasa Pari- 
varati idam Vinayapitakam nama. 

Brahmajaladicatuttimsasuttasangaho Dighanikayo, Mulapa- 
riyayasuttadidiyaddhasatadvesuttasangaho Majjhimanikayo, 
Oghataranasuttadisattasuttasahassasattasatadvasat thisutta- 
sangaho Samyuttanikayo, Cittapariyadanasuttadinavasuttasa- 
hassapancasatasattapannasasuttasangaho Anguttaranikayo, 
Khuddakapatha - Dhammapada - Udana - Itivuttaka - Suttani- 
pata - Vimanavatthu - Petavatthu - Thera ^ - Therigatha - 
Jataka - Niddesa - Patisambhida - Apadana - Buddhavamsa - 
Cariyapitakavasena pannarasabhedo Khuddakanikayo ti, idam 
Suttantapitakam nama. 

Dhammasahgani, Vibhango, Dhatukatha, Puggalapanfiatti, 
Kathavatthu, Yamakam, Patthanan ti idam Abhidhammapita- 
kam nama. 

1 P.E.V. add ti. ^ p.E.V. Theragatha. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand 149 

21. Tattha : 

Vividhavisesanayatta vinayanato c'eva kayavacanam, 
vinayatthaviduhi ayam vinayo vinayo ti akkhato. 
Vividhd hi ettha pancavidha-Patimokkh'uddesa-Parajikadi- 
satta - apattikkhandha - Matika - Vibhangadippabhedanaya ; 
visesahlmidi ca dalhikammasithilikaranappayojana anuppan[19] 
fiattinaya, kayikavacasika-ajjhacaranisedhanato c'esa kayam 
vacan ca vineti, tasma vividhanayatta visesanayatta kayavaca- 
naii ca vinayanato vinayo ti akkhato. Ten' etam etassa 
vacanatthakosallattham vuttam : 

Vividhavisesanayatta vinayanato c'eva kayavacanam, 
vinayatthavidiihi ayam vinayo vinayo ti akkhato ti. 

22. Itaram pana : 

Atthanam sucanato su vuttato savanato ca sudanato 
suttana suttasabhagato ca suttam ^ suttan ti akkhatam. 
Tarn hi attatthaparatthadibhede atthe suceti, suvutta c'ettha 
attha veneyyajjhasayanulomena vuttatta,^ pasavati c'etam 
atthe sassam iva phalam, pasavatiti vuttam hoti ; siidati 
c'etam dhenu viya khiram, paggharatiti vuttam hoti ; sutthu 
ca ne tayati, rakkhatiti vuttam hoti ; suttasabhagan c'etam,^ 
yatha hi tacchakanam suttam pamanam hoti evam etam pi 
viiinunam, yatha ca suttena sangahltani pupphani na vikiri- 
yanti na viddhamsiyanti * evam etena sangahita attha. Ten' 
etam etassa vacanatthakosallattham vuttam : 

Atthanam siicanato suvuttato savanato ca siidanato, 
suttana suttasabhagato ca suttam ^ suttan ti akkhatan ti. 

23. [20] Itaro pana : 

Yam ettha vuddhimanto salakkhana piijita paricchinna, 
vuttadhika ca dhamma abhidhammo tena akkhato. 
Ayam hi aft/^^saddo vuddhisalakkhanapujitaparicchinnadhi- 
kesu dissati. Tatha h'esa : balha me dukkha vedana abhik- 
kamanti no patikkamantiti ^ adisu vuddhiyam agato. Ya ta 
rattiyo abhinfiata abhilakkhitati adisu salakkhane. Rajabhiraja 
manujindo ti adisu pujite. Patibalo vinetum abhidhamme 

^ E. omits. 2 T. vuttata. 

* T. ca nam. * T. viddhamsiyanti. 

^ E. omits. * P.E.Y. omit no patikkamanti. 

150 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

abhivinaye ti adisu paricchinne ; annamannam sankaravira- 
hite 1 dhamme ca vinaye cati vuttani hoti. Abhikkantena 
vannenati adisu adhike. Ettha ca rupupapattiya maggam 
bhaveti, mettasahagatena cetasa ekam disam pharitva viharatiti 
adina nayena vuddhimanto pi dhamma vutta. Riip^ramma- 
nam va saddarammanam vati adina nayena arammanadihi 
sallakkhaniyatta ^ salakkhana pi. Sekha dhamma asekha 
dhamma lokuttara dhammati adina nayena piijita pi piijara- 
hati adhippayo. Phasso hoti vedana hotiti adina nayena 
sabhavaparicchinnatta paricchinna pi. Mahaggata dhamma 
appamana dhamma anuttara dhammati adina nayena adhika 
pi dhamma vutta. Ten' etam etassa vacanakosallattham 
vuttam : 

Yam ettha vuddhimanto salakkhana pujita paricchinna, 
vuttadhika ca dhamma abhidhammo tena akkhato ti. 

24. Yam pan' ettha avisittham ^ tarn 

Pitakam pitakatthavidu pariyattibhajanatthato ahu, 
tena samodhanetva tayo pi vinayadayo neyya. 
[21] Pariyatti pi hi : ma pitakasampadanenati adisu pitakan 
ti vuccati. Atha puriso agaccheyya kuddala pitakam adayati 
adisu yam kiiici bhajanam pi. Tasma : 

Pitakam pitakatthavidu pariyattibhajanatthato ahu, 
tena samodhanetva tayo pi vinayadayo neyyati. 
Tena evarn duvidhatthena pitakasaddena saha samasarn 
katva vinayo ca so pitakarn ca pariyattibhavato tassa tassa 
atthassa bhajanato cati Vinayapitakam. Yathavutten' eva 
nayena suttafi ca tarn pitakarn cati Suttapitakam. Abhidham- 
mo ca so pitakarn cati Abhidhamma pitakan ti, evam ete tayo 
pi vinayadayo neyya. Evarn natva ca puna pi tesv eva pitakesu 
nanappakarakosallattham : 

Desanasasanakathabhedam tesu yatharaham, 
sikkhappahanagambhirabhavail ca paridipaye. 

Pariyattibhedam sampattim vipattim capi yam yahim, 
papunati yatha bhikkhu tam pi sabbam vibhavaye ti. 

^ T. annamanna-. 

2 E. salakkhaniyatta ; T. lakkhaniyatta. 

^ P. avasittham. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand 151 

25. Tatrayam paridipana vibhavana ca. Etani hi tini pitakani 
yathakkamam anavoharaparamatthadesana, yathaparadha- 
yathanulomayathadhammasasanani, samvarasamvaraditthivi- 
nivethananamarupaparicchedakatha ti ca ^ vuccanti. Ettha hi 
Vinayapitakam anarahena bhagavata anabahullato desitatta 
anadesana, Suttapitakam voharakusalena bhagavata voharaba- 
hullato desitatta voharadesana, Abhidhammapitakam para- 
mat thakusalena bhagavata paramatthabahullato desitatta 
paramatthadesanati vuccati. 

[22] Tatha pathamam ye te pacuraparadha satta te yatha- 
paradham ettha sasitati yathaparadhasasanam, dutiyam 
anekajjhasayanusayacaritadhimuttika satta yathanulomam 
ettha sasitati yathanulomasasanam, tatiyam : dhammapunja- 
matte aham mamati sannino satta yathadhammam ettha 
sasitati yathadhammasasanan ti vuccati. 

Tatha pathamam ajjhacarapatipakkhabhiito samvara-sam- 
varo ettha kathito ti samvara-samvarakatha, dutiyam dvasat- 
thiditthipatipakkhabhuta ditthivinivethana ettha kathitati 
ditthivinivethanakatha, tatiyam ragadipatipakkhabhiito nama- 
rupaparicchedo ettha kathito ti namaruparicchedakathati 

26. Tisu pi ca etesu tisso sikkha tini ^ pahanani catubbidho 
ca gambhirabhavo veditabbo. Tatha hi Vinayapitake visesena 
adhisilasikkha vutta, Suttapitake adhicittasikkha, Abhidham- 
mapitake adhipaMasikkha. Vinayapitake ca vitikkamappa- 
hanam kilesanam vitikkamapatipakkhatta silassa. Suttapitake 
pariyutthanappahanam pariyutthanapatipakkhatta samadhis- 
sa. Abhidhammapitake anusayappahanam anusayapatipak- 
khatta paniiaya. Pathame ca tadangappahanam kilesanam 
itaresu vikkhambhanasamucchedappahanani. Pathame ca ^ 
duccaritasankilesassa pahanam itaresu tanhaditthisahkilesa- 
nam. Ekam ekasmim c' ettha catubbidho pi dhammatthadesa- 
napativedhagambhirabhavo veditabbo. Tattha dhammo ti 
pali,* attho ti tassa yeva attho, desana 'ti tassa manasa 
vavatthapitaya ^ paliya * desana, pativedho ti paliya * pali *- 
atthassa ca yathabhutavabodho. Tisu pi c'etesu ete [23] 

1 T, cati. 2 X. tini. 3 T. omits. 

* T. pali- 5 X. avatthapitaya. 

152 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

dhammatthadesanapativedha ^ yasma sasadihi viya maha- 
samuddo, mandabuddhihi dukkhogaha alabbhaneyyapatittha 
ca, tasma gambhira. Evam ekam ekasmim ettha catubbidho 
pi gambhirabhavo veditabbo. 

27. Aparo nayo : dhammo ti hetu ; vuttam h'etam : hetumhi I 
nanam dhammapatisambhidati. Attho ti hetuphalam ; vuttam 
h'etam : hetuphale ilanain atthapatisambhidati. Desana 'ti 
pafinatti ; yathadhammam dhammabhilapo ti adhippayo. 
Pativedho ti abhisamayo ; so ca lokiyo lokuttaro visayato 
asammohato ca atthanurupam dhammesu dhammanuriipam 
atthesu panfiatti, pathanurupam pafiiiattisu avabodho. 

Idani yasma etesu pitakesu yam yam dhammajatam attha- 
jatam va yo cayam yatha yatha napetabbo attho sotunam 
iianassa abhimukho hoti tatha tatha tadatthajotika desana, 
yo c'ettha aviparitavabodhasankhato pativedho sabbam p'etam 
anupacitakusalasambharehi duppafiiiehi sasadihi mahasamuddo 
viya dukkhogaham alabbhaneyyapatitthan ca, tasma evam 
pi ekam ekasmim ettha catubbidho pi gambhirabhavo 

[24] Ettavata ca : 
Desanasasanakathabhedam tesu yatharaham, 
sikkhappahanagambhirabhavail ^ ca paridipaye ; 
iti ayam gatha vuttattha hoti. 

28. Pariyattibhedam sampattim vipattim capi yam yahim 
papunati yatha bhikkhu tam pi sabbam vibhavaye ; 

iti ettha pana tisu pitakesu tividho pariyattibhedo datthabbo. 
Tisso hi pariyattiyo : alagaddupama nissaranattha bhandaga- 
rikapariyattiti. Tattha duggahita uparambhadihetu pariyaputa 
alagaddupama. Yam sandhaya vuttam : seyyathapi bhikkhave 
puriso alagaddatthiko alagaddagavesi alagaddapariyesanam 
caramano, so passeyya mahantam alagaddam, tam enam bhoge 
va nangutthe va ganheyya, tassa so alagaddo patiparivattitva 
hat the va bahaya va afinatarasmim va angapaccange daseyya, 
so tato nidanam maranam va nigaccheyya maranamattam va 
dukkham. Tam kissa hetu. Duggahitatta bhikkhave alagad- 
dassa. Evam eva kho bhikkave idh' ekacce moghapurisa 

1 T. -desana pativedha, ^ x. sikkhapahana-. 

Pathamamahdsangltivannand 153 

dhammam pariyapunanti suttam pe vedallam. Te tarn dham- 
mam pariyapunitva tesam dhammanam pannaya attham 
na upaparikkhanti, tesam te dhamma pannaya attham anupa- 
parikkhatam na nijjhanam khamanti ; te uparambhanisamsa 
c'eva dhammam pariyapunanti itivadappamokkhanisamsa ca ; 
yassa c'atthaya dhammam pariyapunanti, tarn c'assa attham 
nanubhonti ; tesam te dhamma duggahita digharattam ahitaya 
dukkhaya samvattanti. Tarn kissa hetu. Duggahitatta 
bhikkhave dhammanan ti. 

[25] Ya pana suggahita silakkhandhadiparipurim yeva 
akankhamanena pariyaputa na uparambhadihetu ayam nis- 
saranattha. Yam sandhaya vuttam : tesam te dhamma 
suggahita digharattam hitaya sukhaya samvattanti. Tarn 
kissa hetu. Suggahitatta bhikkhave dhammanan ti. 

Yam pana parinnatakkhandho pahinakileso bhavitamaggo 
patividdhakuppo sacchikatanirodho khmasavo kevalarn paveni- 
palanatthaya vamsanurakkhanatthaya pariyapunati, ayam 

29. Vinaye pana suppatipanno bhikkhu silasampattim nissaya 
tisso vijja papunati, tasam yeva ca tattha pabhedavacanato. 
Sutte suppatipanno samadhisampadam nissaya cha abhifiiia 
papunati, tasarn yeva ca tattha pabhedavacanato. Abhidham- 
me suppatipanno pannasampadam nissaya catasso patisam- 
bhida papunati, tasam ca tatth' eva pabhedavacanato. Evam 
etesu suppatipanno yathakkamarn imam vijjattayam chala- 
bhiiinacatupatisambhidabhedam sampattirn papunati. 

Vinaye pana duppatipanno anuiinatasukhasamphassa-attha- 
ranapapuranadiphassasamafinato patikkhittesu upadinnaphas- 
sadisu anavajjasanfii hoti. Vuttam pi h'etarn : tathahani 
bhagavata dhammam desitam ajanami yatha ye 'me antara- 
yika dhamma vutta bhagavata te patisevato nalam antara- 
yayati. Tato dussilabhavam papunati. [26] Sutte duppatipan- 
no : cattaro 'me bhikkhave puggala santo samvijjamanati 
adisu adhippayam ajananto duggahitam ganhati. Yam 
sandhaya vuttam : attana duggahitena amhe c'eva abbhacik- 
khati attanaii ca khanati bahuii ca apunnarn pasavatiti. Tato 
micchaditthitam papunati. Abhidhamme duppatipanno 

dhammacittarn atidhavanto acinteyyani pi cinteti. Tato 

154 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

cittakkhepam papunati. Vuttam h'etam : cattar* imani 
bhikkhave acinteyyani, na cintetabbani, yani cintento um- 
madassa vighatassa bhagi assA.ti. Evam etesu duppatipanno 
yathakkamena imam dussilabhavamicchaditthitacittakkhepa- 
bhedam vipattim papunatiti. Ettavata, 

Pariyattibhedam sampattim vipattim capi yam yahim 
papunati yatha bhikkhu tam pi sabbam vibhavaye ; 
iti, ayam pi gatha vuttattha hoti. Evam pi nanappakarato 
pitakani iiatva tesam vasen' etam Buddhavacanam tividhan ti 

30. Katham nikayavasena pancavidham. Sabbam eva c'etam 
Dighanikayo, Majjhimanikayo, vSamyuttanikayo, Anguttara- 
nikayo, Khuddakanikayo ti pancappabhedam hoti. 

Tattha katamo Dighanikayo. Tivaggasangahitani ^ Brahma- 
jaladini catuttimsasuttani. 

Catuttims' eva suttanta tivaggo yassa saiigaho 
esa Dighanikayo ti pathamo anulomiko. 
Kasma pan' esa Dighanikayo ti vuccati. Dighappamananam 
suttanam samuhato nivasato ca, samuhanivasa hi [27] nikayo 
ti vuccanti. Naham bhikkhave aiinam ekanikayam pi samanu- 
passami evam cittam yatha-y-idam bhikkhave tiracchanagata 
pana, ponikanikayo,^ cikkhalKkanikayo ti evam adini c'ettha 
sadhakani sasanato ca ^ lokato ca. Evam sesanam pi nika- 
yabhave vacanattho veditabbo. 

Katamo Majjhimanikayo. Majjhimappamanani paiicadasa- 
vaggasangahani Miilapariyayasutt adini diyaddhasatam dve ca 

Diyaddhasatasuttanta dve ca suttani yattha so 
nikayo Majjhimo pancadasavaggapariggaho. 
Katamo Samyuttanikayo. Devatasamyuttadivasena thitani 
Oghataranasuttadini satta suttasahassani satta ca sutta satani 
dvasatthi ca suttani. 

Satta suttasahassani satta suttasatani ca 
dvasatthi c'eva suttanta eso Samyuttasangaho. 
Katamo Anguttaranikayo. Ek'eka-angatirekavasena thitani 

^ T. -sangahani. 2 x.E, poniki-. * T. omits. 

Pathamamahdsangitivannand 155 

Cittapariyadan^dini nava suttasahassani panca suttasatani 
sattapannasa ca suttani. 

Nava suttasahassani panca suttasatani ca 
sattapannasasuttani sankha Anguttare ayam. 
Katamo Khuddakanikayo. Sakalam Vinayapitakam, Abhi- 

dhammapitakam, Khuddakapath^dayo ca pubbe nidassita 

pancadasabheda thapetva cattaro nikaye avasesam Buddha- 

vacanan ti. 

[28] Thapetva caturo p'ete nikaye Dighadike 

tad anfiam Buddha vacanam nikayo Khuddako mato ti. 

Evam nikayavasena paiicavidham. 

31. Katham angavasena navavidham. Sabbam eva h'idam 
suttam, geyyam, veyyakaranam, gatha, udanam, itivuttakam, 
jatakam, abbhutadhammaip, vedallan ti navappabhedam hoti. 
Tattha ubhato-Vibhanga-Niddesa-Khandhaka-Parivara, Sut- 
tanipate Mangalasutta-Ratanasutta-Nalakasutta-Tuvatakasut- 
tani, anfiam pi suttanamakam tathagatavacanam suttan ti 
veditabbam. Sabbam pi sagathakam suttam geyyan ti veditab- 
bam ; visesena Samyuttake sakalo pi sagathakavaggo. Saka- 
lam Abhidhammapitakam niggathakam suttam yaii ca anfiam 
pi atthahi angehi asangahitam Buddhavacanam tarn veyya- 
karanan ti veditabbam, Dhammapadam, Theragatha, Theri- 
gatha/ Suttanipate nosuttanamika ^ suddhikagatha ca gathati 
veditabba. Somanassafianamayikagathapatisamyutta dve asiti 
suttanta udanan ti veditabbam. Vuttam h'etam bhagavatati 
adinayappavattadvadas'uttarasatasuttantaitivuttakan ti vedi- 
tabbam. Apannakajatakadini pafiiiasadhikani paiica jataka- 
satani jatakan ti veditabbam. Cattaro 'me bhikkhave acchariya 
abbhuta dhamma Anande ti adinayappavatta sabbe pi 
acchariya - abbhutadhammapatisarnyuttasuttanta abbhuta- 
dhamman ti veditabbam. Culavedalla-Mahavedalla-Samma- 
ditthi - Sakkapaiiha - [29] Sankharabha j aniy a- Mahapunnamasut- 
tadayo sabbe pi vedarn ca tutthirn ca laddha laddha ^ pucchita- 
suttanta vedallan ti veditabbarn. Evam angavasena 

1 T. Therigatha. 2 j. no sutta-. ^ x. laddhaladdha. 

156 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

32. Katham dhammakkhandhavasena caturasltisahassavid- 
ham. Sabbam eva c'etam Buddhavacanam : 

Dvasitim Buddhato ganhim dve sahassani bhikkhuto 
caturasitisahassani ye 'me dhamma pavattino ti ; 
evam paridipitadhammakkhandhavasena caturasitisahassap- 
pabhedam hoti. 

Tat t ha ekanusandhikam suttam eko dhammakkhandho. 
Yam anekanusandhikam tattha anusandhivasena dhammak- 
khandhaganana. Gathabandhesu panhapucchanam eko dham- 
makkhandho vissajjanam eko. Abhidhamme ekam ekam 
tikadukabhajanam ekam ekan ca cittavarabhajanam ekam ^ 
eko dhammakkhandho. Vinaye atthi vatthu, atthi matika, 
atthi padabhajaniyam, atthi antarapatti,^ atthi anapatti, 
atthi tikaparicchedo.^ Tattha ekam eko kotthaso ekam eko 
dhammakkhandho ti veditabbo. Evam dhammakkhandhava- 
sena caturasitisahassavidham. 

33. Evam etam abhedato rasavasena ekavidham, bhedato 
dhammavinayadivasena duvidhadibhedam Buddhavacanam 
sangayantena Mahakassapapamukhena vasiganena ayam 
dhammo, ayam vinayo, idam pathamabuddhavacanam, idam 
majjhimabuddhavacanam, idam pacchimabuddhavacanam, 
idam Vinayapitakam, idam Suttapitakam, idam Abhidhamma- 
pitakam, ayam Dighanikayo pe ayam Khuddakanikayo, imani 
suttadini navangani, imani caturasiti dhammakkhandhasahas- 
saniti,* imam pabhedam vavatthapetva 'va sangitam. 

[30] Na kevalam ettakam eva aiinam pi uddanasangaha- 
vaggasangaha - peyyalasangaha - ekanipatadukanipatadinipa- 
t asangaha-samyuttasangaha-pannasakasanga hadim anekavi- 
dham tisu pitakesu sandissamanam ^ sangahappabhedam vavat- 
thapetva evam ® sattahi masehi sangitam. 

Sangitipariyosane c'assa : idam Mahakassapattherena dasa- 
balassa sasanam pancavassasahassaparimanam kalam pavat- 
tanasamattham katan ti sanjatappamoda sadhukaram viya 
dadamana ayam mahapathavi udakapariyantam katva anekap- 
pakaram kampi ' sankampi sampakampi sampavedhi. Anekani 

^ T. omits. 2 Sum. apatti ; Bp. adds atthi apatti. 

^ T. tikacchedo ; P. paricchedo. * T. -sahassaniti. Imam. 

* T. sandhissamanam. " O. resumes from here. 
' P.E.V. omit. 

Dutiyamahdsangltivannand 157 

ca acchariyani patur ahesun ti. Ay am pathamamahasangiti 

nama, ya loke : 

Satehi paiicahi kata tena paiicasatati ca, 
thereh' eva katatta ca therikati pavuccatiti. 
Pathamamahasangiti nitthita.^ 


34. Imissa pana pathamamahasangitiya pavattamanaya vina- 
yam pucchantena ayasmata Mahakassapena : pathamam 
avuso UpaH parajikam kattha paiinattan ti evam adivacana- 
pariyosane vatthum pi pucchi, nidanam pi pucchi, puggalam pi 
pucchiti ettha nidane pucchite tarn nidanam aditoppabhuti 
vittharetva yena ca pannattam yasma ca paiinattam sabbam 
etam kathetukamena ayasmata UpaHttherena vuttam : tena 
[31] samayena Buddho bhagava Veraiijayam viharatiti 
sabbam vattabbam. Evam idam ayasmata UpaHttherena 
vuttam. Tan ca pana pathamamahasangitikale vuttan ti 
veditabbam. Ettavata ca : idam vacanam kena vuttam kada 
ca vuttan ti etesam padanam attho pakasito hoti. 

Idani : kasma vuttan ti ettha vuccate. Yasma ayam ayasma 
Mahakassapattherena nidanam puttho tasma pan' etam 2 
nidanam aditoppabhuti vittharetum vuttan ti, evam idam 
ayasmata UpaHttherena pathamamahasangitikale vadantenapi 
imina karanena vuttan ti veditabbarn. Ettavata ca : vuttam 
yena yada yasmati imesam matikapadanarn attho pakasito 

35. Idani : dharitam ^ yena cabhatam, yatthappatitthitarn 
c'etam etarn vatva vidhim tato ti ^ etesam atthappakasanat- 
tham idam vuccati. Tarn pan'etam : tena samayena Buddho 
bhagava Veraiijayam viharatiti evam adivacanapatimandita- 
nidanam * Vinayapitakam kena dharitam kenabhatam kat- 
thappatitthitan ^ ti vuccate. Adito tava idam bhagavato 

1 T. omits this line. 

2 P.E.V. tena tam. 

3-3 This is given by T. as a stanza with a lacuna in pada a ; cp. st. at Smp. 2 
beginning : vuttam yena yada yasma. All others have this sentence in prose. 

* T. -patimandita- ; O. -pati-. 

5 T.O. kattha 'patitthitan ti. 

158 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

sammukha ayasmata Upalittherena dharitam, tassa sam- 
mukhato aparinibbute Tathagate chalabhifinadibhedehi ane- 
kehi bhikkhusahassehi, parinibbute Tathagate Mahakassa- 
papamukhehi dhammasafigahakattherehi . 

Kenabhatan ti, Jambudipe tava Upalittheram adim katva 
acariyaparamparaya yava tatiyasangiti tava abhatam. [32] 
Tatrayam acariyaparampara : 

Upali Dasako c'eva Sonako Siggavo tatha, 
Tisso Moggaliputto ca panc'ete vijitavino, 
paramparaya vinayam dipe Jambusirivhaye 
acchijjamanam anesum tatiyo yava sangaho. 

36. Ayasma hi UpaH imam vinayavamsam vinayatantim 
vinayapavenim bhagavato sammukha uggahetva bahunnam 
bhikkhGnam hadaye patitthapesi. Tassa h'ayasmato santike 
vinayam uggahetva vinaye pakatanfiutam pattesu puggalesu 
puthuj j anasotapannasakadagami-anagamino gananapatham 
vitivatta, khinasavanam sahassam ekam ahosi. Dasakatthero 
pi tass'eva saddhivihariko ahosi. So UpaHttherassa sammukha 
uggahetva tath'eva vinayam vacesi. Tassapi ayasmato santike 
uggahetva vinaye pakatanfiutam patta puthuj janadayo gana- 
napatham vitivatta, khinasavanam sahassam eva ahosi. 
Sonakatthero pana Dasakattherassa saddhivihariko ahosi. 
So pi attano upajjhayassa Dasakattherassa sammukha ugga- 
hetva tath'eva vinayarn vacesi. Tassapi ayasmato santike 
uggahetva vinaye pakatanfiutam patta puthuj janadayo gana- 
napatharn vitivatta, khinasavanam sahassam eva ahosi. 

37. Siggavatthero pi Sonakattherassa saddhivihariko ^ ahosi. 
So pi attano upajjhayassa Sonakat^therassa santike vinayarn 
uggahetva arahantasahassassa dhuraggaho ahosi. Tassa 
panayasmato santike uggahetva vinaye pakataiifiutam patta 
puthuj janasotapannasakadagami-anagamino pi khinasavapi 
[33] ettakani sataniti va ettakani sahassaniti va aparicchinna ^ 
ahesurn. Tada kira Jambudipe atimahabhikkhusamudayo ^ 
ahosi. Moggahputtatissattherassa pana anubhavo tatiyasan- 
gitiyam pakato bhavissati. Evam idam Vinayapitakarn 

^-1 P.E.V. omit and read : saddhivihariko therassa santike. . . . 
2 Vide T., p. 33. n. 1. ^ P.E.V. -samuho. 

Dutiyamahdsangltivannand 159 

Jambudipe tava imaya acariyaparamparaya yava tatiyasangiti 
tava abhatan ti veditabbam. 

38. Dutiyasangitivijananattham pana ayam anukkamo vedi- 
tabbo. Yada hi : 

Sangayitvana saddhammam jotayitva ca sabbadhi ^ 
yavajivitapariyantam thatva pancasata pi te, 
khinasava jutimanto thera Kassapa-adayo 
khinasneha padipa ^ va nibbayimsu analaya ; 
athanukkamena gacchantesu rattindivesu vassasataparinibbute 
bhagavati Vesalika Vajjiputtaka bhikkhu Vesaliyam : kappati 
singilonakappo, kappati dvangulakappo, kappati gamantara- 
kappo, kappati avasakappo, kappati anumatikappo, kappati 
acinnakappo, kappati amathitakappo, kappati jalogim ^ patum, 
kappati adasakam nisidanam, kappati jataruparajatan ti imani 
dasa vatthiini dipesum. Tesam Susunagaputto Kalasoko * 
nama raja pakkho ahosi. 

Tena kho pana samayena ayasma Yaso Kakandakaputto 
Vajjisu carikam caramano : Vesalika kira Vajjiputtaka 
bhikkhu Vesahyam dasavatthiini dipentiti sutva : na kho 
pan'etam patirupam yv-aham dasabalassa sasanavipattim 
sutva appossukko bhaveyyam, handaham adhammavadino 
niggahetva [34] dhammam dipemiti cintento yena VesaU ^ tad 
avasari. Tatra sudam ayasma Yaso Kakandakaputto Vesahyam 
viharati Mahavane Kiitagarasalayam. 

Tena kho pana samayena Vesahka Vajjiputtaka bhikkhu 
tadah' uposathe kamsapatim udakena puretva majjhe bhik- 
khusanghassa thapetva agate Vesahke upasake evam vadenti ^ : 
dethavuso sanghassa kahapanam pi addham pi padam pi 
masakarupam pi, bhavissati sanghassa parikkharena karaniyan 
ti, sabbam tava vattabbam yava : imaya pana vinayasangltiya 
satta bhikkhusatani anunani anadhikani ahesum, tasmayam 
dutiyasangiti sattasatikati vuccatiti. Evam ' tasmiii ' ca 
sannipate dvadasabhikkhusatasahassani sannipatimsu ayas- 
mata Yasena samussahita. Tesam majjhe ayasmata Revatena 

^ T. sabbadhi. 2 x. khinasnehapadipa va. 

3 T.E. jalogi ; vide T., p. 33, n. 13. * P.E.V. Kalasoka. 

6 T. Vesali. « P.E.V. vadanti. 
' P.E.V. Etasmim. 

i6o Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

putthena Sabbakamittherena vinayam vissajjentena tani dasa 
vatthuni vinicchitani adhikaranam vupasamitam. 

Atha thera puna dhammafi ca vinayan ca sangayissamslti 
tipitakadhare pattapatisambhide sattasate bhikkhu uccinitva 
Vesaliyam Valukarame ^ sannisiditva Mahakassapattherena 
sangayitasadisam eva sabbam sasanamalam sodhetva puna 
pitakavasena nikayavasena angavasena dhammakkhandhava- 
sena ca sabbam dhammafi ca vinayan ca sangayimsu. Ayam 
sangiti atthahi masehi nitthita. 
Ya loke : 

Satehi sattahi kata tena sattasatati ca 
pubbe katam upadaya dutiya ti ca vuccatiti ; 
sa panayam : 

Yehi therehi sangita sangiti tesu vissuta 
Sabbakami ca Salho ca Re vat o Khujjasobhito 
[35] Yaso ca Sanasambhuto etc saddhiviharika 

thera Anandattherassa ^ ditthapubba Tathagatam. 
Sumano Vasabhagami ca fieyya saddhiviharika 
dve ime Anuruddhassa ditthapubba Tathagatam. 
Dutiyo pana sangito yehi therehi sangaho 
sabbe pi pannabhara te katakicca anasavati ; 
ayarn dutiyasangiti. 

39. Evam imam ^ dutiyasangitim sangayitva te thera : 
uppajjissati nu kho anagate pi sasanassa evarupam abbudan ti 
olokayamana idarn addasamsu : ito vassasatassa upari atthara- 
same vasse PataHputte Dhammasoko nama raja uppajjitva 
sakala-Jambudipe rajjarn karessati.* So Buddhasasane pasi- 
ditva mahantam labhasakkaram pavattayissati. Tato titthiya 
labhasakkaram patthayamana sasane pabbajitva sakam sakam 
ditthim paridipessanti. Evam sasane mahantam abbudarn 

Atha nesam etad ahosi : kin nu kho mayam etasmim abbude 
uppanne sammukha bhavissama na bhavissamati. Atha sabb' 
eva tada attano asammukhabhavam natva : ko nu kho tarn 
adhikaranam vupasametum samattho bhavissatiti sakala- 
manussalokaii ca chakamavacaradevalokan ca olokenta na 

1 T. Valuka- 2 p.E.V. Anandatherassa. 

3 E. idam. * T. adds iti. 

DutiyamahdsangUivanmnd i6i 

kanci ^ disva Brahmaloke Tissam nama mahabrahmanam 
addasamsu parittayukam uparibrahmalokupapattiya bhavita- 

Disvana nesam etad ahosi : sace mayam etassa brahmuno 
manussaloke nibbattanatthaya ussaham kareyyama, addha 
[36] esa Moggalibrahmanassa gehe patisandhim gahessati, tato 
ca mantehi palobhito nikkhamitva pabbajissati, so evam 
pabbajitva sakalabuddhavacanam uggahetva adhigatapati- 
sambhido hutva titthiye madditva tarn adhikaranam vinic- 
chinitva sasanam pagganhissatiti. 

Te Brahmalokam gantva Tissam mahabrahmanam etad 
avocum : ito vassasatassa upari attharasame vasse sasane 
mahantam abbudam uppajjissati, mayan ca ^ sakalam manus- 
salokam chakamavacaradevalokan ca olokayamana kanci 
sasanam paggahetum ^ samattham adisva Brahmalokam vici- 
nanta bhavantam addasama. Sadhu sappurisa manussaloke 
nibbattitva dasabalassa sasanam pagganhitum * patinnam ^ 
dehiti. Evam vutte mahabrahma : aham kira sasane uppan- 
nam abbudam sodhetva sasanam paggahetum samattho 
bhavissamiti hatthapahattho udagg'udaggo hutva sadhuti 
patissunitva patinnam adasi. Thera Brahmaloke tarn karani- 
yam tiretva puna paccagamimsu. 

40. Tena kho pana samayena Siggavatthero ca Candavajjit- 
thero ^ ca dve pi navaka honti daharabhikkhu tipitakadhara 
pattapatisambhida khinasava, te tarn adhikaranam na sam- 
papuninisu.'' Thera: tumhe avuso amhakam imasmirn 
adhikarane no sahayaka ahuvattha, tena vo idarn dandakam- 
marri hotu : Tisso nama brahma Moggalibrahmanassa gehe 
patisandhirn ganhissati, tarn tumhakam eko niharitva pabba- 
jetu, eko Buddhavacanarn ugganhapetuti vatva sabbe pi 
yavat ayukam thatva : 

Sabbakamippabhutayo te pi thera mahiddhika 
aggikkhandha va lokamhi jalitva parinibbuta. 
Dutiyam sahgaham katva visodhetvana sasanam 
[37] anagate pi katvana hetum saddhammasuddhiya ; 

1 E. kind. * E. omits. 

3 T. pagganhetum. *' E. pagganhitva dehiti 

« E. omits patifiiiam. " T. Canda- throughout. 
' T. papunimsu. 

i62 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Khmasava vasippatta pabhinnapatisambhida 
aniccatavasam thera te pi nama upagata. 
Evam aniccatam jammim natva durabhisambhavam 
tarn pattum vayame dhiro yam niccam amatam padan ti. 
Ettavata sabbakarena dutiyasangitivannana nitthita hoti.^ 


41. Tisso pi kho mahabrahma Brahmaloka cavita Moggali- 
brahmanassa gehe patisandhim aggahesi. Siggavatthero pi 
tassa patisandhigahanatoppabhuti ^ satta vassani brahmanassa 
geham pindaya pavisi. Ekadivasam pi ulunkamattam va 
yagum katacchumattam va bhattam nalattha. Sattannam 
pana vassanam accayena ekadivasam : aticchatha bhante ti 
vacanamattam alattha. Tarn divasam eva brahmano pi 
bahiddha kiilci karaniyam katva agacchanto patipathe theram 
disva : bho pabbajita amhakam geham agamitthati ^ aha. 
Ama brahmana agamimhati.* Api kind labhitthati. Ama 
brahmana labhimhati. So geham gantva pucchi : tassa 
pabbajitassa kind adatthati. Na kind adamhati. 

Brahmano dutiyadivase gharadvare yeva nisidi : ajja 
pabbajitam musavadena niggahessamiti. Thero dutiyadivase 
brahmanassa gharadvararn sampatto. Brahmano therarn 
disva Va evam aha : tumhe hiyyo amhakam gehe kiiid aladdha 
yeva, labhimhati avocuttha. Vattati nu kho tumhakarn 
musavado ti. Thero aha : mayara brahmana tumhakarn gehe 
sattavassani, aticchathati vacanamattam pi alabhitva hiyyo, 
aticchathati vacanamattarn labhimha. Ath' etara patisantha- 
rarn upadaya evam avocumhati. 

Brahmano cintesi : ime patisantharamattam pi labhitva : 
labhimhati pasamsanti. Anilarn kiiici khadaniyarn ^ [38] 
bhojaniyarn ^ labhitva kasma nappasarnsantiti pasiditva attano 
atthaya patiyaditabhattato katacchubhikkharn tad upiyan ^ 
ca vyafijanarn dapetva : imarn bhikkham sabbakalarn tumhe 

^ p. omits. 2 X. -gahanato pabhuti. 

3 P.E.V. geham agamatthati. * T. agamamhati. 

5 T. khadaniyarn. * T. bhojaniyarn. 
' T. tadupiyan. 

Tatiyamahdsangltivannand 163 

labhissath^ti aha. So punadivasatoppabhuti ^ upasanka- 
mantassa therassa upasamam disva bhiyyosomattaya pasiditva 
theram niccakalam attano ghare bhattavissaggakaranatthaya 
yaci. Thero adhivasetva divase divase bhattakiccam katva 
gacchanto thokathokam Buddha vacanam kathetva gacchati. 

42. So pi kho manavako solasavass'uddesiko yeva tinnam 
vedanam paragu 2 ahosi. Brahmalokato agatasuddhasattassa 
asane va sayane va anno ko ci nisajjita va nipajjita va n'atthi. 
So yada acariyagharam gacchati tadassa mancapitham setena 
vatthena paticchadetva laggetva thapenti. 

Thero cintesi : samayo dani manavakam pabbajetum, cirafi 
ca me idhagacchantassa na ^ kaci manavakena saddhim katha 
uppajjati. Handa dani imina upayena pallankam nissaya 
uppajjissatiti, geham gantva yatha tasmim gehe thapetva 
manavakassa pallankam afinam na kiiici asanam dissati tatha 
adhitthasi. Brahmanassa gehe jano theram disva aiinam 
kinci asanam apassanto manavakassa pallankam attharitva 
adasi. Nisidi thero pallanke. Manavako pi kho tarn khanarn ^ 
yeva acariyaghara agamma theram attano pallanke nisinnam 
disva kupito anattamano : ko mama pallankarn samanassa 
pafinapesiti aha. Thero bhattakiccarn katva vupasante 
manavakassa candikkabhave evam aha : kirn pana tvarn 
manavaka [39] kanci ^ mantarn janasiti. Manavo : bho 
pabbajita mayi dani mante ajanante anne ke janissantiti 
vatva therarn pucchi : tumhe pana mantam janathati. Puccha 
manava, pucchitva sakka janitun ti. 

Atha kho manavo tisu vedesu sanighanduketubhesu sakkha- 
rappabhedesu ^ itihasapaiicamesu yani yani ganthitthanani 
yesamnayarnn'evaattanapassatinapi'ssa ^ acariyo addasa, tesu 
tesu ® therarn pucchi. Thero pakatiya pi tinnam vedanam 
paragu,^ idani pana patisambhidappatto, ten' assa n'atthi 
tesam panhanani vissajjane bharo ti tavad eva te ^^^ panhe 
vissaj j et va manavarn aha : manava aham taya bahurn pucchito, 

^ T. -divasato pabhuti. ^ T. paragu. 

^ P.E.V. na ca. * T. tamkhanam. 

^ P. kinci. « T. sa-akkhara. 

' P.E. omit. * T.E. tesu once only. 

* T. paragu. ^° P.E. tesam. 

164 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

aham pi dani tarn ekam panham pucchami, vyakarissasi me ti. 
Ama bho pabbajita puccha, vyakarissamiti. 

Thero Cittayamake imam panham pucchi : yassa cittam 
uppajjati na nirujjhati, tassa cittam na nirujjhissati n'uppaj- 
jissati, yassa va pana cittam nirujjhissati n'uppajjissati, tassa 
cittam uppajjati na nirujjhatiti. Manavo uddham va adho va 
saritum asakkonto : kim nama bho pabbajita idan ti aha. 
Buddhamanto namayam manavati. Sakka panayam bho 
mayham pi datun ti. Sakka manava amhehi gahitapabbajjam 
ganhantassa datun ti. 

[40] Tato manavo matapitaro upasankamitva aha : ayam 
pabbajito Buddhamantam nama janati, na ca attano santike 
apabbajitassa deti. Aham etassa santike pabbajitva mantam 
ugganhissamiti. Ath' assa matapitaro, pabbajitva pi no putto 
mante ganhatu, gahetva punagamissatiti maiinamana : ganha 
puttati anujanimsu. 

43. Thero darakam pabbajetva dvattimsakarakammattha- 
nam ^ tava acikkhi. So tattha parikammam karonto na ciras- 
s'eva sotapattiphale patitthasi. Tato thero cintesi : samanero 
sotapattiphale patitthito, abhabbo dani sasanato nivattiturn. 
Sace pan' assaham kammatthanarn vaddhetva katheyyarn, 
arahattarn papuneyya, appossukko bhaveyya Buddhavacanarn 
gaheturn. Samayo dani nam Candavajjittherassa ^ santikam 
pesetun ti. 

Tato nam aha : ehi tvarn samanera, therassa santikarn 
gantva Buddhavacanarn ugganha. Mama vacanena arogyam 
puccha, evafi ca vadehi : upajjhayo marn bhante tumhakarn 
santikam pahiniti. Ko namo ^ te upajjhayo ti ca vutte Sigga- 
vatthero nama bhante ti vadeyyasi. Aham ko namo ^ ti 
vutte evarn vadeyyasi : mama upajjhayo bhante tumhakarn 
namam janatiti. 

Evam bhante ti kho Tisso samanero theram abhivadetva 
padakkhinam katva anupubbena Candavajjittherassa ^ san- 
tikarn gantva vanditva ekam antarn atthasi. Thero * : sama- 
nera kuto * agato 'siti aha. Upajjhayo mam bhante tumhakarn 

* T. dvatimsa-. ^ T. Canda-. 

^ T. konamo. *-* T. Thero samaneram pucchi : kuto. . . . 

Tatiyamahdsangitivannand 165 

santikam pahiniti. Ko namo ^ te upajjhayo ti. Siggavatthero 
nama bhante ti. Aham ko namo ^ ti. Mama upajjhayo bhante 
tumhakam namam janatiti.^ Pattacivaram dani patisamehiti. 
Sadhu bhante ti samanero [41] pattacivaram patisametva 
punadivase parivenam sammajjitva udakadantaponam upat- 

Thero sammatthatthanam * puna sammajji, tarn udakam 
chaddetva aniiam udakam ahari, tail ca dantakattham apa- 
netva aiinam dantakattham ganhi. Evam satta divasani 
katva sattame divase puna pucchi. Samanero puna pi pubbe 
kathitasadisam eva kathesi. Thero : so vatayam brahmano 
ti sanjanitva : kim attham agato 'siti aha. Buddhavacanam 
ugganhanatthaya bhante ti. Thero : ugganha dani samanerati 
vatva punadivasatoppabhuti ^ Buddhavacanam patthapesi. 
Tisso samanero 'va hutva thapetva Vinayapitakarn sabbam 
Buddhavacanam ugganhi saddhim atthakathaya. Upasam- 
pannakale pana avassiko 'va samano tipitakadharo ahosi. 

Acariy'upajjhaya Moggahputtatissattherassa hatthe sakala- 
buddhavacanarn patitthapetva ® yavat ayukam thatva parinib- 
bayirnsu. MoggaHputtatissatthero pi aparena samayena kam- 
matthanarn vaddhetva arahattam patto bahunnarn dham- 
mavinayarn vacesi. 

44. Tena kho pana samayena Bindusarassa raniio ekasata- 
putta ahesurn. Te sabbe Asoko attana saddhim ekamatikara 
Tissakumararn thapetva ghatesi. Ghatento cattari vassani 
anabhisitto Va raj jam karetva catunnam vassanarn accayena 
Tathagatassa parinibbanato dvinnam vassasatanarn upari 
attharasame vasse sakala-Jambudipe ekarajjabhisekam [42] 
papuni. Abhisekanubhavena c'assa ima raj'iddhiyo agata : 
mahapathaviya hettha yojanappamane ana pavattati, tatha 
upari akase, Anotattadahato atthahi kajehi solasa paniyaghate ' 
divase divase devata aharanti, yato sasane uppannasaddho 
hutva atthaghate bhikkhusanghassa adasi, dve ghate satthi- 
mattanam ^ sahassanam tipitakadharabhikkhunam/ dve ghate 

1 T. konamo. ^ P.E. omit ti. 

3 T. uttMpesi. * P.E.V. sammajjitatthanam. 

6 T. -divasato pabhuti. ^ T. patitthapetva. 

' T. paniya. *"® E. -mattanam tipitakabhikkhunam. 

i66 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

aggamahesiya Asandhimittaya, cattaro ghate attana pari- 
bhunji. Devata eva, Himavante nagalatadantakattham nama 
atthi siniddham mudukam rasavantam, tarn divase divase 
aharanti, yena ranno ca mahesiya ca solasannan ca nataka- 
sahassanam satthimattanan ca bhikkhusahassanam devasikam 
dantaponakiccam nippajjati. 

Devasikam eva tassa devata agadamalakam agadaharita- 
kam ^ suvannavannan ca gandharasasampannam ambapakkan 
ca aharanti. Tatha Chaddantadahato pancavannam niva- 
sanapapuranam pitakavannam hatthapufichanapattakam dib- 
baii ca panakam aharanti. ^ Devasikam eva pan'assa anuvi- 
lepanagandham,^ parupanatthaya asuttamayikam sumana- 
pupphapatam, mah^rahail ca anjanam nagabhavanato nagara- 
jano aharanti. [43] Chaddantadahe Va * utthitassa sahno nava 
vahasahassani divase divase suva aharanti, musika nitthusa- 
kam ^ karonti, eko pi khandatandulo na hoti, ranno sabbat- 
thanesu ayam eva tandulo paribhogam gacchati. Madhu- 
makkhika madhum karonti. Kammarasaladisu ^ accha kutarn.' 
paharanti. Karavikasakuna ' agantva madhurassaram viku- 
janta raiiiio balikammam karonti. 

45. Imahi iddhihi samannagato raja ekadivasam suvanna- 
sankhalikabandhanarn pesetva catunnam Buddhanarn adhi- 
gatarupadassanarn kappayukam Kalarti nama nagarajanarn 
anayitva setacchattassa hettha maharahe pallanke nisidapetva 
anekasatavannehi jalajathalajapupphehi suvannapupphehi ca 
pujarn katva sabbalankarapatimanditehi ^ solasahi nataka- 
sahassehi samantato parikkhipitva : anantaiianassa tava me 
saddhammavaracakkavattissa sammasambuddhassa rupam 
imesarn akkhinarn apatharn karohiti vatva tena nimmitam 
sakalasarire vippakinnapufinappabhavanibbattasiti-anuvyan- 
janapatimanditarn ^ dvattirnsamahapurisalakkhanasassirika- 
taya vikasitakamaFuppalapundarikapatimanditam iva salilata- 
1am taraganarasmijalavisadavisphuritasobhasamujjalam ^^ iva 

* T. -haritakam. 2 x. adds : pi nanagandham. 
^ P.E. anulepana. * T. ca. 

^ P.E. nitthusakane. * P.E. -salasu. 

' T. karavika- * P.E. add ca. 

• P.E. -manditadvattimsa-. i" T. -rasmim jala- ; P.E.V. -jalavisara-. 

Tatty amahdsangUivannand 167 

gaganatalam nilapitalohitadibhedavicitravannaramsivinaddha- 
byamappabha[44]parikkhepavilasitaya ^ sandhyappabhanu- 
raga-indadhanuvijjullataparikkhittam iva kanakagirisikharam 
nanaviragavimalaketumalasamu j j alitacarumatthakasobham 
nayanarasayanam iva brahmadevamanujanagayakkhagana- 
nam Buddharupam passant o sattadivasani akkhipujam nama 

46. Raja kira abhisekam papunitva tlni yeva samvaccharani 
bahirapasandam pariganhi, catutthe samvacchare Buddha sa- 
sane pasidi. Tassa kira pita Bindusaro brahmanabhatto ahosi. 
So brahmananaii ca brahmanajatiyapasandanafi ca panda- 
rangaparibbajakadinam satthisahassamattanam niccabhattam 

Asoko pitara pavattitam danam attano antepure tath'eva 
dadamano ekadivasam sihapanjare thito te upasamaparibahi- 
rena acarena bhunjamane asamyat'indriye ^ avinita-iriyapathe 
disva cintesi : idisam danam upaparikkhitva yuttatthane 
datum vattatiti. Evam cintetva amacce aha : gacchatha 
bhane attano attano sadhusammate samanabrahmane ante- 
puram atiharatha danam dassamati. Amacca : sadhu devati 
ranfio patissutva te te pandarangaparibbajakajivakanigantha- 
dayo ^ anetva : ime maharaja amhakam arahanto ti ahamsu. 

Atha raja antepure uccavacani asanani pannapapetva, * 
agacchantuti vatva agatagate aha : attano attano patirupe 
asane [45] nisidathati. Te ekacce bhaddapithakesu ekacce 
phalakapithakesu nisidirnsu. Tarn disva raja : n'atthi tesarn 
anto saro ^ ti fiatva tesarn anurupam khadaniyam bhojaniyam ® 
datva uyyojesi. 

47. Evam gacchante kale ekadivasam raja^ sihapaiijare thito 
addasa Nigrodham samaneram^ rajanganena gacchantam dan- 
tam guttam sant'indriyam iriyapathasampannarn. Ko panayam 
Nigrodho nama. Bindusararanno jetthaputtassa Sumanaraja- 

1 Vide T., p. 44, n. 1. ^ T, asant'indriye. 

3 T.O. -niganthadayo. * T. paiifiapetva. 

* T. antosaro. * T. khadaniya-bhojaniyam. 

' T. omits. • E. Nigrodhasamaneram. 

1 68 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

kumarassa putto. Tat ray am anupubbikatha ^ : Bindusara-^ 
ranno kira dubbalakale yeva Asokakumaro attana laddhai 
Ujjenirajjam pahaya agantvana sabbam nagaram attaiK 
hatthagatam katva Sumanam ^ rajakumaram aggahesi. Tamj 
divasam eva Sumanassa rajakumarassa Sumana nama rajadevi 
paripunnagabbha ahosi. Sa aniiatakavesena nikkhamitvi 
avidure annataram candalagamam sandhaya gacchanti jettha- 
kacandalassa gehato avidure annatarasmirn nigrodharukkhe 
adhivatthaya devataya : ito ehi Sumane ti vadantiya saddarn 
sutva tassa samipam gata. 

Devata attano anubhavena ekarn salam nimminitva : ettha 
vasahiti padasi. Sa tarn salarn pavisi. Gatadivase yeva ^ 
puttarn vijayi. Sa tassa nigrodhadevataya pariggahitatta * 
Nigrodho tv-eva namarn akasi. Jetthakacandalo ditthadiva- 
satoppabhuti ^ tarn attano samidhitararn viya mannamano 
nibaddhavattarn patthapesi. Rajadhita tattha satta vassani 

[46] Nigrodhakumaro pi sattavassiko ® jato. Tada Maha- 
varunatthero nama eko araha darakassa hetusampadam disva 
tattha ^ viharamano : sattavassiko dani darako, kalo nam 
pabbajetun ti cintetva rajadhitaya arocapetva Nigrodha- 
kumaram pabbajesi. Kumaro khuragge yeva arahattam 
papuni. So ekadivasam pato 'va sariram jaggetva acariy'upaj- 
jhayavattarn katva pattacivaram adaya : matu-upasikaya 
gehadvararn gacchamiti nikkhami. Matunivesanatthanafi ^ 
c'assa dakkhinadvarena nagaram ^ pavisitva nagaramajjhena 
gantva pacinadvarena nikkhamitva gantabbarn hoti. 

48. Tena ca samayena Asoko dhammaraja pacinadis^bhi- 
mukho sihapanjare cankamati. Tankhanam yeva Nigrodho 
rajanganara sampapuni sant'indriyo santamanaso yugamattarn 
pekkhamano. Tena vuttam : ekadivasarn sihapanjare thito 
addasa Nigrodharn samanerarn rajanganena gacchantam dan- 
tam guttam sant'indriyam iriyapathasampannan ti. Disva 
pan'assa etad ahosi : ayam jano sabbo pi vikkhittacitto 

1 T. anupubbikatha. ^ p.E.V, add nama. 

3 P.E.V. add ca. " T. pariggahitatta. 

^ T. divasato pabhuti. ^ T. satta vassiko. 

' P.E.V. omit. * T. matu nivesana-. 
• T.O. nangaram. 

Tatty amahdsangUivannand 169 

bhantamigapatibhago, ayam pana darako avikkhittacitto ^ 
ativiya c'assa ^ alokitavilokitam sammifijanapasaranan ca 
sobhati, addha etassa abbhantare lokuttaradhammo bhavis- 
satiti, ranno saha dassanen'eva samanere cittam pasidi. 
Pemam santhahi. 

Kasma. Pubbe ^ kira punnakaranakale esa raiino jetthabhata 
vanijako ahosi. Vuttam pi c'etam : 
[47] Pubbe va sannivasena paccuppannahitena va 

evam tarn jayate pemam uppalam va yathodake ti. 

Atha raja safijatapemo sabahumano etam samaneram pak- 
kosathati amacce pesesi. Te aticirayantiti puna dve tayo 
pesesi, turitam agacchatuti. 

Samanero attano pakatiya yeva agamasi. Raja patirupam 
asanam fiatva nisidath£Lti aha. So ito c'ito ca viloketva : 
n'atthi dani anfie bhikkhuti samussitasetacchattam rajapal- 
lahkam upasankamitva pattagahanatthaya ranno akararn 
dassesi. Raja tarn pallankasamiparn upagacchantam eva disva 
cintesi : ajj' eva dani ayam samanero imassa gehassa samiko 
bhavissatiti. Samanero raiino hatthe pattarn datva pallankarn 
abhiriihitva nisidi. Raja attano atthaya sampaditam sabbam 
yagukhajjakabhattavikatini upanamesi. Samanero khadani- 
yabhojaniyarn * attano yapaniyamattam ^ eva sampaticchi. 
Bhattakiccavasane raja aha : satthara tumhakarn dinnova- 
dam ^ janathati. 

Janami ' maharaja ekadesenati. Tata, mayham pi narn 
kathehiti. Sadhu maharajati raniio anuriipam Dhammapade 
Appamadavaggam anumodanatthaya abhasi. Raja pana : 
appamado amatapadam pamado maccuno padan ti sutva 'va : 
aiinatarn tata pariyosapehiti aha. Anumodanavasane : attha 
te tata dhuvabhattani ® dammiti aha. Samanero aha : etani 
aharn upajjhayassa dammi maharajati. Ko ayarn tata upaj- 
jhayo namati. Vajja-vajjam disva codeta sareta maharajati. 
Aiiiiani pi te tata attha dammiti [48]. Etani acariyassa dammi 
maharajati. Ko ayam tata acariyo namati. Imasmim sasane 
sikkhitabbakadhammesu patitthapeta maharajati. Sadhu tata 

1 P.E.V. avikkhitto. 2 p.E.V. omit c'. 

3 T. adds pi. * P.E.V. omit. 

^ P.E.V. -mattakam eva. " T. dinna-ovadam. 

' P.E.V. ianama. « P.E.V. dhurabhattani. 

170 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

afinani pi te attha dammiti. Etani bhikkhusafighassa damm 
maharajati. Ko ayam tata bhikkhusangho namati. Yai 
nissaya maharaja amhakam acariy'upajjhayanaii ca mamai 
ca pabbajja ca upasampada cati. 

Raja bhiyyosomattaya tutthacitto aha : afinani pi te tata 
attha dammiti. Samanero sadhuti sampaticchitva punadivase 
dvattimsa bhikkhu gahetva raj'antepuram pavisitva bhat- 
takiccam akasi. Raja : anfie pi dvattimsa bhikkhu tumhehi 
saddhim sve ^ bhikkham ganhantuti eten'eva upayena divase 
divase vaddhapento satthisahassanam brahmanaparibbajaka- 
dmam bhattam upacchinditva antonivesane satthisahassanam 
bhikkhunam niccabhattam patthapesi Nigrodhatthen 
gaten'eva pasadena. 

Nigrodhatthero pi rajanam saparisam tisu saranesu pancasi 
ca silesu patitthapetva Buddhasasane pothujjanikena pasadenj 
acalappasadam katva patitthapesi. 

Puna raja Asokaramam nama mahaviharam karapetvi 
satthisahassanam bhikkhunam niccabhattam patthapesi, 
Sakala-Jambudipe caturasitiya nagarasahassesu ^ caturasiti 
viharasahassani karapesi caturasitisahassacetiyapatimanditani, 
dhammen'eva no adhammena. 

49. Ekadivasam kira raja Asokarame mahadanam datva 
satthisahassa-sankhassa ^ bhikkhusanghassa majjhe nisajja 
sangham catuhi * paccayehi pavaretva imam panham pucchi : 
bhante bhagavata desitadhammo nama kittako hotiti. Angato 
maharaja navangani/ khandhato caturasitidhammakkhandha- 
sahassaniti. Raja dhamme pasiditva ekam ekarn dhammak- 
khandham ek'ekavih arena piijessamiti, [49] ekadivasam eva 
channavutikotidhanarn vissajjetva amacce anapesi : etha 
bhane ekam ekasmirn nagare ekam ekam vihararn karapenta 
caturasitiya nagarasahassesu ^ caturasitiviharasahassani kara- 
pethati, sayafi ca Asokarame Asokamahaviharatthaya kam- 
mam patthapesi. 

Sangho Indaguttattherarn nama mahiddhikarn mahanubha- 
vam khin£Lsavam navakammadhitthayakarn adasi. Thero yam 

1 P.E.V. yeva. 2 x.O. nangara. 

' P. omits -saiikhassa. * T.O. catuhi. 

5 P.E. nava angani. 

TatiyamahdsangUivannand 171 

yam kammam na nitthati tarn tarn attano anubhavena nittha- 
pesi. Evam pi tihi samvaccharehi viharakammam nitthapesi. 

Ekadivasam eva sabbanagarehi pannani agamimsu. Amacca 
ranno arocesum : nitthita deva caturasiti viharasahassaniti. 

Raja nagare ^ bherim carapesi : ito sattannam divasanam 
accayena viharamaho bhavissati, sabbe attha sirangani 
samadiyitva antonagare ^ ca bahingare ^ ca viharamaham 

50. Tato sattannam divasanam accayena sabb^lankaravi- 
bhusitaya ^ anekasatasahassasankhaya caturanginiya senaya ^ 
parivuto devaloke Amaravatiya rajadhaniya sirito adhikatara- 
sassirikam * viya nagaram ^ katukamena ussahajatena maha- 
janena alankatapatiyattam ® nagaram ^ anuvicaranto viharam 
gantva bhikkhusanghassa majjhe atthasi. 

Tasmifi ca khane sannipatita asitibhikkhukotiyo ahesum 
bhikkhuninan ca channavutisatasahassani. Tattha khin^sa- 
vabhikkhu yeva satasahassasankha ahesum. Tesam etad ahosi : 
sace raja attano adhikaram anavasesam passeyya, ativiya 
Buddhasasane pasideyyati. [50] Tato lokavivaranam nama 
patihariyam akamsu. Raja Asokarame thito 'va catuddisa 
anuvilokento samantato samuddapariyantam Jambudipam 
passati caturasitiii ca viharasahassani ^ ularaya viharama- 
hapujaya virocamanani. 

So tarn vibhutim passamano ularena pitipamojjena saman- 
nagato : atthi pana afinassa pi kassaci evarupam pitipamojjam 
uppannapubban ti cintento bhikkhusangham pucchi : bhante 
amhakam lokanathassa ^ dasabalassa sasane ko mahaparicca- 
gam pariccaji, kassa pariccago mahanto ti vadantiti. Bhik- 
khusangho Moggaliputtatissattherassa bharam akasi. Thero 
aha : maharaja dasabalassa sasane paccayadayako nama 
taya sadiso dharamane pi Tathagate ^ na koci ahosi, tav' eva 
pariccago mahcLti. Raja therassa vacanarn sutva ularena 
pitipamojjena nirantararn phutasariro hutva cintesi : n'atthi 
kira maya sadiso paccayadayako, mayharn kira pariccago 

^ T.O. nangare. ^ P.E.V. sabbalankarabhusitaya. 

3 T.O. caturanginisenaya. * T.O. -sirikam. 

* T.O. narigaram. " T. -patiyatta-. 

' T.O. add passati. * P.E.V. nathassa. 
» T.O. add pi. 

172 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 


maha, aham kira deyyadhammena sasanam pagganhami.* 
Kim panaham evam sati sasanassa dayado homi na homiti. 

51. Tato bhikkhusangham pucchi : bhavami nu kho aham 
bhante sasanassa dayado ti. Tato Moggaliputtatissatthero 
ranno idam vacanam sutva rajaputtassa Mahindassa upanis- 
sayasampattim sampassamano : sace ayam kumaro pabbajis- 
sati sasanassa ativiya vuddhi bhavissatiti cintetva rajanam 
etad avoca : na kho maharaja ettavata sasanassa ^ dayado 
hoti, api ca kho paccayadayako ti va upatthako ^ ti va sankham 
gacchati. Yo pi hi maharaja pathavito yava Brahmalokapari- 
manam paccayarasim dadeyya so pi sasane dayado ti sankham 
na gacchatiti. Atha katham carahi bhante sasanassa dayado 
hotiti. Yo hi koci maharaja [51] addho va daliddo * va attano 
orasam puttam pabbajeti, ayam vuccati maharaja dayado 
sasanass^ti. Evam vutte Asoko raja : aham kira evaruparn 
pariccagarn katva pi n'eva sasanassa dayadabhavam patto 
'sin ^ ti sasane dayadabhavam patthayamano ito c'ito ca 
viloketva addasa Mahindam kumararn ^ avidure thitarn. Disva 
pan'assa etad ahosi : kiiicapi aham imam kumararn Tissa- 
kumarassa pabbajitakalatoppabhuti ^ oparajje patitthapetu- 
kamo,^ atha kho oparajjato pi pabbajja va uttamati. 

Tato kumararn aha : sakkhissasi tvam tata pabbajitun ti. 
Kumaro pana pakatiya pi Tissakumarassa pabbajitakalatop- 
pabhuti ' pabbajitukamo va ranfio vacanarn sutva ativiya 
pamojjajato ® hutva aha : pabbajami deva, mam pabbajetva 
tumhe sasane dayada ^^ hothati. 

Tena ca samayena rajadhita Sanghamitta pi tasmim yeva 
thane thita hoti. Tassa ca samiko Aggibrahma nama kumaro 
uparajena Tissakumarena saddhim pabbajito hoti. Raja tarn ^^ 
disva aha : tvam pi amma pabbajiturn sakkhissasiti. Sadhu 
tata sakkomiti. Raja puttanam manarn labhitva pahatthacitto 
bhikkhusangham etad avoca : bhante ime darake pabbajetva 
mam sasane dayadam karoth§,ti. 

1 T.O. add iti. 

2 T.O. omit. 

3 T.O. upatthayako. 
5 T.O. omit. 

* T. daliddo. 

• T.O. Mahindakumaram 

' T.O. kalato pabhuti. 
• T.O. pamujja-. 
1 P.E.V. nam. 

* E. patitthapetukamo. 
1" T.O.E. dayado. 

TatiyamahdsangUivannand 173 

52. Sangho ranno vacanam sampaticchitva kumaram Mog- 
galiputtatissattherena upaj jhayena Mahadevattherena ca acari- 
yena pabbajesi.^ Majjhantikattherena acariyena upasampa- 
desi. Tada kira kumaro paripunnavisativasso va hoti. So 
tasmim yeva upasampadasimamandale ^ saha patisambhidahi 
arahattam papuni. Sanghamittaya pi rajadhitaya acariya 
Ayupalittheri nama, upaj j hay a pana Dhammapalittheri nama 
ahosi. [52] Tada Sanghamitta attharasavassa ^ hoti. Tarn 
pabbajitamattam tasmim yeva simamandale sikkhaya patittha- 
pesum. Ubhinnam pabbajitakale raja chavassabhiseko hoti. 

Atha Mahindatthero upasampannakalatoppabhuti * attano 
upajjhayass'eva santike dhamman ca vinayaii ca pariya- 
punanto dve pi sangitiyo arulham tipitakasangahitam sattha- 
katham ^ sabbam theravadam ® tinnam vassanam abbhantare 
uggahetva attano upajjhayassa antevasikanam sahassamat- 
tanam bhikkhunam pamokkho ahosi. 

53. Tada Asoko dhammaraja navavassabhiseko hoti. Ranfio 
pana atthavassabhisekakale yeva Kontiputtatissatthero ' vya- 
dhipatikammattham bhikkhacaravattena ahindanto pasata- 
mattam sappim alabhitva vyadhibalena parikkhinayusankharo 
bhikkhusangham appamadena ovaditva akase pallankena 
nisiditva tejodhatum samapajjitva parinibbayi. Raja tarn 
pavattim sutva therassa sakkaram katva : mayi nama raj jam 
karente evam bhikkhiinam paccaya duUabhati nagarassa ^ 
catusu dvaresu pokkharaniyo karapetva bhesajjassa piirapetva 

54. Tena kira samayena PataHputtassa catusu dvaresu 
cattari satasahassani, sabhayam satasahassan ti divase divase 
pailca satasahassani ranfio uppajjanti ; tato raja Nigro- 
dhattherassa devasikam satasahassani vissajjesi,® Buddhassa 
cetiye gandhamaladihi pujanatthaya satasahassani, dham- 
massa satasahassani, tarn dhammadharanam bahussutanam 
catupaccayatthaya upaniyati, sanghassa satasahassani, catusu 

1 E. pabbajjapesi. ^ P.E.V. upasampadamandale. 

3 T.O. attharasa vassani, * T.O. -kalato pabhuti. 

5 T.O. satthakatham. « T.O. sabbattheravadam. 

' P. Kuntaputta- ; E. Kontaputta-. » x.O. nafigarassa. 
» P.E. vissajeti. 

174 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

dvaresu bhesajjatthaya satasahassam. Evam sasane ularo [53] 
labhasakkaro nibbatti. Titthiya parihinalabhasakkara anta- 
maso ghasacchadanam pi alabhanta labhasakkaram patthaya- 
mana sasane pabbajitva sakani sakani ditthigatani : ayam 
dhammo ayam vinayo ti dipenti. Pabbajjam alabhamana 
pi sayam eva mundetva kasayani vatthani acchadetva viharesu 
vicaranta uposatham pi pavaranam pi sahghakammam pi 
ganakammam pi pavisanti. Bhikkhu tehi saddhim uposatham 
na karonti. 

55. Tada Moggaliputtatissatthero : uppannam dani idam 
adhikaranam, tarn na cirass'eva kakkhalam bhavissati, na kho 
pan'etam sakka imesam majjhe vasantena vupasametun ti 
Mahindattherassa ganam niyyadetva ^ attano ^ phasukaviha- 
rena viharitukamo Ahogangapabbatam ^ agamasi. 

Te pi kho titthiya bhikkhusanghena dhammena vinayena 
satthusasanena niggayhamana pi dhammavinayanulomaya 
patipattiya asanthahanta * anekarupam sasanassa abbudan 
ca malaii ca kantakan ca samutthapesum. Keci aggim pari- 
caranti, keci paficatape tappanti,^ keci adiccam anuparivat- 
tanti, keci dhammafi ca vinayan ca vobhindissamati paggan- 

Tada bhikkhusangho na tehi saddhim uposatham va pava- 
ranam va akasi. Asokarame satta vassani uposatho upacchijji. 
Rafino pi etam attham arocesum. Raja ekam amaccam 
anapesi : viharam gantva adhikaranam vupasametva uposa- 
tharn karapehiti. Amacco rajanam patipucchiturn avisahanto 
aniie amacce upasankamitva aha : raja marn vihararn gantva 
adhikaranam vupasametva uposatham karapehiti pahini. 
Kathan nu kho adhikaranam viipasammatiti.^ Te [54] aharnsu : 
mayarn evam sallakkhema : yatha nama paccantam vupa- 
samenta core ghatenti evam evam ye uposatham na karonti te 
marapetukamo raja bhavissatiti. Atha so amacco viharam 
gantva bhikkhusangham sannipatetva aha : aharn ranna, 
uposatham karapehiti pesito, karotha dani bhante uposathan 

1 P.E.V. niyadetva. 2 p.E.V. attana. 

3 P. Ahoganga-. * T.O. asandhahanta. 

^ Bp. pancatapena tapenti ; E. tapenti. * T.O. vupasamatiti. 

Tatiyamahdsangttivannand 175 

ti. Bhikkhu : na may am titthiyehi saddhim uposatham 
karomati ahamsu. Amacco therasanato patthaya asina sisani 
patetum araddho. 

56. Addasa kho Tissatthero tarn amaccam tatha vippatipan- 
nam. Tissatthero nama na yo va so va, ranno ekamatiko bhata 
Tissakumaro nama. Tarn kira raja pattabhiseko oparajje 
thapesi. So ekadivasarn vanacararn gato addasa mahantarn 
migasarigharn cittaya krlikaya ^ kllantarn. Disvan' assa etad 
ahosi : ime tava tinabhakkha miga evarn kilanti, ime pana 
samaria rajakule panitani bhojanani bhunjitva mudukasu 
seyyasu sayamana klva manaparn kilitarn ^ na kilissantiti. 
So tato agantva imarn attano vitakkarn ranno arocesi. 

Raja : atthane kukkuccayitarn kumarena, handa narn 
evarn sannapessamiti ekadivasarn kenaci karariena kuddho 
viya hutva : ehi, satta divase rajjarn sampaticcha, tato tarn ^ 
ghatessamiti marariabhayena tajjetva tam attharn saMapesi. 
So kira kumaro : sattame marn divase maressantiti na citta- 
ruparn nahayi, na bhunji, na supi, ativiya lukhasarlro ahosi. 
Tato narn raja pucchi : kissa tvarn evarupo jato ti. Marana- 
bhayena devati. Are, tvarn nama paricchinnamaranarn [55] 
sampassamano vissattho na kilasi, bhikkhu assasapassasupani- 
baddharn * marariarn pekkhamana katharn kilissantiti. Tatop- 
pabhuti ^ kumaro sasane pasidi. 

So puna ekadivasarn migavarn nikkhamitva ararine anuvi- 
caramano addasa Yonakamahadhammarakkhitattherarn afirla- 
t arena hatthinagena salasakharn gahetva vijiyamanarn ® nisin- 
narn. Disva pamujjajato cintesi : kada nu kho aham pi ayarn 
mahathero viya pabbajeyyarn, siya nu kho so divaso ti. Thero 
tassa ajjhasayarn ' viditva tassa passant ass' eva akase uppa- 
titva Asokarame pokkharariiya udakathale thatva civarari ca 
uttarasangaii ca akase laggetva nahayiturn araddho. Kumaro 
therassanubhavarn disva ativiya pasanno : ajj'eva pabbajis- 
samiti nivattitva ranno arocesi : pabbajissami aharn devati. 

Raja anekappakararn yacitva pi ^ tarn nivatteturn asakkonto 

^ P.E.V. cittakllaya. ^ T.O. kiva nama kilikam ; E. kinca. 

' P.E.V. nam. * T.O. -passasupa-. 

5 T.O. tato pabhuti. * T.O. vijayamanam. 

' P.E. tassasayam. « T.O. omit. 

176 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Asokaramagamaniyam maggam alankarapetva kumaram 
chanavesam gahapetva alankataya senaya parivarapetva 
viharamnesi. Yuvarajakira pabbajissatiti sutva bahu bhikkhu ^ 
pattacivarani patiyadesum. Kumaro padhanagharam gantva 
Mahadhammarakkhitattherass' eva santike pabbaji saddhim 
purisasatasahassena. Kumarassa pana anupabbajitanam ^ 
gananaparicchedo n'atthi. 

Kumaro ranno catuvassabhisekakale pabbajito. Ath'afifio pi 
ranfio bhagineyyo Sanghamittaya samiko Aggibrahma nama 
kumaro atthi. Sanghamitta tassa ekam eva puttarn vijayi. 
[56] So pi : yuvaraja pabbajito ti sutva rajanarn upasanka- 
mitva : aham pi deva pabbajissamiti yaci. Pabbaja tatati 
ca rafiiia anunnato tarn divasam eva pabbaji. 

Evam ^ anupabbajito * ularavibhavena khattiyajanena/ 
ranno kanitthabhata Tissatthero ti viilneyyo. 

57. So tarn amaccarn tatha vippatipannarn disva cintesi : na 
raja there maretum ^ pahineyya, addha imass'ev'etarn amac- 
cassa duggahitam bhavissatiti gantva sayam tassa asanne asane 
nisidi. So theram safijanitva sattham nipateturn avisahanto 
gantva rafino arocesi : aham deva uposatharn katurn anic- 
chantanam ettakanam nama bhikkhunam sisani patesim, 
atha ayyassa Tissattherassa patipati sampatta, kin ti karomiti. 
Raja sutva 'va : are, kim pana tvam maya bhikkhii ghatetum 
pesito ti tavad ev'assa ' sarire uppannadaho hutva viharam 
gantva there bhikkhu pucchi : ayarn bhante amacco maya 
ananatto va evam akasi, kassa nu kho imina papena bhavitab- 
ban ti. 

Ekacce thera : ayam tava vacanena akasi, tuyh'etarn papan 
ti ahamsu. Ekacce : ubhinnam pi vo etam papan ti ahamsu. 
Ekacce evam aharnsu : kim pana te maharaja atthi cittarn, 
ayarn gantva bhikkhu ghatetuti. N 'atthi bhante, kusaladhip- 
payo aharn pesesirn, samaggo bhikkhusangho uposatharn 
karotuti. Sace tvarn kusaladhippayo, n'atthi tuyham paparn, 
amaccass'ev'etarn papan ti. 

1 T. bahubhikkhu. ^ p jg anupabbajitakanam. ^ T.O. give st. in prose. 
* T.O. -pabbajita-ulara-. Most texts agree on -pabbajito to conform to the 
Arya metre. 

5 T.O. khattiyajatena. « P.E.V. marapetum. ' P.E.V. omit assa. 

Tatty amahdsangUivannand 177 

58. Raja dvelhakajato aha : atthi nu kho bhante koci 
bhikkhu mam' etam dvelhakam chinditva sasanam pagga- 
hetum samattho ti. Atthi maharaja MoggaHputtatissatthero 
nama, [57] so te imam dvelhakam chinditva sasanam paggan- 
hitum samattho ti. Raja tadah'eva cattaro dhammakathike 
ek'ekam bhikkhusahassaparivaram cattaro ca amacce ek'ekam 
purisasahassaparivaram : theram ganhitva agacchathati pesesi. 

Te gantva : raja pakkosatiti ahamsu. Thero nagacchi.^ 
Dutiyam pi kho raja attha dhammakathike attha ca amacce 
sahassasahassaparivare yeva pesesi : raja bhante pakkosatiti 
vatva ganhitva 'va agacchathati. Te tath'eva ahamsu. Duti- 
yam pi thero nagacchi.^ Raja there pucchi : aharn bhante 
dvikkhattum pahinim, kasma thero nagacchatiti. Raja 
pakkosatiti vuttatta maharaja nagacchati,^ evarn pana vutte 
agaccheyya : sasanarn bhante osidati, amhakarn sasanam 
pagganhanatthaya sahayaka hothati. Atha raja tatha vatva 
solasa dhammakathike solasa ca amacce sahassasahassapari- 
vare pesesi. Bhikkhu ca patipucchi : mahallako nu kho 
bhante thero daharo nu kho ti. Mahallako maharajati. Vay- 
harn va sivikani va abhiruhissati ^ bhante ti. Nabhiriihissati ^ 
Kuhim bhante thero vasatiti. Upari Gangaya maharajati. 
Raja aha : tena hi bhane navasanghatam bandhitva tattha 
theram nisidapetva dvisu pi * tiresu arakkham sarnvidhaya 
theram anethati. Bhikkhu ca amacca ca therassa santikam 
gantva raniio sasanam arocesum. Thero sutva : yarn ^ kho 
aharn mulato patthaya sasanam pagganhissamiti pabbajito 
'mhi, ayam dani me so kalo anuppatto ti cammakhandam 
ganhitva 'va utthahi. 

59. Atha [58] thero sve Pataliputtam sampapunissatiti 
rattibhage raja supinam addasa. Evarupo supino ahosi : 
sabbaseto hatthinago agantva rajanam sisato patthaya para- 
masitva dakkhinahatthe aggahesi. Punadivase raja supinaj- 
jhayake pucchi : maya evarupo supino dittho, kim me bhavis- 
satiti. Eko tarn maharaja samananago dakkhinahatthe 
ganhissatiti.^ Atha ' raja tavad eva : thero agato ti sutva 

1 T.O. nagafichi. ^ T.O. add iti. 

3 RE.V.-ruhissati. * T.O. ca. 

5 T.O. ayam. « P.E. add aha. ' P.E.V. omit. 

178 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Gangatiram gantva nadim otaritva abbhuggacchanto janu- 
matte udake theram sampapunitva therassa navato otarantassa 
hattham adasi. Thero rajanam dakkhinahatthe aggahesi. 
Tarn disva asiggahaka ^ therassa sisam patessamati kosato ^ 
asim abbahimsu. Kasma. Etam kira carittam rajakulesu, yo 
rajanam hatthe ganhati tassa asina sisam patetabban ti. 
Raja chayam yeva disva aha : pubbe pi aham bhikkhusu 
viraddhakarana ^ assasam * na vindami, ma kho there viraj- 
jhitthati. Thero pana kasma rajanam hatthe aggahesiti. 
Yasma rafina panham pucchanatthaya pakkosapito tasma : 
antevasiko me ay an ti aggahesi. 

60. Raja theram attano uyyanarn netva bahirato tikkhattura 
parivarapetva arakkharn thapetva sayam eva therassa pade 
dhovitva telena makkhetva therassa santike nisTditva : patibalo 
nu kho thero mama kankharn chinditva uppannarn adhikara- 
nam vupasametva sasanarn pagganhitun ti vimamsanatthaya : 
aharn bhante ekarn patihariyam datthukamo ti aha. Kata- 
marn ^ patihariyarn datthukamo 'si maharajati. Pathavi- 
kampanarn bhante ti. Sakalapathavikampanarn datthukamo 
'si maharajaudahu ® padesapathavi[59]kampanan ti. Katararn 
pan'ettha bhante dukkaran ti. Kin nu kho maharaja karnsa- 
patiya udakapunnaya sabbarn udakarn kampetum dukkaram 
udahu upaddhan ti. Upaddham bhante ti. Evam eva kho 
maharaja padesapathavikampanam dukkaran ti. Tena hi 
bhante padesapathavikampanam passissamati. Tena hi 
maharaja samantato yojane yojane puratthimaya disaya ekena 
cakkena simam akkamitva ratho titthatu, dakkhinaya disaya 
dvihi padehi sTmam akkamitva asso titthatu, pacchimaya 
disaya ekena padena simarn akkamitva puriso titthatu, 
uttaraya disaya upaddhabhagena simara akkamitva eka 
udakapati ' titthatuti. Raja tatha karapesi. Thero abhinna- 
padakam catutthajjhanam samapajjitva ® vutthaya : raja 
passatuti yojanappamanara pathavicalanarn adhitthahi. Purat- 
thimaya disaya rathassa antosimaya thito 'va pado ^ caH, 
itaro na cah, evarn dakkhinapacchimadisasu assapurisanam 

1 T.O. asiggaha. 2 x q. kosito. ^ x.O. viruddhakarana. 

4 P.E.V. assadam. ^ t.O. katararn. « T.O. omit. 

' T.O. udakapati. « P.E.V. add tato. » T.O. cakkapado. 

Tatiyamahdsangitivannand 179 

antosimaya thitapada yeva ^ calimsu upaddh'upaddham sariran 
ca, uttaraya disaya udakapatiya pi antosimaya thitam upad- 
dhabhagagatam ^ eva udakam call, avasesam niccalam ahositi. 

61. Raja tarn patihariyam disva : sakkhissati dani thero 
sasanam pagganhitun ti nittham gantva attano kukkuccam 
pucchi : aham bhante ekaccam ^ amaccam : viharam gantva 
adhikaranam vupasametva uposatham karehiti * pahinim, so 
viharam gantva ettake bhikkhu jivita voropesi. Etam papam 
kassa hotiti. Kim pana te maharaja atthi cittam : ayam 
viharam gantva bhikkhii ghatetuti. N'atthi bhante. Sace te 
maharaja n'atthi evaruparn cittarn, n'atthi tuyharn papan ti. 
Atha thero rajanarn etam attham imina suttena safinapesi : 
cetanaham bhikkhave kammam vadami, cetayitva kammam 
karoti kayena vaca ^ manasati. Tam eva [60] vatthurn ^ 
paridipeturn Tittirajatakam ahari : atite maharaja dipakatittiro 
tapasam pucchi : 

Natako no nisinno ti bahu agacchati ' jano, 

paticca kammarn ^ phusati, tasmim me sankati mano ti. 

Tapaso aha : atthi pana te cittarn : mama saddena ca 
rupadassanena ca agantva ete pakkhino bajjhantu va haiifiantu 
vati. N'atthi bhante ti tittiro aha. Tato narn tapaso 
safinapesi ^ : sace te n'atthi cittarn n'atthi paparn, cetayantam 
eva hi kammam phusati n^cetayantam. 

Na paticca kammam ® phusati mano ce nappadussati, 
appossukkassa bhadrassa ^^ na papam upalippatiti.^^ 

62. Evarn thero rajanarn sanfiapetva tatth'eva raj'uyyane 
satta divasani vasanto rajanarn samayam ugganhapesi. Raja 
sattame divase Asokarame bhikkhusangharn sannipatapetva 
sanipakararn parikkhipapetva sanipakarantare nisinno ekalad- 
dhike ekaladdhike bhikkhu ekato ekato karetva ekam ekarn 

^ T.O. eva. 2 x.O. -bhagathitam eva ; E. -bhagamattam eva. 

3 P.E.V. ekam. * P.E.V. karapehiti. 

' P.E.V. vacaya. « T.O. attham. 

' T.O. agacchati (-ti metri causa). 

* T.O. paticcakammam ; J. paticca kammam na phusati. 

^ T.O. paniiapesi. 1° P.E. bhaddassa. ^^ T.O.E. upahmpati. 

l8o Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

bhikkhusamuham pakkosapetva pucchi : kimvadi sammasam- 
buddho ti. Tato sassatavadino : sassatavaditi ahamsu ; 
ekaccasassatika - pe ^ - antanantika - pe - amaravikkhepika - pe - 
adhiccasamuppanika - pe - sannivada - pe - asafinivada - pe - 
[61]n'evasanninasannivada - pe - ucchedavada - pe - dittha- 
dhammanibbanavada : ditthadhammanibbanavaditi ^ ahamsu. 
Raja pathamam eva samayassa uggahitatta ^ : na ime bhikkhu, 
annatitthiya ime ti ilatva tesam setakani vatthani datva 
uppabbajesi.* Te sabbe pi satthisahassa ahesum. 

Ath' anile bhikkhii pakkosapetva pucchi : kimvadi bhante 
sammasambuddho ti. Vibhajjavajl maharajati. Evam vutte 
raja theram pucchi : vibhajjavadi bhante sammasambuddho 
ti. Ama maharajati. Tato raja : suddharn dani bhante sasa- 
narn, karotu bhikkhusangho uposathan ti arakkharn datva 
nagaram ^ pavisi. Samaggo sangho sannipatitva uposatham 
akasi. Tasmim sannipate satthibhikkhusatasahassani ahesurn. 
Tasmim samagame MoggaHputtatissatthero parappavadarn 
maddamano Kathavatthuppakaranam abhasi. Tato satthi- 
satasahassasankhasu ^ bhikkhusu uccinitva tipitakapariyatti- 
dharanam pabhinnapatisambhidanam tevijjadibhedanarn bhik- 
khunam sahassam ekarn gahetva yatha Mahakassapatthero ca 
Kakandakaputto Yasatthero ca dhammaii ca vinayan ca 
sangayimsu, evam eva dhamman ca vinayaii ca sangayanto 
sabbarn sasanamalam visodhetva tatiyasangitim akasi. San- 
git ipariyosane anekappakaram pathavi akampittha. Ayarn 
sangiti navahi masehi nitthita. Ya loke : 

Kata bhikkhusahassena tasma sahassikati ^ ca, 
purima dve upadaya tatiyati ca vuccatiti ; 
ayarn tatiyasangiti. 


63. Ettavata ca : kenabhatan ti etassa pafihassa vissajjanat- 
tharn yad avocumha : Jambudipe tava UpaHttherara adim 

1 T.O. omit -pe- throughout. 2 x.O. omit. 

3 T.O. uggahitatta. « T.O. upapabbajesi. 

5 T.O. nangaram. « T.O. -sankheyyesu. 
' T.O. sahassika. 

Acariyaparampard i8i 

katva [62] acariyaparamparaya yava tatiyasangiti tava 
abhatam. Tatrayam acariyaparampara : 

Upali Dasako c'eva Sonako ^ Siggavo tatha, 
Tisso Moggaliputto ca panc'ete vijitavino, 
paramparaya vinayam dipe Jambusirivhaye 
acchijjamanam anesum tatiyo yava sangaho ti ; 

tass'attho ettavata pakasito ^ hoti. Tatiyasangahato pana 
uddham imam dipam Mahindadihi abhatam. Mahindato ugga- 
hetva kanci ^ kalam Aritthattheradihi abhatam, tato yava 
ajjatana tesam yeva antevasikaparamparabhutaya * acariya- 
paramparaya abhatan ti veditabbam. Yathahu porana : 

Tato Mahindo Itthiyo Uttiyo Sambalo pi ca 

^ Bhaddanamo ca pandito ; 

Ete naga mahapaiiila Jambudipa idhagata : 
vinayarn te vacayirnsu pitakarn Tambapanniya. 
Nikaye paiica vacesum satta c'eva pakarane.* 
Tato Arittho medhavi Tissadatto ca pandito 
visarado Kalasumano thero ca Dighanamako 

^ Dighasumano ca pandito. 

Punar eva ' Kalasumano Nagatthero ca Buddharakkhito, 
Tissatthero ca medhavi Devatthero ca pandito. 
Punar eva Sumano medhavi vinaye ca visarado, 
bahussuto Ciilanago ^ gajo Va duppadharnsiyo. 
[63] Dhammapahtanamo ^ ca Rohano ^^ sadhupiijito, 
tassa sisso mahapailiio Khemanamo tipetako. 
Dipe tarakaraja 'va paiinaya atirocatha, 
Upatisso ca medhavi Phussadevo mahakathi.^^ 
Punar eva ' Sumano medhavi Phussanamo ^^ bahussuto, 
mahakathi Mahasivo pitake sabbattha kovido. 
Punar eva ' Upali medhavi vinaye ca visarado, 
Mahanago mahapanfio saddhammavarnsakovido. 
Punar eva Abhayo ^^ medhavi pitake sabbattha kovido, 

1 T.O. Sonako. 2 p £_ add va. 

^ E. kiiici. * T. -parampara-. 
^ Lacuna of a pada. E.T.O. do not take this into account in the arrange- 
ment of the stanza. 

' P. pakarane (with no metrical lengthening). ' p.E.V. punad eva. 

8 E. Cula-. » T.O. Dhammapalinamo. i» T.O. Rohane. 

" P.E.V. mahakavi. 12 p.E.V. Puppha. " j.O. Sahayo. 

i82 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Tissatthero ca medhavi vinaye ca visarado. 
Tassa sisso mahapaniio Pupphanamo bahussuto, 
sasanam anurakkhanto Jambudipe patitthito. 
Culabhayo ^ ca medhavi vinaye ca visarado, 
Tissatthero ca medhavi saddhammavamsakovido. 
Ciiladevo ^ ca medhavi vinaye ca visarado 
Sivatthero ca medhavi vinaye sabbattha kovido. 
Ete naga mahapaiina vinayanilii ^ maggakovida, 
vinayam dipe pakasesum pitakam Tambapanniyati. 

64. Tatrayam anupubbikatha ^ : 
Moggaliputtatissatthero kira imam tatiyadhammasangitim * 

katva evam cintesi : kattha nu kho anagate sasanam suppa- 
titthitam bhaveyyati. Ath'assa upaparikkhato etad ahosi : 
paccantimesu kho janapadesu sasanam suppatitthitam bhavis- 
satiti. So tesam tesam bhikkhiinam bharam katva te te bhikkhu 
tattha tattha pesesi. Majjhantikattheram Kasmiragandhara- 
rattham pesesi : tvam etam rattham gantva ettha sasanam 
patitthapehiti. Mahadevattheram tath'eva vatva Mahisaka- 
mandalam ^ pesesi, Rakkhitattheram Vanavasim, [64] Yonaka- 
dhammarakkhitattheram Aparantakam, Mahadhammarakkhi- 
tattheram Maharattham, Maharakkhitattheram Yonakalokam, 
Majjhimattheram Himavantapadesabhagam, Sonakattheran ^ 
ca Uttarattheran ca Suvannabhumim, attano saddhiviharikam 
Mahindattheram Itthiyattherena ' Uttiyattherena Sambalat- 
therena Bhaddasalattherena ca saddhim Tambapannidipam 
pesesi : tumhe Tambapannidipam gantva ettha sasanam 
patitthapethati. Sabbe pi tarn tarn disabhagarn gacchanta 
attapancama agamarnsu : paccantimesu janapadesu paficavag- 
go gario alarn upasampadakammayati mafifiamana. 

65. Tena kho pana samayena Kasmiragandhararatthe sas- 
sapakasamaye Aravalo ® nama nagaraja karakavassarn nama 
vassarn vassapetva sassarn harapetva mahasamuddarn papeti. ^ 
Majjhantikatthero ^° PataJiputtato vehasarn abbhuggantva 

^ E. Cola- 2 T. vidayaiinu (a misprint ?). 

3 T. anupubbi- ; O. anupubbi-. * T.O. tatiyam dhamma-. 
^ P.E.V. Mahimsaka-. « T.O. Sonaka-. 

' T.O. Iddhiya- throughout. * T.O. Aravalo. 

» T.O. papesi. " P.E. add pana. 

Acariyaparampard 183 

Himavati Aravala^dahassa upari otaritva Aravala^dahapitthi- 
yam cafikamati pi titthati pi nisidati pi seyyam pi kappeti. 
Nagamanavaka ^ tarn disva Aravalassa^ nagarajassa arocesum : 
maharaja eko chinnabhinnapatadharo bhandukasavavasano 
amhakam udakam dusetiti. Nagaraja ^ tavad eva kodh§.bhi- 
bhuto nikkhamitva theram disva makkham asahamano antalik- 
khe anekani bhimsanakani nimmini ; tato tato bhusam vata 
vayanti, rukkha bhijjanti, pabbatakutani patanti, megha 
gajjanti, vijjullata niccharanti, asaniyo phalanti, bhinnam 
viya gaganam udakam paggharati, bhayanakarupa [65] 
nagakumara sannipatanti, sayam pi dhumayati ^ pajjalati 
paharanavutthiyo vissaj jeti : ko ay am mundako chinnabhinna- 
patadharo ti adihi pharusavacanehi theram santajjesi, etha 
ganhatha bandhatha niddhamatha imarn samanan ti naga- 
balam anapesi. Thero sabban tarn bhirnsanakam * attano 
iddhibalena patibahetva ^ nagarajanam aha : 

Sadevako pi ce loko agantva tasayeyya mam 
na me ® patibalo assa janeturn ' bhayabheravarn. 
Sace pi tvarn mahirn sabbam sasamuddam sapabbatam 
ukkhipitva mahanaga khipeyyasi mamupari, 
n'eva me sakkuneyyasi janeturn bhayabheravarn ; 
aMadatthu tav'ev'assa ^ vighato uragadhipati. 

Evarn vutte nagaraja vigatanubhavo ^ nipphalavayamo 
dukkhi dummano ahosi. Tarn thero tankhananuriapaya 
dhammiya kathaya sandassetva samadapetva samuttejetva 
sampaharnsetva tisu ca saranesu^^ pancasu ca silesu patthapesi 
saddhirn caturasitiya nagasahassehi. Anne pi bahu Hima- 
vantavasino yakkha ca gandhabbakumbharida ca therassa 
dhammakatharn sutva saranesu ca silesu ca patitthahirnsu. 
Pancako ^^ pi yakkho saddhirn bhariyaya ^^ yakkhiniya 
pancahi ca puttasatehi pathame phale patitthito. Athayasma 

1 T.O. Aravala-. ^ T.O. nanga-, nanga-. 

' T.O. dhumayati. * P.E.V. vibhimsanakam. 

s P.E.V. patibahitva. « E. ve. 
' Mhv, xii, 16, yam ettha. 

* T. tav'assa (a syllable short for the Anustubh ^loka metre). 

» T.O. vihata-. " T.O. tisu saranesu ca. 

11 Mhv. xii, 21, Pandako. 12 See T., p. 65, n. 16. 

184 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Majjhantikatthero sabbe pi nagayakkharakkhase amantetva 
evam aha : 

Ma dani kodham janayittha ito uddham yatha pure 

sassaghatan ca makattha ^ sukhakama hi panino ; 

karotha mettam sattesu, vasantu manuja sukhan ti. 

[66] Te sabbe ^ : sadhu bhante ti therassa ^ patissutva * 

yathanusittham patipajjimsu. Tarn divasam eva ca nagarajassa 

pujasamayo hoti. Atha nagaraja attano ratanamayam pal- 

lankam aharapetva therassa pannapesi. Nisidi thero pallanke. 

Nagaraja pi theram vijayamano samipe atthasi. Tasmim 

khane Kasmiragandhararatthavasino ^ agantva ^ theram 

disva : amhakarn nagarajato pi thero mah'iddhikataro ti 

theram eva vanditva nisinna. Thero tesam Asivisopamasut- 

tantam ' kathesi. Suttapariyosane asitiya panasahassanara 

dhammabhisamayo ahosi, kulasatasahassaii ca ^ pabbaji. 

Tatoppabhuti ^ ca Kasmiragandhara yava ajjatana kasava- 

pajjota isivataparivata ^® eva. 

Gantva Kasmiragandhararn isi Majjhantiko tada, 
ruttharri ^^ nagam pasadetva mocesi bandhana bahuti. 

66. Mahadevatthero pi Mahirnsakamandalam gantva Deva- 
dutasuttarn kathesi. Suttapariyosane cattalisapanasahassani 
dhammacakkhurn patilabhimsu, cattalisam yeva panasahassani 

Gantvana rattham Mahisam ^^ Mahadevo mah'iddhiko, 
codetva devadutehi mocesi bandhana bahuti.^^ 

67. Rakkhitatthero ^* Vanavasim gantva akase thatva Ana- 
mataggapariyayakathaya Vanavasike pasadesi. Kathapari- 
yosane pana^^ satthisahassanam dhammabhisamayo ahosi, [67] 
sattatirnsasahassamatta pabbajimsu, pancaviharasatani patit- 
thahimsu. Evarn so tattha sasanam patitthapesi. 

Gantvana Rakkhitatthero Vanavasim mah'iddhiko 
antaUkkhe thito tattha desesi Anamataggiyan ti. 

1 T.O. ma kattha. 2 p.E.V. add pi. ^ e. adds vacanam. 

* P.E. patisunitva. ^ T. -gandharattha-. ® T.O. agatam. 

' P.Sp.E. -suttam. « T.O. omit. » T.O. tato pabhuti. 

" P.E.V. -pativata. 11 E. rattham. 12 p.E.V. Mahimsam. 

13 T. The arrangement of st. is different. 
1* T.O. add ca. " P.E.V. pan'assa. 

Acariyaparampard 185 

68. Yonakadhammarakkhitatthero pi Aparantakam gantva 
Aggikkhandhupamasuttantakathaya Aparantake pasadetva 
sattatimsapanasahassani dhammamatam payesi. Khattiyaku- 
lato yeva purisasahassam pabbaji, samadhikani ca cha itthisa- 
hassani. Evam so tattha sasanam patitthapesi. 

Aparantam vigahitva Yonako Dhammarakkhito, 
Aggikkhandhupamen'ettha pasadesi jane bahuti. 

69. Mahadhammarakkhitatthero pana Maharattham gantva 
Mahanaradakassapajatakakathaya Maharatthake pasadetva 
caturasitipanasahassani maggaphalesu patitthapesi, terasa 
sahassani pabbajimsu. Evam so tattha sasanam patitthapesi. 

Maharattham isi ^ gantva so Mahadhammarakkhito, 
jatakam kathayitvana pasadesi mahajanan ti. 

70. Maharakkhitatthero pi Yonakarattham gantva Kala- 
karamasuttantakathaya Yonakalokam pasadetva sattatim- 
sasahassadhikassa panasatasahassassa maggaphalalankaram 
adasi, santike c'assa dasasahassani ^ pabbajimsu. Evam so pi 
tattha sasanam patitthapesi. 

Yonarattham ^ tada gantva so Maharakkhito isi, 
Kalakaramasuttena te pasadesi Yonake ti. 

71. [68] Majjhimatthero pana Kassapagottattherena Alakade- 
vattherena Dundubhissarattherena Mahadevattherena * ca 
saddhim Himavantapadesabhagam gantva Dhammacakkap- 
pavattanasuttantakathaya tarn desam pasadetva asitipana- 
kotiyo maggaphalaratanani patilabhesi. Panca pi c'ete ^ thera 
paiicaratthani pasadesum. Ekam ekassa santike satasahas- 
samatta pabbajimsu. Evam te tattha sasanam patitthapesum. 

Gantvana Majjhimatthero Himavantam pasadayi, 
yakkhasenam pakasento Dhammacakkappavattanan ti. 

72. Sonakatthero ^ pi saddhim Uttarattherena Suvanna- 
bhumim agamasi. Tena ca samayena tattha eka rakkhasi 
samuddato nikkhamitva rajakule jate jate darake khadati. 

^ E. isi. 2 x.O. dasasahassa. 

^ T.O. Yonaka-. * T.O. Sahadeva-. 

5 P.E.V. panca pi ca te. « T.O. Sonaka- ; P.E. Sonatthero. 

1 86 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Tarn divasam eva ca rajakule eko darako jato hoti. Manussa 
theram disva : rakkhasanam sahayako eso ti mannamana 
ayudhani ^ gahetva theram paharitukama ^ agacchanti.^ Thero : 
kim tumhe ayudhahattha * agacchathati aha. Te ahamsu : 
rajakule jate jate darake rakkhasa khadanti, tesam tumhe 
sahayakati. Thero : na mayam rakkhasanam sahayaka, 
samana nama mayam virata panatipata -pe- virata majjapana 
ekabhattika silavanto kalyanadhammati aha. Tasmirn yeva 
ca khane sa rakkhasi saparivara samuddato nikkhami : raja- 
kule darako jato, tarn khadissamiti. Manussa tarn disva : 
esa bhante rakkhasi agacchatiti bhita viravimsu. Thero rak- 
khasehi dvigune ^ attabhave nimminitva tehi attabhavehi tarn 
rakkhasirn [69] saparisarn majjhe katva ubhosu passesu 
parikkhipi. Tassa saparisaya etad ahosi : addha imehi imarn ^ 
thanarn laddharn bhavissati, mayarn pana imesarn bhakkha 
bhavissamati, sabbarakkhasa bhita ' vegasa ® palayirnsu. Thero 
pi te yava adassanarn tava palapetva dipassa samantato 
arakkharn ^ thapesi. Tasmifi ca samaye sannipatitarn maha- 
janakayarn Brahmajalasuttantakathaya pasadetva saranesu 
ca silesu ca patitthapesi. Satthisahassanarn pan'ettha dhamma- 
bhisamayo ahosi ; kuladarakanara addhuddhani sahassani 
pabbajirnsu, kuladhitanarn diyaddhasahassarn. Evarn so 
tattha sasanarn patitthapesi. Tatoppabhuti ^° rajakule jata- 
darakanarn Sonuttaranamam ^^ eva karonti. 

Suvanriabhumirn gantvana Son'uttara ^^ mahiddhika, 
pisace niddhamitvana Brahmajalarn adesayun ti. 

73. Mahindatthero pana : Tambapannidiparn gantva sasanarn 
patitthapehiti upajjhayena ca bhikkhusanghena ca ajjhittho 
cintesi : kalo nu kho me Tambapannidiparn ganturn no ti. 
Ath'assa vimarnsato : na tava kalo ti ahosi. Kirn pan'assa 
disva etad ahosi. Mutasivaranno mahallakabhavarn. Tato 
cintesi : ayara raja mahallako, na sakka imarn ganhitva 
sasanara paggaheturn ; idani pan'assa putto Devanampi- 
yatisso rajjarn karessati, tarn ganhitva sakka bhavissati 

1 T.O. avudhani. 2 x.O. pariharitukama. ^ T.O. gacchanti. 

4 T.O. avudha-. ^ T.O. digune. « P.E.V. idam. 

' T.O. omit. 8 T.O. vegena. » T.O. rakkham. 

1" T.O. tato pabhuti. " T.O. Sonuttara-. 

Acariyaparampard 187 

sasanam paggahetum. Handa yava so samayo agacchati tava 
natake olokema. Puna dani mayam imam janapadam agac- 
cheyyama va na vati. So evam cintetva upajjhayaii ca bhik- 
khusanghafi ca vanditva Asokaramato nikkhamma tehi 
Itthiy^dihi ^ catuhi ^ therehi Sanghamittaya puttena Sumana- 
samanerena [70] Bhandukena ca upasakena saddhim Rajaga- 
hanagaraparivattakena Dakkhinagirijanapade carikam cara- 
mano natake olokento cha mase atikkamesi. Athanupubbena 
matunivesanatthanam Vedisanagaram ^ nama sampatto. 

74. Asoko kira kumarakale janapadam labhitva Ujjenim 
gacchanto Vedisanagaram patva Devasetthissa * dhitaram 
aggahesi. Sa tarn divasam eva gabbham ganhitva Ujjeniyam 
Mahindakumaram vijayi. 

Kumarassa cuddasavassakale rajjabhisekam papuni. Sa 
tassa mata tena samayena iiatighare vasati. Tena vuttam : 
anupubbena ^ matunivesanatthanam Vedisanagaram ^ nama 
sampatto ti. Sampattaii ca pana theram disva theramata 
Devi padesu ® sirasa vanditva bhikkham datva theram attana ^ 
katarn Vedisagirimahaviharam ^ nama aropesi. Thero ^ 
tasmirn vihare nisinno cintesi : amhakarn idha kattabbakiccam 
nitthitarn, samayo nu kho idani Lankadiparn gantun ti. Tato 
cintesi : anubhavatu tava me pitara pesitam abhisekarn 
Devanampiyatisso, ratanattayagunafi ca sunatu, chanatthaii 
ca nagarato nikkhamitva Missakapabbatam abhiruhatu, tada 
tarn tattha dakkhissamati. Athapararn ekamasarn tatth'eva 
vasarn kappesi. ^ Masatikkamena ca Jetthamiilamasapunna- 
mayam uposathadivase sannipatitva sabbe pi : kalo nu kho 
amhakarn Tambapannidipam gamanaya udahu no ti manta- 
yimsu. Tenahu porana : 

Mahindo nama namena sahghatthero tada ahu, 
Itthiyo ^® Uttiyo ^^ thero Bhaddasalo ca Sambalo ; 
[71] Samanero ca Sumano chalabhiiino mah'iddhiko, 
Bhanduko sattamo tesam ditthasacco upasako : 
iti ete mahanaga mantayimsu rahogatati. 

1 T.O. Iddhiya-. 2 x.O. catuhi. ' E. Vediya-. 

* P.V. Vedisasetthissa ; E. Vediya-. ^ P.E.V. athanupubbena. 

« T.O. pade. ' T.O. attano. « E. adds pi. 

» T.O. sankappesi. " T.O. Iddhiyo. " T.O. Vuttiyo. 

l88 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

75. Tada Sakko devanam indo Mahindattheram upasanka- 
mitva etad avoca : kalakato bhante Mutasivaraja, idani 
Devanampiyatissamaharaja raj jam kareti. Sammasambud- 
dhena ca tumhe vyakata : anagate Mahindo nama bhikkhu 
Tambapannidipam pasadessatiti. Tasmat iha vo bhante kalo 
dipavaram gamanaya, aham pi vo sahayo bhavissamiti. 
Kasma pana Sakko evam aha. Bhagava kir'assa bodhimule 
yeva Buddhacakkhuna lokam oloketva anagate imassa dipassa 
sampattim disva etam attham arocesi. Tada tvam pi sahayo 
bhaveyyasiti ca anapesi. Tasma evam aha. Thero tassa 
vacanam sampaticchitva attasattamo Vedisapabbata ^ veha- 
sam uppatitva Anuradhapurassa puratthimadisaya ^ Missa- 
kapabbate patitthahi, yam pan'etarahi Cetiyapabbato ti pi 
sanjananti. Tenahu porana : 

Vedisagirimhi ^ Rajagahe vasitva timsarattiyo 
kalo Va * gamanassati gacchama ^ dipam uttamam. 
Palina ^ Jambudipato hamsaraja va ambare 
evam uppatita thera nipatimsu nag'uttame. 
Purato purasetthassa pabbate meghasannibhe, 
patitthahimsu ' kutamhi '^ hamsa va nagamuddhaniti. 

76. [72] Evam Itthiyadihi ^ saddhim agantva patitthahanto 
ca ayasma Mahindatthero sammasambuddhassa parinibbanato 
dvinnam vassasatanam upari chattimsatime vasse imasmim 
dipe patitthahiti veditabbam.^ Ajatasattussa hi atthame 
vasse sammasambuddho parinibbayi. Tasmim yeva vasse 
Sihakumarassa putto TambapannidTpassa adiraja Vijaya- 
kumaro imam dipam agantva manussavasam akasi. Jambudipe 
Udayabhadrassa ^^ cuddasame vasse idha Vijayo kalam akasi. 
Udayabhadrassa ^^ paficadasame vasse Panduvasadevo ^^ nama 
imasmim dipe raj jam papuni. Tattha Nagadasakaraiino ^^ 
visatime vasse idha Panduvasadevo tirnsavassani rajjarn 
karetva ^^ kalam akasi. Tasmim yeva ca ^* vasse Abhayo 
nama rajakumaro imasmim dipe raj jam papuni. Tattha 
Susunagarafifio sattarasame vasse idha Abhayarafino visati ^^ 

1 E. Vediyaka- ; T.O. Vedisaka-. 2 p,E. -disayam. ^ e. Vediya-. 

* T.O. ca. ^ T.O. gacchami. ^ P. palita ; E. phalina. 

' P.E.V. patimsu silakutamhi. 8 x.O. Iddhiya-. » P.E.V. veditabbo. 
1" P.E. -bhaddassa. ^ P.E.V. -vasudevo. ^^ x.O. Nagadassaka. 

13 See T., p. 72, n. 11. 1* T.O. omit yeva ca. i^ x.O. visam. 

Acariyaparampard 189 

vassani paripurimsu. Atha Abhayassa visatime vasse Pakunda- 
kabhayo nama damariko raj jam aggahesi. Tattha Kalasokassa 
sojasame vasse idha Pakundakabhayassa sattarasa vassani 
paripurimsu. Tani hettha ekena vassena saha attharasa honti. 
Tattha Candaguttassa cuddasame vasse idha Pakundakabhayo 
kalam akasi ; Mutasivaraja raj jam papuni. Tattha Asoka- 
dhammarajassa sattarasame vasse idha Mutasivaraja kalam 
akasi ; Devanampiyatisso raj jam papuni. 

Parinibbute ca pana ^ sambuddhe Ajatasattu catuvisati 
vassani rajjarn karesi, Udayabhadro ^ [73] ca solasa, Anuruddho 
ca Mundo ca attha,^ Nagadasako * catuvisati, Susunago 
attharasa, tass'eva putto Asoko ^ atthavisati, Asokassa putta ® 
dasabhatukarajano dvevisati vassani rajjani karesura. Tesarn 
pacchato nava Nanda dvevlsatim eva, Candagutto ca ^ catu- 
visati, Bindusaro atthavisati.^ Tassavasane Asoko raj jam 
papuni.® Tassa pure abhiseka cattari, abhisekato attharasame 
vasse imasmim dipe Mahindatthero patitthito. Evam etena 
rajavamsanusarena veditabbam etam ^^ : sammasambud- 
dhassa parinibbanato dvinnam vassasatanam upari chattimsa- 
time vasse imasmirn dipe patitthahiti. 

77. Tasmin ca divase Tambapannidipe Jetthamiilanakkhat- 
tam nama nakkhattam ^^ hoti. Raja nakkhattam ghosapetva : 
chanarn karothati amacce anapetva cattalisapurisasahassapari- 
varo nagaramha nikkhamitva yena Missakapabbato tena payasi 
migavam kilitukamo. Atha tasmim pabbate adhivattha eka 
devata : rafiiio there dassessamiti rohitamigarupam gahetva 
avidiire tinapannani khadamana viya carati. Raja tarn ^^ 
disva : ayuttam dani pamattam vijjhitun ti jiyam pothesi. 
Migo Ambatthalamaggam gahetva palayitum arabhi. Raja 
pitthito anubandhanto Ambatthalam eva abhiruhi.^^ Migo pi 
theranam avidure antaradhayi. Mahindatthero rajanam 
avidure agacchantara disva : mamam yeva raja passatu, ma 
itare ti adhitthahitva : Tissa Tissa ito ehiti aha. Raja sutva 

1 P.E.V. omit. 2 p.E.V. -bhaddo. 

3 T.O. attharasa ; Mhv. iv, 3, attha, also Ch. (See T., p. 73, n. 2.). 

* T.O. Nagadassako. ^ P.E.V. Kalasoko. « P.E. puttaka. 

' P.E.V. omit. 8 T.O. atthavisam. » E. karesi. 

i» T.O. eva tarn. " P.E. omit. ^^ x.O. omit. 

" T.O. abhirulii. 

IQO Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

cintesi : imasmim dipe jato mam Tissati ^ namam [74] 
gahetva alapitum samattho nama n'atthi. Ayam pana chinna- 
bhinnapatadharo bhandukasavavasano mam namena alapati. 
Ko nu kho ayam bhavissati manusso va amanusso vati. Thero 
aha : 

Samana mayam maharaja dhammarajassa savaka, 
tav'eva ^ anukampaya Jambudipa idhagatati. 

78. Tena ca samayena Devanampiyatissamaharaj a ^ ca Asoka- 
dhammaraja ca aditthasahayaka honti. Devanampiyatissa- 
maharaj assa ca puiinanubhavena Chatakapabbatapade ekamhi 
venugumbe * tisso venuyatthiyo * rathayatthippamana uppaj- 
jimsu : eka latayatthi nama, eka pupphayatthi nama, eka 
sakunayatthi nama. Tasu latayatthi sayam ^ rajatavanna 
hoti, tarn alankaritva uppannalata kancanavanna khayati. 
Pupphayatthiyam pana nilapitalohitavadatakalavannani ® pup- 
phani suvibhattavantapattakiiijakkhani hutva khayanti. Saku- 
nayatthiyam hamsakukkutajivafijivakadayo ^ sakuna nanap- 
pakarani ca ^ catuppadani ^ sajivani viya khayanti. Vuttam 
pi c'etam Dipavamse ^^ : 

Chatapabbatapadamhi venuyatthi * tayo ahu, 
seta rajatayatthi ca ^^ lata kancanasannibha. 
Niladi yadisam puppham pupphayatthimhi tadisam, 
sakuna sakunayatthimhi sariipen' eva santhitati. 

[75] Samuddato pi 'ssa muttamaniveluriyadi-anekavihita- 
ratanam ^^ uppajji. Tambapanniyam pana ^^ attha mutta 
uppajjimsu : hayamutta, gajamutta, rathamutta, amalaka- 
mutta, valayamutta, angulivethakamutta, kakudhaphala- 
mutta, pakatikamuttati. So ta ^^ yatthiyo ta ca muttayo^^ 
aiinan ca bahum ratanam Asokassa dhammaranno panna- 
karatthaya pesesi. Asoko pasiditva tassa paficarajakakudha- 
bhandani pahini : chattam, camaram, khaggam, molim, 
ratanapadukam,^^ aiiiian ca abhisekatthaya bahuvidham 

^ E. adds Tissa again. 2 x.O. tarn eva. 

^ T.O. -tisso maharaja. * P. velu-. 

5 P.E.V. omit ; T.O. (latayatthi) yam. « P.E.V. -lohit 'odata. 

' T. kamsa- for hamsa- ; T.O. -jivajivakddayo. ^ T.O.E. omit. 

" E. pakkhiganani. ^° See references in Trsl. ^^ E. va. 

12 P.E.V. -vihitam ratanam. i^ x.O. omit. 1* P.E.V. add ca. 
1^ P. mutta. ^* T.O. ratanam padukam. 

Acariyaparampard 191 

pannakaram, seyyathidam : sankham, Gangodakam, vaddha- 
manam vatamsakam, bhinkaram, nandiyavattam, sivikam, 
kanfiam, katacchum/ adhovimam dussayugam, hatthapufi- 
chanam,^ haricandanam, arunavannamattikam, anjanam, 
haritakam ^ amalakan ti. Vuttam pi c'etam Dipavamse : 

Valavijanim * unhisam chattam khaggan ca padukam 
vethanam sarapamangam bhinkaram nandivattakam, 
sivikam sankham vatamsafi ca adhovim ^ vatthakotikam 
sovannapatim katacchum ® mahaggham hatthapuii- 

Anotattodakam kannam ^ uttamam haricandanam 
[76] arunavannamattikail ^ ca anjanam naga-m-ahatam, 
haritakarn ^ amalakarn mahaggharn amatosadham 
satthivahasatarn sahrn sugandham suvakahatarn ^^ 
punilakammabhinibbattam pahesi Asokasavhayo ^^ ti. 

Na kevalaii ca etam ^^ amisapannakararn, imam kira dhamma- 
pannakaram pi pesesi : 

Aham Buddhafi ca dhammafi ca sanghan ca saranam gato 

upasakattam vedesim ^^ Sakyaputtassa sasane. 

Imesu tisu vatthusu uttamesu naruttama/* 

tvam pi cittam pasadehi saddha ^^ saranam upehisiti.^® 

79. Sv'ayani raja tarn divasarn Asokarafina^^ pesitena abhise- 
kena ekamasabhisitto^^ hoti. Visakhapunnamayam^^ hi'ssa 
abhisekarn akarnsu. So acirasutarn tarn sasanapavattim 
anussaramano tarn therassa : samana mayam maharaja 
dhammarajassa savakati vacanarn sutva : ayya nu kho 

^ p. E. katacchukam. 2 e. punjanam. 

^ T.O. haritakam. * T.O. valavijani. 

^ P.E.V. (Dpv. xii, 2) adhovimam. 

* T. -patikatacchum ; O. -katacchum ; Dpv. suvannapatikatacchum. 
' T.O. -punchanim ; Dpv. punchanam. 

8 T.O.Bp.Sp. Dpv. kajam. 

* P.E. arunavati-. 

1° P.E. sugandhan ca sukahatam ; Dpv. sugandham sukam ahatam. 

11 P.E. Asokavhajo. " 12 p.E.V. idam'. 

^^ Bp.Sp. Mhv. Tika, desesim. 1* T.O. Dpv. uttame jinasasane. 

15 E. saddhaya. ' " le P.E.V. upehiti. 

1' T.O.Sp. ranfio. ^8 x.O. ekamabhisitto. 

18 T.O. -punnamaya. 

192 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

agatati tavad eva avudham nikkhipitva ekam antam nisidi 
sammodaniyam katham kathayamano. Yathaha : 

Avudham nikkhipitvana ekam antam upavisi, 
nisajja raja sammodi bahum atthupasamhitan ti. 

Sammodaniyam katham ca kurumane yeva tasmim tani pi 
cattalisapurisasahassani agantva tarn parivaresum. Tada 
thero itare pi cha jane dassesi. Raja disva : ime kada agatati 
[77] aha. Maya saddhim yeva maharajati. Idani pana Jam- 
budipe anfie pi evarupa samana santiti. Santi maharaja, 
etarahi Jambudipo kasavapajjoto isivataparivato.^ Tasmim, 

Tevijja iddhippatta ca cetopariyayakovida 
khinasava arahanto ^ bahu Buddhassa savakati. 

80. Bhante kena agata'tthati. N'eva maharaja udakena na 
thalenati. Raja akasena agatati aiinasi. Thero : atthi nu 
kho ranilo pannaveyyattiyan ^ ti vimarnsanatthaya asannam * 
ambarukkarn arabbha pafiham pucchi : Kiinnamo ayarn 
maharaja rukkho ti. Ambarukkho nama bhante ti. Imam 
pana maharaja ambam muiicitva anno ambo ^ atthi n'atthiti. 
Atthi bhante anfie pi hahu ambarukkhati. Imaii ca ambam 
te ca ambe muncitva atthi nu kho maharaja aiiiie rukkhati. 
Atthi bhante, te pana na ambarukkhati. Anne ambe ca anambe 
ca muncitva atthi pana afiiio rukkho ti. Ay am eva bhante 
ambarukkho ti. Sadhu maharaja pandito'si. 

Atthi pana te maharaja iiatakati. Atthi me bhante bahu 
janati. Te muncitva anile keci aiiiiataka pi atthi maharajati. 
Anfiataka bhante iiatakehi bahutarati. Tava fiatake ca 
aiinatake ca muiicitva atth'aiiiio koci maharajati. Aham eva ^ 
bhante ti. Sadhu maharaja, atta nama attano n'eva fiatako 
na aniiatako ti. 

81. Atha thero : pandito raja sakkhissati dhammarn afifiatun 
ti Ciilahatthipadopamasuttam kathesi. Kathapariyosane raja 
tisu saranesu patitthahi saddhim cattalisaya panasahassehi. 

1 P.E.V. -pativato. 2 j q arahanta. 

8 T.O. -veyyattikan. * T.O. asanna-amba-. 

^ E. anfie amba. « T.O.E. omit. 

Acariyaparampard 193 

Tarn khanan neva ^ ranno bhattam [78] ahariyittha. Raja ^ 
suttam sunanto yeva ^ evam anfiasi : na imesam imasmim 
kale bhojanam kappatiti. Apucchitva ^ pana bhunjitum 
ayuttan ti cintetva : bhunjissatha bhante ti pucchi. Na 
maharaja amhakam imasmim kale bhojanam kappatiti. 
Kasmim kale bhante kappatiti. Arun'uggamanato patthaya 
yava majjhantikasamaya maharajati. Gacchama bhante 
nagaran ti. Alam maharaja idh'eva vasissamati. Sace bhante 
tumhe vasatha ayam darako agacchatuti. Maharaja ayam 
darako agataphalo vifiiiatasasano pabbajjapekho * idani pab- 
bajissatiti. Raja : tena hi bhante sve ratham pesissami, tarn 
abhiruhitva agaccheyyathati ^ vatva vanditva pakkami. 

82. Thero acirapakkantassa ranno Sumanasamaneram aman- 
tesi : ehi tvarn Sumana dhammasavanassa kalarn ghosehiti. 
Bhante kittakarn thanarn savento ghosemiti. Sakalarn Tam- 
bapannidipan ti. Sadhu bhante ti samanero abhiiliiapadakarn 
catutthajjhanam samapajjitva vutthaya adhitthahitva sama- 
hitena cittena sakalarn Tambapannidlpam savento tikkhattum 
dhammasavanassa kalarn ghosesi. Raja tarn saddarn sutva 
theranam santikarn pesesi : kirn bhante atthi koci upaddavo 
ti. N'atth' amhakam koci upaddavo ® dhammasavanassa 
kalarn ghosapayimha, Buddhavacanarn kathetukama 'mhati. 
Tan ca pana samanerassa saddarn sutva bhumma devata 
saddam anussavesum, eten' upayena yava Brahmaloka saddo 
abbhuggaiichi. Tena saddena mahadevatasannipato ahosi. 
Thero ^ mahantam devatasannipatarn disva Samacittasuttan- 
tarn kathesi. Kathapariyosane asankheyyanarn devatanarn 
dhammabhisamayo ahosi, bahu [79] naga ca supanna ca 
saranesu patitthahimsu. Yadiso va ^ Sariputtattherassa 
imarn suttantarn kathayato devatasannipato ahosi tadiso 
Mahindattherassapi jato. 

^'^. Atha tassa rattiya accayena raja theranam ratham pesesi. 
Sarathi ® ratham ekam ante thapetva theranarn arocesi : 

^ P.E.V. add ca. ^ p. Raja suttantarn sunanto ; E. Raja ca suttantarn, etc. 
3 T.O. apucchitva. * P. -pekkho. 

^ T.O. agaccheyyathati. * T.O. add ti. 

' T.O. add ca. » T.O. omit. 

» P. sarathi. 

194 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

ahato bhante ratho, abhiruhatha ^ gacchissamati. Thera : na 
mayam ratham abhiruhama/ gaccha tvam, paccha mayam 
agacchissamati vatva vehasam abbhuggantva Anuradhapurassa 
puratthimadisayam Pathamakacetiyatthane ^ otarimsu. Tarn 
hi cetiyam therehi pathamam otinnatthane katatta yeva 
Pathamakacetiyan ^ ti vuccati. Raja pi sarathim pesetva : anto- 
nivesane mandapam patiyadethati amacce anapesi. Tavad eva 
sabbe hatthatuttha ativiyapasadikam mandapam patiyadesum. 
Puna raja cintesi : hiyyo thero silakkhandham kathayamano 
uccasayanamahasayanam na kappatiti aha. Nisidissanti 
nu kho ayya asanesu na nisidissantiti. Tass'evam cinta- 
yantass'eva so sarathi nagaradvaram sampatto. Tato addasa ^ 
there pathamataram agantva kayabandhanam bandhitva 
civaram parupante. Disva ativiya pasannacitto hutva agantva 
ranno arocesi : agata deva therati. Raja : ratham arulhati 
pucchi. Na arulha deva, api ca mama pacchato nikkhamitva 
pathamataram agantva pacinadvare thitati. Raja : ratham 
pi naruhirnsuti sutva, na dani ayya uccasayanarn * sadiyissan- 
titi cintetva, tena hi bhane theranam bhummattharanasankhe- 
pena asanani paMapethati vatva patipatharn agamasi. Amacca 
pathaviyam tattikam ^ paiinapetva upari kojavakadini vicitrat- 
tharanani ^ pannapesurn. 

Uppadapathaka ^ disva : gahita dani imehi pathavi, ime 
[80] TambapannidTpassa samika bhavissantiti vyakarimsu. 
Raja pi gantva there vanditva Mahindattherassa hatthato 
pattarn gahetva mahatiya pujaya ca sakkarena ca there 
nagararn pavesetva antonivesanarn pavesesi. Thero asana- 
pafinattirn disva : amhakarn sasanarn sakala-Lankadipe path- 
avi viya patthatam ^ niccalani ca hutva patitthahissatiti 
cintento nisidi. Raja there panitena khadaniyena bhojaniyena ^ 
sahattha santappetva sampavaretva, Anuladevipamukhani 
paiica itthisatani theranarn abhivadanam pujasakkaran ca 
karontuti ^° pakkosapetva ekam antarn nisidi. Thero bhat- 
takiccavasane raiino saparijanassa dhammaratanavassarri 

1 E. abhiruh-. 2 x.O. Pathamacetiya, 

3 P.E. addassa. 

* E. adds mahasayanam ; P. adds uccasayanamahasayanam. 

5 T.O. taddhikam. ' « Sp.Bp. citra-. 

' P. uppata- 8 X o. patthatam. 

» T.O. khadaniyena bhojaniyena. i" T.O. karontiti. 

Acariyaparampard 195 

vassento ^ Petavatthum Vimanavatthum Saccasamyuttan ca 
kathesi. Tarn therassa dhammadesanam sutva tani paiica pi 
itthisatani sotapattiphalam sacchikarimsu.^ 

Ye pi te manussa purimadivase Missakapabbate there adda- 
samsu te tesu tesu thanesu theranam gune kathenti ; tesam 
sutva mahajanakayo rajangane sannipatitva mahasaddam 
akasi. Raja : kim eso saddo ti pucchi. Nagara, deva, there 
datthum na labhamati viravantiti.^ Raja : sace idha pavisis- 
santi okaso na bhavissatiti cintetva, gacchatha bhane hatthi- 
salarn patijaggitva valukam * akiritva pancavannani pupphani 
vikiritva celavitanam bandhitva mangalahatthit thane thera- 
narn asanani pafifiapethati aha. Rajamacca ^ tatha akamsu. 
Thero tattha gantva nisiditva Devadiitasuttantam kathesi. 
Kathapariyosane panasahassarn sotapattiphale patitthahi. 
Tato : hatthisala atisambadhati dakkhinadvare Nandanavan 
'uyyane ® asanam pannapesum. Thero tattha nisiditva 
Asivisopamasuttam kathesi. Tarn pi sutva panasahassarn [81] 
sotapattiphalam patilabhi. Evam agatadivasato dutiyadivase 
addhateyyanara sahassanarn dhammabhisamayo ahosi. 

84. Therassa Nandanavane agatagatahi kul'itthihi kula- 
sunhahi kulakumarihi saddhirn sammodamanass' eva sayanha- 
samayo jato. Thero kalam sallakkhetva : gacchama dani 
Missakapabbatan ti utthahi. Amacca : kattha bhante gac- 
chathati. Amhakam nivesanatthanan ^ ti. Te rafino samvidi- 
tam katva rajanumatena aharasu : akalo bhante idani tattha 
ganturn, idam eva Nandanavanarn uyyanarn ® ayyanarn 
avasatthanam hotuti. Alam gacchamati. Puna raniio vacane- 
nahamsu : raja bhante aha, etarn Meghavanam nama uyya- 
narn mama pitusantakarn nagarato natiduram naccasannam 
gamanagamanasampannam, ettha thera vasarn kappentuti. 
Vasimsu thera Meghavane uyyane. Raja pi kho tassa rattiya 
accayena therassa samiparn gantva sukhasayitabhavara puc- 
chitva : kappati bhante bhikkhusanghassa aramo ti pucchi. 
Thero : kappati maharajati vatva imarn suttarn ahari : anuja- 
nami bhikkhave araman ti. Raja tuttho suvannabhinkararn 

^ Sp. vassanto. ^ Bp^ sacchakamsu. 

^ T.O. vilapanti and omit ti. * T.O. valukam. 

^ P.E. Amacca. * T.O. -vana-uyyane. 

' Sp. nivasana. * P. Nandanavan'uyyanam. 

196 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

gahetva therassa hatthe udakam patetva Mahameghavan 
'uyyanam^ adasi. Saha udakapatena pathavi kampi. Ayam 
Mahavihare pathamo pathavikampo ahosi. Raja bhito theram 
pucchi : kasma bhante pathavi kampatiti. Mabhayimaharaja, 
imasmim dipe dasabalassa sasanam patitthahissati, idan ca ^ 
pathamam viharatthanam bhavissati, tass' etam pubbani- 
mittan ti. Raja bhiyyosomattaya pasidi. Thero punadivase pi 
rajagehe yeva bhunjitva Nandanavane Anamataggiyani kathesi. 
Punadivase Aggikkhandhopamasuttam kathesi. Eten'eva 
upayena satta divasani kathesi, desanapariyosane ^ addhana- 
vamanam panasahassanam dhammabhisamayo ahosi. Tato 
[82] patthaya * Nandanavanam sasanassa jotipatubhavattha- 
nan ti katva Jotivanan ti namam patilabhi.^ 

85. Sattame pana divase thera antepure raiifio Maha-appa- 
madasuttam kathayitva Cetiyagirim eva agamamsu. Atha 
kho raja amacce pucchi : thero amhe galhena ovadena ovadati, 
gaccheyya nu kho ti. Amacca : tumhehi deva thero ayacito 
sayam eva agato, tasma tassa anapuccha ^ gamanam pi 
bhaveyyati ahamsu. Tato raja ratham abhiruhitva dve ca 
deviyo aropetva Cetiyagirirn agamasi mahacca ^ rajanubha- 
vena. Gantva deviyo ekam antam apakkamapetva sayam 
eva ^ theranam samiparn upasankamanto ativiya kilantarupo 
hutva upasankami.^ Tato narn thero aha : kasma tvam 
maharaja evarn kilamamano agato ti. Tumhe mama galham 
ovadarn datva idani gantukama nu kho ti jananattham bhante 
ti. Na may am maharaja gantukama, api ca vassupanayikakalo 
namayam maharaja, tatra samanena ca ^^ vassupanayikattha- 
nam iiatuni vattatiti. 

86. Tarn divasam eva Arittho nama amacco pancapannasa- 
jetthakanitthabhatukehi ^1 saddhim ranno samipe thito aha: 
icchama mayam deva theranam santike pabbajitun ti. Sadhu 
bhane pabbajassuti ^^ raja anujanitva therarn sampaticchapesi. 

^ T.O. -vana-uyyanam. 2 p.E.V. omit. 

3 T.O. omit. ' * P.E.V. add ca. 

5 T.O. labhi. « T.O. add va. 

' E. mahacca ; P.V. mahanca. ^ T.O. omit. 

® T.O.E. omit and tato next. ^" P.E. omit. 

^^ P. pannasaya jettha-, ^2 g pabbajjassuti. 

Acariyaparampard 197 

Thero tad ah'eva pabbajesi. Sabbe khuragge yeva arahattam 
papunimsu. Raja pi kho tankhanam yeva Kantakacetiyanga- 
nam parikkhipitva atthasatthiya ^ lenesu kammam pattha- 
petva nagaram eva agamasi. Te pi [83] thera dasabhatika- 
samakulam rajakulam pasadetva mahajanam ovadamana 
Cetiyagirimhi vassam vasimsu. Tada Cetiyagirimhi pathama- 
vassam upagata dvasatthi arahanto ahesum. 

87. Ath^yasma Mahamahindo vutthavasso pavaretva Katti- 
kapunnamayam uposathadivase rajanam etad avoca : maha- 
raja, amhehi ciradittho sammasambuddho, anathavasam ^ 
vasimha, icchama Jambudipam gantun ti. Raja aha ^ : aham 
bhante tumhe catuhi paccayehi upatthahami, ay an ca maha- 
jano tumhe nissaya tisu saranesu patitthito, kasma tumhe 
ukkanthitati. Ciradittho no maharaja sammasambuddho, 
abhivadana - paccutthana - ail j alikamma - samicikammakaranat - 
thanam n'atthi, tena'mha * ukkanthitati. Nanu bhante tumhe 
avocuttha : parinibbuto sammasambuddho ti. Kificapi 
maharaja parinibbuto, atha khv assa sariradhatuyo titthantiti. 
Afiiiatarn bhante thiipapatitthanarn tumhe akankhathati, 
karomi bhante thupam, bhiimibhagarn dani vicinatha. Api 
ca bhante dhatuyo kuto lacchamati. Sumanena saddhirn 
mantehi maharajati. 

Sadhu bhante ti raja Sumanam upasankamitva pucchi : 
kuto dani bhante dhatuyo lacchamati. Sumano aha : appos- 
sukko tvarn maharaja vithiyo sodhapetva dhajapatakapun- 
naghatadlhi alahkarapetva saparijano uposatharn samadiyitva 
sabbatalavacare upatthapetva mangalahatthim sabbalankara- 
patimanditarn karetva ^ upari c'assa setacchattarn ussapetva 
sayanhasamaye Mahanagavan'uyyanabhimukho yahi. Addha 
etasmirn ^ [84] thane dhatuyo lacchasiti. Raja,' sadhuti 

Thera Cetiyagirim eva agamarnsu. Tatrayasma Mahindat- 
thero Sumanasamanerarn aha : gaccha tvam samanera, 
Jambudipe tava ayyakarn Asokarn ^ dhammarajanam upasan- 
kamitva mama vacanena evam vadehi : sahayo te maharaja 

^ E.Bp. dvasatthiya ; Mhv. xvi, 10, atthasatthi-. ^ T.O. anatha vassam. 
3 T.O. omit. * P.E.V. 'mhe. 

^ P.E.V. karapetva. ^ P.E.V. tasmim. 

' T.O. Sa raja. ^ E. Asokadhamma-. 

igS Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Devanampiyatisso Buddhasasane pasanno thupam patitthape- 
tukamo, tumhakam kira hatthe dhatuyo atthi, tarn me 
dethati. Tarn gahetva Sakkam devarajanam upasankamitva 
evam vadehi : tumhakam kira maharaja hatthe dve dhatuyo 
atthi, dakkhinadatha ^ dakkhin'akkhakan ca, tato tumhe 
dakkhinadatham pujetha, dakkhin'akkhakarn pana mayharn 
dethati. Evan ca narn vadehi : kasma tvam maharaja amhe 
Tambapannidipam pahinitva pamajjitthati. Sadhu bhante ti 
kho Sumano therassa vacanarn sampaticchitva tavad eva 
pattacivaram adaya vehasarn abbhuggantva PataHputtadvare 
oruyha raiino santikam gantva tam ^ attharn arocesi. 

88. Raja tuttho samanerassa hatthato pattam gahetva 
gandhehi ubbattetva varamuttasadisanarn dhatunarn puretva 
adasi. So tarn gahetva Sakkain devarajanam upasankami. 
Sakko devaraja samanerarn disvaVa ^ : kim bhante Sumana 
ahindasiti aha. Tvain maharaja amhe Tambapannidiparn 
pesetva kasma pamajjasiti. Nappamajjami bhante, vadehi 
kim karomiti. Tumhakam kira hatthe dve dhatuyo atthi 
dakkhinadatha ca dakkhin'akkhakan ca, tato tumhe dak- 
khinadatharn pUjetha, dakkhin'akkhakarn pana mayharn 
dethati. Sadhu bhante ti kho Sakko devanam indo yojanap- 
pamanam * manithupam ugghatetva ^ dakkhin'akkhakadha- 
tum niharitva Sumanassa adasi. So tam gahetva Cetiyagirimhi 
yeva patitthasi. Atha kho Mahindapamukha sabbe pi te 
mahanaga [85] Asokadhammarajena dinnadhatuyo Cetiya- 
girimhi yeva ® patitthapetva dakkhin'akkhakarn adaya vad- 
dhamanakacchayaya Mahanagavan'uyyanam agamamsu. 

89. Raja pi kho samanerena ^ vuttappakaram piijasakkaram 
katva hatthikkhandhavaragato sayam mangalahatthimatthake 
setacchattam dharayamano Mahanagavanarn sampapuni. Ath' 
assa etad ahosi : sace ayarn sammasambuddhassa dhatu, 
chattam apanamatu,^ mangalahatthi jannukehi bhumiyam 
patitthahatu, dhatucangotakarn mayharn matthake patit- 
thatuti.^ Saha ranfio citt'uppadena chattam apanami, hatthi 

1 P.E.V. add ca. 2 p.e.V. etam. ^ P. omits, va. 

* E. -pamanamani-. ^ P.E.V. ugghatapetva. « E. omits, 

' T.O. Sumanena. « x.O. apanetu. » P.E. patitthahatiiti. 

Acariyaparampard 199 

jannukehi patitthahi, dhatucangotakam ranfio matthake patit- 
thahi. Raja amateneva abhisittagatto paramena pitipamojjena 
samannagato hutva pucchi : dhatum bhante kim karomati. 
Hatthikumbhamhi yeva tava maharaja thapehiti. Raja 
dhatucangotakam gahetva hatthikumbhe thapesi. Pamudito 
nago kuficanadam ^ nadi ; mahamegho utthahitva pokkhara- 
vassam vassi, udakapariyantam katva mahabhumicalo ahosi : 
paccante pi nama sammasambuddhassa dhatu patitthahis- 
satiti.2 Devamanussa pamudimsu.^ Evam iddhanubhavasi- 
riya devamanussanam pitim janayanto : 

Punnamayam mahaviro catumasiniya idha 
agantva devalokamha hatthikumbhe patitthito ti. 

Atha ^ so hatthinago anekatalavacaraparivarito ativiya 
ularaya pujaya sakkariyamano * pacchimadisabhimukho hutva 
apasakkanto yava nagarassa puratthimadvaram tava gantva 
puratthimadvarena nagaram pavisitva [86] sakalanagarena ^ 
ularaya pujaya kayiramanaya ^ dakkhinadvarena nikkhamitva 
Thuparamassa pacchimadisabhage Mahejavatthu ' nama kira 
atthi, tattha gantva puna Thuparamabhimukho eva pati- 

90. Tena ca samayena Thiiparame purimakanam tinnam 
sammasambuddhanam paribhogacetiyatthanam hoti. Atite 
kira ayam dipo Ojadipo nama ahosi, raja pana ^ Abhayo nama, 
nagaram Abhayapurarn nama, Cetiyapabbato Devakutapab- 
bato nama, Thuparamo Patiyaramo nama. Tena kho pana 
samayena Kakusandho ^ bhagava loke uppanno hoti. Tassa 
savako Mahadevo nama thero ^^ bhikkhusahassena saddhim 
Devakute patitthasi, Mahindatthero viya Cetiyapabbate. 
Tena ca samayena Ojadipe satta pajjarakena anayabyasa- 
nam^i apajjanti. Addasa kho Kakusandho bhagava Buddha- 
cakkhuna lokam olokento te satte anayabyasanam ^^ apaj jante. 

1 T.O. kofica-. 
2-2 -hissatiti devamanussa pamodimsu ; E. sampamodimsu. 
3 T.O.Bp. ath'assa. * P. sakkariya-. " 

^ P.E.V. -nagarena. * P. kayiramanaya. 

' T.O. Pahecivatthu ; E. Pabhejavatthu ; Mhv. xvii, 30, Mahejjavatthu. 
8 P. omits. * E. adds nama. 

1° T.O. omit. " T.O. -vyasanam. 

200 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Disva cattallsaya bhikkhusahassehi parivuto agamasi. Tas- 
sanubhavena tavad eva pajjarako vupasanto. Roge vupasante 
bhagava dhammam desesi ; caturasitipanasahassanam ^ dham- 
m^bhisamayo ahosi. Bhagava dhammakarakam ^ datva 
pakkami. Tarn ante pakkhipitva Patiyarame cetiyam akamsu. 
Mahadevo dipam anusasanena ^ palayanto vihasi.^ 

91. Konagamanassa * pana bhagavato kale ayam dipo 
Varadipo nama ahosi, raja Samiddho ^ nama, nagaram Vaddha- 
manam [87] nama, pabbato Suvannakuto nama. Tena kho 
pana samayena Varadipe dubbutthika hoti dubbikkham 
dussassam. Satta chatakarogena anayabyasanam ^ apajjanti. 
Addasa kho Konagamano * bhagava Buddhacakkhuna lokam 
olokento te satte anayabyasanam ^apajjante. Disva timsabhik- 
khusahassaparivuto agamasi. Buddhanubhavena devo sam- 
madharam anuppavecchi.'^ Subhikkham ahosi. Bhagava 
dhammam desesi, caturasltiya panasahassanam dhammabhisa- 
mayo ahosi. Bhagava bhikkhusahassaparivara,m Mahasuma- 
nam nama theram dipe thapetva kayabandhanam datva 
pakkami. Tarn anto pakkhipitva cetiyam akamsu. 

92. Kassapassa pana bhagavato kale ayam dipo Mandadlpo 
nama ahosi, raja Jayanto nama, nagaram Visalarn nama, 
pabbato Subhakuto nama. Tena kho pana samayena Manda- 
dipe mahavivado hoti. Bahu satta kalahaviggahajata anaya- 
byasanam ^ apajjanti. Addasa kho Kassapo bhagava Buddha- 
cakkhuna lokarn olokento te satte anayabyasanam ^ apajjante. 
Disva visatibhikkhusahassaparivuto agantva vivadarn vupa- 
sametva dhammarn desesi. Caturasltiya panasahassanam 
dhammabhisamayo ahosi. Bhagava bhikkhusahassaparivararn 
Sabbanandarn nama theram dipe patitthapetva udakasatikam 
datva pakkami. Tarn ® anto pakkhipitva cetiyam akamsuti. 

Evam Thuparame purimakanarn tinnam Buddhanarn ceti- 
yani patitthahimsu. Tani sasanantaradhane ^ nassanti, thana- 
mattam avasissati. Tasma vuttarn : tena ca samayena Thupa- 

^ P.E. catur asitiya pana-. ^ Bp_ -karanam. 

2 P.E.V. anusasanto vihasi. * T.O.E. Kona-. 

^ Bp.Sp. Samiddhi. ^ T.O. -vyasanam. 

' T.O. anupavecchi. ® T.O. add pi. 
» P.E.V. -dhanena. 

Acariyaparampard 201 

rame purimakanam tinnam sammasambuddhanam paribhoga- 
cetiyatthanam hotiti.i Tad etam vinatthesu [88] cetiyesu 
devatanubhavena kantakasamakinnasakhehi nana gacchehi 
parivutam titthati : ma nam koci uccitthasucimalakacavarehi 

93. Ath'assa hatthino purato purato gantva rajapurisa sabbe 
gacche chinditva bhumim sodhetva tarn hatthatalasadisam 
akamsu. Hatthinago gantva tarn thanam purato katva tassa 
pacchimadisabhage bodhirukkhatthane atthasi. Ath'assa 
matthakato dhatum oropetum arabhimsu. Nago oropetum 
na deti. Raja theram pucchi : kasma bhante nago dhatum 
oropetum na detiti. Arulham maharaja oropetum na vattatiti. 

Tasmin ca kale Abhayavapiya udakam chinnam hoti, 
samanta bhumi phaHta hoti, su-uddhara mattikapinda. Tato 
mahajano sighasigham ^ mattikam aharitva hatthikumbhap- 
pamanam vatthum akasi. Tavad eva ca thupakaranattham 
itthika katum arabhimsu. Yava itthika na parinitthanti 
tava hatthinago katipaham diva bodhirukkhatthane hatthi- 
salayarn titthati, rattim thiipapatitthanabhumirQ pariyayati. 
Atha vatthurn cinapetva raja therarn pucchi : kidiso bhante 
thupo katabbo ti. Vlhirasisadiso maharajati. Sadhu bhante ti 
raja janghappamanarn thupam cinapetva dhatu-oropanatthaya 
mahasakkaram karesi. Sakalanagaran ca janapado ca dhatuma- 
harn ^ dassanattham sannipati. Sannipatite ca pana tasmim 
mahajanakaye dasabalassa dhatu hatthikumbhato satta- 
talappamanam vehasarn abbhuggantva yamakapatihariyam 
dassesi. Tehi tehi * dhatuppadesehi channam vannanarn 
udakadhara ca aggikkhandha ca pavattanti. Savatthiyarn 
Gandambamule ^ bhagavata dassitapatihariya[89]sadisam eva 
patihariyarn ahosi. Tan ca kho n'eva theranubhavena na 
devatanubhavena, api ca kho Buddhanubhaven'eva. Bhagava 
kira dharamano 'va adhitthasi : mayi parinibbute Tambapan- 
nidipe Anuradhapurassa dakkhinabhage purimakanarn tinnarn 
Buddhanam paribhogacetiyatthane mama dakkhin'akkhaka- 
dhatupatitthanadivase yamakapatihariyam hotuti. 

1 Bp. ahositi. 2 Bp.Sp. sigham sigham. 

' P. -mahadassanattham. * E. tehi once only. 

^ E, Gandambarukkhamule. 


202 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

Evam acintiya Buddha Buddhadhamma acintiya 
acintiye ^ pasannanam vipako hoti acintiyo ti. 

94. Sammasambuddho kira imam dipam dharamanakale pi 
tikkhattum agamasi. Pathamam yakkhadamanattham ekako 
'va agantva yakkhe dametva : mayi parinibbute imasmim 
dipe sasanam patitthahissatiti Tambapannidipe rakkham 
karonto tikkhattum dipam avijjhi. Dutiyam matulabhaginey- 
yanam nagarajiinam damanatthaya ekako 'va agantva te 
dametva agamasi. Tatiyam paiicasatabhikkhuparivaro agantva 
Mahacetiyatthane ca Thiiparamacetiyatthane ca mahabodhi- 
patitthitatthane ca ^ Mutiyanganacetiyatthane ^ ca Digha- 
vapicetiyatthane ca Kalyanicetiyatthane * ca nirodhasama- 
pattim samapaj jitva nisidi. Idam assa catuttham dhatusarirena 
agamanam. Dhatusarirato ca pan'assa nikkhanta ^-udaka- 
phusitehi sakala-Tambapannitale na koci apphutokaso nama 
ahosi. Evam assa tarn dhatusariram udakaphusitehi Tam- 
bapannitalassa parilaham viipasametva ^ mahajanassa pati- 
hariyam dassetva otaritva raiiiio matthake [90] patitthasi. 
Raja saphalam manussapatilabham manfiamano mahantam 
sakkaram karitva dhatum patitthapesi. Saha dhatupatit- 
thanena ^ mahabhiimicalo ahosi. Tasmiil ca pana dhatupati- 
hariye cittam pasadetva raniio bhata Abhayo nama raja- 
kumaro purisasahassena saddhim pabbaji. CetaUgamato ® 
pancadarakasatani pabbajimsu ; tatha Dvaramandaladihi 
gamakehi nikkhamitva paiica paiica ^ darakasatani. Sabbani 
pi antonagarato ca bahinagarato ca pabbajitani timsabhik- 
khusahassani ahesum. Nitthite pana thiipasmim raja ca 
rajabhatika ca deviyo ca devanagayakkhanam pi vimhaya- 
karam paccekam paccekam pujam akamsu. Nitthitaya pana 
dhatupiijaya patitthite dhatuvare Mahindatthero Megha- 
van'uyyanam eva gantva vasam kappesi. 

95. Tasmim kho pana samaye Anuladevi pabbajitukama 
hutva raniio arocesi. Raja tassa vacanam sutva therarn etad 

1 T.O. acintiyesu. ^ Bp. adds Mahiyanganacetiyatthane ca. 

3 Bp. Mudangana- ; Sp. Mutingana-. * P.E.V. Kalyaniya-. 

^ Misprint in T. « T.O. upasametva. 

' T.O. patitthane ; P.E.V. thapanena. 

» P.E.V. Cetali- ; Bp. Cetaranga- ; Mhv. Cetavi-. 

• T.O. pafica once only. Mhv. too pafica panca. 

Acariyaparampard 203 

avoca : Anula bhante devi pabbajitukama, pabbajetha nan ti. 
Na maharaja amhakam matugamam pabbajetum kappati. 
Pataliputte pana mayham bhagini Sanghamittattheii nama 
atthi, tarn pakkosapehi.^ Imasmifi ca pana ^ maharaja dipe 
purimakanam tinnam sammasambuddhanam bodhi patitthasi ; 
amhakam pi bhagavato sarasararnsijalavissajjanakena bodhina 
idha patitthatabbam. Tasma tatha sasanam pahineyyasi 
yatha Sanghamitta pi ^ bodhirn gahetva agaccheyyati. Sadhu 
bhante ti raja therassa vacanam sampaticchitva amaccehi 
saddhim mantento * Arittham nama attano bhagineyyam 
aha : sakkhissasi tvam tata ^ PataHputtarn gantva maha- 
bodhina saddhirn ayyarn Sanghamittattherirn anetun ti. 
Sakkhissami deva sace ^ pabbajiturn anujanissasiti.^ Gaccha 
[91] tata therim anetva pabbajahiti. So rafino ca therassa ca 
sasanam gahetva therassa adhitthanavasena ekadivasena 
Jambukolapattanam gantva navarn abhiruhitva ^ samuddam 
atikkamitva PataUputtam eva agamasi. Anula pi kho devi 
paiicahi ca kafinasatehi pancahi ca antepurikasatehi saddhim 
dasasilani samadiyitva kasayani vatthani acchadetva nagarassa 
ekadese upassayam karapetva nivasarn kappesi. 

96. Arittho pi ® tarn divasam eva gantva rafino sasanam 
appesi, evaii ca avoca : putto te deva Mahindatthero evam 
aha : sahayassa kira te Devanampiyatissassa rafino bhatujaya ^ 
Anula nama devi pabbajitukama, tarn pabbajetum ayyam 
Sanghamittattherirn pahinatha,^^ ayyay'eva ca saddhim maha- 
bodhin ti.^^ Therassa sasanarn arocetva Sanghamittattherirn 
upasankamitva evam aha : ayye ^^ tumhakarn bhata Mahindat- 
thero mam tumhakarn santikam pesesi : Devanampiyatissa- 
raiifio bhatujaya ^ Anula nama devi paiicahi ca^^ kaiifiasatehi 
paiicahi ca antepurikasatehi saddhirn pabbajitukama, tarn 
kira agantva pabbajethati.^* Sa tavad eva turitaturita raiino 
santikarn gantva evam aha : maharaja mayharn bhata Mahin- 
datthero evam pahini : rafiiio kira bhatujaya ^ Anula nama 

1 T.O. add iti. 2 x.O. omit. 3 p_ omits pi. 

* P. mantetva. ^ T.O. omit. 

«-« P.E.V. sace me pabbajjam anu-. ' P.E.V. -ruhitva. 

* T.O. ca. ' T.O. bhatu jaya (omit rafiiio). 
i» T.O. pahinatha. " T.O. ti therassa. 

^2 E, ayya. ^^ P. omits ; E. ca after kafifia-satehi. 

^* T.O. add : tumhakarn bhata Mahindatthero mam pesesiti arocesi. 

204 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

devi pancahi ca kannasatehi pancahi ca antepurikasatehi 
saddhim pabbajitukama mayham agamanam udikkhati, gac- 
cham' aham maharaja Tambapannidipan ti. Raja aha : amma 
putto pi me Mahindatthero natta ca Sumanasamanero mam 
chinnahattham viya karonta Tambapannidipam [92] gat a. 
Tassa mayham te pi apassantassa uppanno soko tava mukham 
passantassa vupasammati. Alam amma ma agamasiti. 
Bhariyam me maharaja bhatuno vacanam. Anula pi khattiya 
itthisahassaparivuta pabbajjapurekkhara mam patimaneti. 
Gaccham' aham maharajati. Tena hi amma mahabodhim 
gahetva yahiti.^ 

97. Kuto raMo mahabodhi. Raja kira tato pubbe eva 
dhatugahanatthaya anagate Sumane, Lankadipam maha- 
bodhim pesetukamo : kathan nu kho asatthaghataraham 
mahabodhim pesessamiti upayam apassanto Mahadevam nama 
amaccam pucchi. So aha : santi deva bahu pandita bhikkhuti. 
Tarn sutva raja bhikkhusanghassa bhattarn patiyadetva 
bhattakiccavasane sangharn pucchi : gantabbarn nu kho 
bhante bhagavato bodhina Lankadipam no ti. Sangho Moggah- 
puttatissattherassa bhararn akasi. Thero : gantabbarn maha- 
raja mahabodhina Lankadipan ti vatva bhagavato paiica 
maha-adhitthanani kathesi. Katamani pafica. 

Bhagava kira mahaparinibbanamance nipanno : LankadTpe 
mahabodhipatitthapanatthaya Asokamaharaja mahabodhi- 
gahanattharn ^ gamissati, tada mahabodhissa dakkhinasakha 
sayam eva chijjitva suvannakatahe patitthatuti adhitthasi. 
Idam ekam ^ adhitthanam. Tattha patitthanakale ca * maha- 
bodhi himavalahakagabbharn pa visit va tit that uti adhitthasi. 
Idarn dutiyarn adhitthanarn. Sattame divase himavalahaka- 
gabbhato oruyha suvannakatahe patitthahanto pattehi ca 
phalehi ca chabbannaramsiyo muiicatuti ^ adhitthasi. Idam 
tatiyarn adhitthanarn. Thuparame dakkhin'akkhakadhatu 
cetiyamhi pat itthanadi vase yamakapatihariyam karotuti adhit- 
thasi. Idam ® catuttham ^ adhitthanam. Lankadipamhi yeva 

* T.O. gacchahiti. ^ T.O. -ganhanattham. 

3 T.O. ekam. * T.O. va. 

5 P.E.V. muficantuti. « T.O. imam. 
' P.E.V. catuttham. 

Acariyaparampard 205 

me donamatta dhatuyo Mahacetiyamhi [93] patitthanakale 
Buddha vesam gahetva vehasam uppatitva ^ yamakapatihari- 
yam karontuti adhitthasi. Idam paficamam adhitthanam. 

Raja imani paiica maha-adhitthanani sutva pasannacitto 
Pataliputtato yava mahabodhi tava maggam patijaggapetva 
suvannakatahatthaya bahum suvannam niharapesi. Tavad 
eva ca ranno cittam liatva Vissakammadevaputto kammara- 
vannam nimminitva purato atthasi. Raja nam ^ disva : tata 
imam suvannam gahetva kataham karohiti aha. Pamanam 
deva janathati.^ Tvam eva tata fiatva karohiti.* Sadhu deva 
karissamiti suvannam gahetva attano anubhavena hatthena 
parimadditva suvani^akataham nimmini, navahatthaparik- 
khepam pancahatth'ubbedham tihatthavikkhambham atthan- 
gulabahalam hatthisondappamanamukhavattim. ^ 

98. Atha raja satayojanayamaya ^ tiyojanavittharaya maha- 
tiya senaya PataHputtato nikkhamitva ariyasangham adaya 
mahabodhisamipam agamasi. Sena samussitadhajapatakam ^ 
nanaratanavicittam anekalankarapatimanditam nanavidhaku- 
sumasamakinnam anekaturiyasanghuttam ^ mahabodhim 
parikkhipi. Raja sahassamatte ganapamokkhe mahathere 
gahetva sakala-Jambudipe pattabhisekanam rajiinam ^ sahas- 
sena attanafi ca mahabodhin ca parivarapetva mahabodhimiile 
thatva mahabodhim ullokesi. Mahabodhissa khandhafi ca 
dakkhinamahasakhaya ^^ catuhatthappamanam padesan ca ^^ 
thapetva avasesam adassanam agamasi. Raja tarn patihariyam 
disva uppannapitipamojjo : aham bhante imam patihariyam 
disva tuttho mahabodhim sakala-Jambudipe rajjena ^^ pujemiti 
bhikkhussanghassa vatva abhisekam adasi. [94] Tato pup- 
phagandhadihi pujetva tikkhattum padakkhinam katva atthasu 
thanesu vanditva utthaya aiijaHm paggayha thatva sacca- 
vacanakiriyaya bodhim ganhitukamo bhiimito yava maha- 
bodhissa dakkhinasakha tava uccam katva thapitassa 
sabbaratanamayapithassa upari suvannakataham thapapetva 

1 P.E. abbhuggantva. 2 p.E.V. tarn. 

3 T.O. janathati. * T.O. omit ti. 

5 T.O. -sondapamana-. • T.O. -ayamani. 

' P.E.V. -patakam. » P.E.V. -sanghattam. 

» T.O. rajanam. 1° T.O. -sakhayam. 

11 T.O. omit. * ^2 p.E.V. -diparajjena. 

2o6 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

ratanapitham aruyha suvannatulikam gahetva manosilaya 
lekham katva : yadi mahabodhina Lankadipe patitthatab- 
bam/ yadi caham Buddhasasane nibbematiko bhaveyyam, 
mahabodhi sayam eva imasmim suvannakatahe patitthatuti 
saccavacanakiriyam akasi. Saha saccakiriyaya bodhisakha 
manosilaya paricchinnatthane chijjitva gandhakalalapurassa 
suvannakatahassa upari atthasi. 

Tassa ^ ubbedhena dasahattho khandho hoti, catuhattha 
catuhattha pailca mahasakha paficahi yeva ^ phalehi pati- 
mandita, khuddakasakhanam pana sahassam. Atha raja 
miilalekhaya * upari tivangule padese annam lekham paric- 
chindi.^ Tato tavad eva bubbulaka hutva dasamahamulani 
nikkhamimsu. Puna uparupari tivangule tivangule anna nava 
lekha paricchindi ; tahi ® pi dasabubbulaka hutva navuti mulani 
nikkhamimsu. Pathamaka dasa mahamiila caturangula- 
mattam nikkhanta, itare pi gavakkhajalasadisam anusibbanta 
nikkhanta. Ettakam patihiram raja ratanapithamatthake 
thito yeva disva anjalim paggayha mahanadam nadi, anekani 
bhikkhusahassani sadhukaram akamsu, sakalarajasena un- 
nadini ahosi, ceFukkhepasatasahassani ^ pavattimsu, bhum- 
matthakadeve adirn katva yava brahmakayika [95] deva 
tava ^ sadhukaram pavattayimsu. Rafiilo imam patihariyarn 
passant assa pitiya nirantaram phutasarirassa anjalim pagga- 
hetva thitass' eva mahabodhi mulasatena suvannakatahe 
patitthasi. Dasa mahamiila suvannakatahatalam ahacca 
atthanisu, avasesa navuti khuddakamiila ^ anupubbena vad- 
dhanaka ^^ hutva gandhakalale oruyha thita. 

99. Evam suvannakatahe patitthitamatte mahabodhimhi 
mahaputhuvi ^^ cali, akase devadundubhiyo phalimsu, pab- 
batanam naccehi devatanam sadhukarehi yakkhanara bhin- 
karehi ^^ asuranarn thutijappehi brahmanam appothanehi 
meghanam gajjitehi catuppadanam ravehi pakkhlnarn virutehi 
sabbatalavacaranam sakasakapatibhanehi puthuvitalato yava 

1 E. adds ca. 2 x.O. tassa. 

3 T.O. eva. * T.O. mule lekhaya. 

^ E. paricchijji ; T.O. -chinditva tato. « T.O. ta. 

' T.O. cej'ukkhepa-. « P.E. devata ca. 

» T.O. omit. 10 T.O. -vaddhana. 

11 P. -pathavi ; T.O. -puthuvi. 12 x.O. himkarehi. 

Acariyaparampard 207 

Brahmaloka tava ekakolahalam ekaninnadam ahosi. Paficasu 
sakhasu phalato phalato chabbannaramsiyo nikkhamitva 
sakalacakkavalam ratanagopanasivinaddham ^ viya kurumana 
yava Brahmaloka abbhuggacchimsu. Tankhanato ca pana 
pabhuti satta divasani mahabodhi himavalahakagabbham 
pavisitva atthasi ; na koci mahabodhim passati. Raja ratana- 
pithato oruyha satta divasani mahabodhipiijam karesi. Sattame 
divase sabbadisahi himaii ca chabbannaramsiyo ^ ca avattitva 
mahabodhim eva pavisimsu. Vigatahimavalahake vippasanne 
cakkavalagabbhe ^ mahabodhi [96] paripunnakhandhasakha- 
pasakho paficaphalapatimandito suvannakatahe patitthito Va 

Raja mahabodhim disva tehi patihariyehi sanjatapitipa- 
mojjo ; sakala-Jambudipe rajjena * tarunamahabodhim pujes- 
samiti abhisekarn datva satta divasani mahabodhitthane yeva 
atthasi. Mahabodhi pubbakattikapavaranadivase ^ sayanha- 
samaye pathamam suvannakatahe patitthahi. Tato hima- 
gabbhasattahan ca abhisekasattahaii ca vitinametva kalapak- 
khass' eva ^ uposathadivase raja ekadivasen'eva Patahputtarn 
pavisitva kattikajunhapakkhassa patipadadivase mahabodhim 
pacinamahasalamule thapesi. Suvannakatahe patitthitadiva- 
sato ^ sattarasame divase mahabodhissa abhinav'ankura patur 
ahesum. Te disva pi pasanno raja puna mahabodhim rajjena 
pujento sakala-Jambudipabhisekam adasi. Sumanasamanero ® 
kattikapunnamadivase dhatugahanattharn gato mahabodhissa 
kattikachanapujam addasa. 

100. Evam mahabodhimandato ® anetva PataHputte thapitani 
mahabodhim sandhaya aha : tena hi amma mahabodhim 
gahetva yahiti. Sa, sadhuti sampaticchi. 

Raj a mahabodhirakkhanatthay a at tharasa de vakulani ^ ^ at tha 
amaccakulani attha brahmanakulani attha kutumbikakulani 
attha gopakakulani attha Taracchakulani attha ca Kahriga- 
kulani datva udakasificanatthaya ca ^^ attha suvannaghate 

^ E. -gopanasi-. ^ P.E. himaramsiyo. 

3 T.O. cakkavala-. * P.E. -diparajjena. 

^ T.O. -kattikajunhapavarana-. * P.E.V. omit. 

' T.O. -katahapatitthita- » P. Tada Sumana-. 

» T.O. -bodhim mandate. ^^ P.E. devata-. 
11 T.O. omit. 

2o8 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

attha ca rajataghate datva imina parivarena mahabodhim 
Gangaya [97] navam aropetva sayam pi nagarato nikkhamitva 
Vinjhatavim samatikkamma anupubbena sattahi divasehi 
Tamalittim anuppatto. Antaramagge devanagamanussa ularam 
mahabodhipujam akamsu. Raja pi samuddatire satta divasani 
mahabodhim thapetva sakala-Jambudipe maharajjam adasi. 
Idam assa tatiyam Jambudipe rajjasampadanam ^ hoti. 

1 01. Evam maharajjena pujetva magasiramasassa ^ patha- 
mapatipadadivase Asoko dhammaraja mahabodhim ukkhipitva 
galappamanam udakam oruyha navayam pat it thapetva San- 
ghamittattherim pi saparivaram navam aropetva Arittham 
amaccam etad avoca : aham tata mahabodhim tikkhattum 
sakala-Jambudipe rajjena pujetva galappamanam udakam 
oruyha mama sahayassa pesesim, so pi evam eva mahabodhirn 
piijetuti. Evam sahayassa sasanam datva : gacchati vat a 're 
dasabalassa sarasararnsijalam vimuiicamano mahabodhirukkho 
ti kanditva ^ afijahm paggahetva assuni pavattayamano 
atthasi. Sa pi kho mahabodhisamarulha nava passato * 
maharajassa mahasamuddatalarn pakkhanta. Mahasamudde 
pi samanta yojanam viciyo vupasanta, pancavannani padu- 
mani pupphitani, antahkkhe dibbani turiyani vajjirasu,^ 
akase ^ jalathalarukkhadisannissitahi devatahi pavattita ati- 
viya ulara puja ahosi. Sanghamittattheri pi ^ supannariipena 
mahasamudde nagakulani santasesi. Te samutrastarupa naga 
agantva tarn vibhutim passitva therim yacitva mahabodhim 
nagabhavanarn atiharitva satta divasani [98] nagarajjena 
pujetva puna navayam patitthapesurn. Tani divasam eva 
nava Jambukolapattanam agamasi. Asokamaharaja pi maha- 
bodhiviyogadukkhito ® kanditva roditva yava dassanavisayam 
oloketva patinivatti. 

102. Devanampiyatisso maharaja pi kho Sumanasamanerassa 
vacanena magasiramasassa ® pathamapatipadadivasatoppa- 
bhuti 1^ uttaradvarato patthaya yava Jambukolapattanarn 

^ P. -diparajja-. ^ P.E. magasirassa. 

* P.E. vanditva. * P.E.V. repeat passato. 

^ P.E. pavajjimsu. * T.O. akasato. 

' T.O. omit. * 8 T.O. add pi. 

" P.E. magasirassa. i" T.O. divasato pabhuti. 

Acariyaparampard 209 

tava 1 maggam sodhapetva alankarapetva nagarato nik- 
khamanadivase uttaradvarasamipe Samuddasalavatthusmim ^ 
thito yeva taya vibhutiya mahasamudde agacchantam yeva 
mahabodhim therassa anubhavena disva tutthamanaso nik- 
khamitva sabbam maggam pancavannehi pupphehi okirapento 
antar'antara ^ puppha-agghiyani thapento ekahen'eva Jam- 
bukolapattanam gantva sabbatalavacaraparivuto puppha- 
dhupagandhadihi pujayamano galappamanam udakam oruyha : 
agato vat a 're dasabalassa sarasaramsijalavissajjanako maha- 
bodhirukkho * ti pasannacitto mahabodhim ukkhipitva utta- 
mange sirasmim patitthapetva mahabodhim parivaretva 
agatehi solasahi jatisampannakulehi saddhim samuddato 
paccuttaritva samuddatire mahabodhim thapetva tini 
divasani sakala-Tambapannidipe rajjena pujesi, solasannam 
jatisampannakulanam raj jam vicaresi. 

Atha catutthe divase mahabodhim adaya ulararn pujam 
kurumano anupubbena Anuradhapuram sampatto. Anuradha- 
pure pi mahasakkararn katva catuddasidivase ^ yeva vad- 
dhamanakacchayaya mahabodhim uttaradvarena pavesetva 
nagaramajjhena [99] atiharanto dakkhinadvarena nikkhamitva 
dakkhinadvarato paiicadhanusatikatthane yattha amhakam 
sammasambuddho ^ nirodhasamapattim samapajjitva nisidi, 
purimaka ca tayo sammasambuddha samapattirn appetva 
nisidimsu, yattha Kakusandhassa bhagavato mahasirisa- 
bodhi,'' Konagamanassa bhagavato pana udumbarabodhi, 
Kassapassa sammasambuddhassa ^ ca nigrodhabodhi patit- 
thasi, tasmim Mahameghavan'uyyanassa tilakabhute Sumana- 
samanerassa vacanena pathamam eva katabhumiparikamme 
rajavatthudvarakotthakatthane mahabodhim patitthapesi. 
Katharn. Tani kira bodhim parivaretva agatani solasa jati- 
sampannakulani rajavesam ganhimsu, raja dovarikavesam 
ganhi. Solasa kulani ca ^ mahabodhirn gahetva oropayimsu. 
Mahabodhi tesam hatthato muttasamanantaram eva asitihat- 
thappamanam vehasam abbhuggantva chabbannaramsiyo 
mufici, sarasararnsiyo sakaladipam pattharitva upari Brahma- 
lokam ahacca atthamsu. 

^ T.O. omit. 2 E, -salavatthu-. ^ T.O. antar'antare. 

* T.O. bodhirukkho. ^ T.O.E. catuddasadivase. * T.O. sambuddho. 
' E. -sirisa-. ^ P.E. Kassapasamma-. ' P. omits. 

210 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

103. Mahabodhipatihariyam disva sanjatappasadani dasa- 
purisasahassani anupubbavipassanam patthapetva arahattam 
patva pabbajimsu. Yava suriyass' atthangama mahabodhi 
antalikkhe atthasi, atthangamite ^ pana suriye rohininak- 
khattena ^ pathaviyam patitthahi. Saha bodhipatitthana 
udakapariyantam katva mahapathavi akampi. Patitthahitva 
ca pana mahabodhi satta divasani himagabbhe sannisidi, 
lokassa adassanam agamasi. Sattame divase vigatavalahakam 
nabham ahosi. Chabbannaramsiyo jalanta vipphuranta 
niccharimsu. Mahabodhissa khandho ca sakhayo ca [100] 
tani ca panca phalani dissimsu.^ 

Mahindatthero ca Sanghamittattheri ca raja ca saparivara 
mahabodhitthanam eva agamimsu ; yebhuyyena ca sabba- 
dipavasino sannipatimsu. Tesam passantanam yeva uttara- 
sakhato ekam phalam paccitva sakhato mucci. Thero hattham 
upanamesi. Phalam therassa hatthe patitthasi. Tarn thero : 
ropaya maharajati raniio adasi. Raja gahetva suvannakatahe 
madhurapamsum * akiritva gandhakalalam puretva ropetva 
mahabodhi-asannatthane ^ thapesi. Sabbesam passantanam 
yeva catuhatthappamana attha tarunabodhirukkha utthahimsu . 
Raja tarn acchariyam disva attha tarunabodhirukkhe setacchat- 
tena pujetva abhisekam adasi. Tato ekam bodhirukkham 
agamanakale mahabodhina pathamapatitthitokase Jambukola- 
pattane ropayimsu, ekam Tavakkabrahmanassa ^ gamadvare, 
ekam Thuparame, ekam Issaranimmanavihare," ekam Patha- 
macetiyatthane, ekam Cetiyapabbate, ekam Rohanajanapa- 
damhi Kacaragame/ ekam Rohanajanapadamhi yeva 
Candanagame. Itaresam catunnam phalanam bijehi jate ^ 
dvattimsabodhitarune yojaniyayojanlyesu ^° aramesu patit- 

Evam puttanattuparamparaya^^samanta dipavaslnam hitaya 
sukhaya patitthite dasabalassa ^2 dhammadhajabhute^^ [101] 
mahabodhimhi Anuladevi paiicahi kaiinasatehi pancahi ca 

1 P.E. atthamite. 2 T.O.E. rohini-. 

' P.E. dassimsu. *• T.O. -pamsu. 

s P.E. -asanatthane ; Sp. maha-asannatthane. 

* Mhv. Tivakka-. ' T.O. -nimmana-. 

^ T.O. Kataragame ; Bp. Gocaragame. * T.O. omit. 

^" P. yojaniyayojanlyesu ; Sp. yojaniyaramesu. 
11 T.O. -natta-. " p.g. omit. 

Acariyaparampara 211 

antepurikasatehiti matugamasahassena saddhim Sanghamit- 
tattheriya santike pabbajitva na cirass' eva saparivara arahatte 
patitthasi. Arittho pi kho ranno bhagineyyo paficahi purisa- 
satehi saddhim therassa santike pabbajitva na cirass' eva 
saparivaro arahatte patitthasi. 

104. Ath* ekadivasam raja mahabodhim vanditva therena 
saddhim Thiiparamam gacchati. Tassa ^ Lohapasadatthanam 
sampattassa purisa pupphani abhiharimsu. Raja therassa 
pupphani adasi. Thero pupphehi Lohapasadatthanam piijesi. 
Pupphesu bhiimiyarn ^ patitamattesu mahabhumicalo ahosi. 
Raja : kasma bhante bhumi caHtati ^ pucchi. Imasmim 
maharaja okase sanghassa anagate uposathagararn bhavissati, 
tass'etam pubbanimittan ti. 

Raja puna therena saddhim gacchanto Ambanganatthanam 
patto, tatth' assa vannagandharasasampannarti * atimadhura- 
rasarn ekam ambapakkarn ahariyittha. Raja tarn therassa 
paribhogatthaya adasi. Thero tatth'eva paribhunjitva : idam 
etth'eva ropapeth^ti ^ aha. Raja tarn ambatthim gahetva 
tatth'eva ropapetva udakarn asiiici. Saha ambabijaropanena 
pathavi sankampi. Raja : kasma bhante pathavi kampitthati 
pucchi. Imasmirn maharaja okase sanghassa anagate Ambanga- 
nam nama sannipatatthanam bhavissati, tass'etam pub- 
banimittan ti. 

Raja tattha attha pupphamutthiyo okiritva vanditva puna 
therena saddhim gacchanto Mahacetiyatthanam patto. Tat- 
th'assa campakapupphani abhiharimsu, tani raja therassa 
adasi. Thero Mahacetiyatthanam pupphehi pujetva vandi.® 
Tavad eva mahapathavi sankampi.^ Raja : kasma bhante 
pathavi sankampitthati ^ pucchi. Imasmim maharaja okase 
anagate Buddhassa bhagavato asadiso mahathupo bhavissati, 
[102] tass'etam pubbanimittan ti. Aham eva karomi bhante 
ti. Alarn maharaja tumhakam afinam bahum kammarn ^ 
atthi, tumhakam pana natta Dutthagamani Abhayo nama 
raja 1° karessatiti. 

1 T.O. Tattha. « E. bhtimim ; T.O. bhumiya. 

^ Sp. calittha. * P.E. omit -rasa-. 

^ P.E.V. ropapehiti. ' T.O. vanditva tavad eva. 

' T.O. kampi. ^ T.O. kampitthati. 

» E. kiccam. i» P.E. omit. 

212 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

105. Atha raja : sace bhante mayham natta karissati katam 
yeva mayati dvadasahattham pasanatthambham aharapetva : 
Devanampiyatissaranno natta Dutthagamani ^ Abhayo nama 
imasmim padese thupam karotuti ^ likhapetva patitthapetva 
vanditva ^ theram pucchi : patitthitam nu kho bhante Tam- 
bapannidipe sasanan ti. Patitthitam maharaja sasanam, 
mulani pan'assa na tava otarantiti. Kada pana bhante mulani 
otinnani nama bhavissantiti. Yada maharaja Tambapannidi- 
pakanam matapitunnam Tambapannidipe jato darako Tam- 
bapannidipe pabbajitva Tambapannidipamhi yeva vinayam 
uggahetva Tambapannidipe vacessati, tada sasanassa miilani 
otinnani nama bhavissantiti. Atthi pana bhante ediso bhik- 
khuti. Atthi maharaja Maha-arittho ^ bhikkhu patibalo 
etasmirn kamme ti.^ Kim ^ maya ettha bhante katabban ti. 
Mandaparn maharaja katum vattatiti. Sadhu bhante ti raja 
Meghavannabhayassa amaccassa parivenatthane mahasan- 
gitikale Ajatasattumaharajena katam andapappakararn ^ 
rajanubhavena mandaparn karapetva ^ sabbatalavacare 
sakasakasippe payojetva : sasanassa mulani otarantani passis- 
samiti anekapurisasahassaparivuto Thiiparamarn anuppatto. 

106. Tena kho pana samayena Thiiparame atthasatthi 
bhikkhusahassani sannipatirnsu. Mahamahindattherassa asa- 
nam dakkhinabhimukharn [103] pailiiattarn hoti, Maha- 
aritthattherassa dhammasanarn uttarabhimukharn panfiattam 
hoti. Atha kho Maha-aritthatthero Mahindattherena ajjhittho 
attano anuriipena pattanukkamena dhammasane nisidi. Mahin- 
dattherapamukha atthasatthi mahathera dhammasanarn pari- 
varetva nisidirnsu. Railiio pi kanitthabhata Mattabhayatthero 
nama dhuraggaho hutva : vinayarn ganhissamiti paiicahi 
bhikkhusatehi ^ saddhim Maha-aritthattherassa dhammasanam 
eva parivaretva nisidi. Avasesa pi bhikkhii sarajika ca parisa 
attano attano pattasane nisidirnsu. Athayasma Maha-aritthat- 
thero : tena samayena Buddho bhagavd Veranjdyam viharati 
Nalerupucimandamule ti vinayanidanarn abhasi. Bhasite ca 

1 T.O.E. -gamini. 2 p e add akkharani. 

3 T.O. omit. * T.O. omit Maha. 

^ T.O. omit. « P.E.V. Maya ettha bhante kim. 

' T.O. -mandapakaram. ® P.E. karetva. 

* P.E. paiicabhikkhu-. 

Acariyaparampard 213 

panayasmata Aritthattherena vinayanidane akasam maha- 
viravam ^ viravi, akalavijjullata niccharimsu, devata sadhu- 
karam adamsu, mahapathavi udakapariyantam katva san- 
kampi. Evam anekesu patihariyesu vattamanesu ayasma 
Aritthatthero Mahamahindappamukhehi ^ atthasatthiya pac- 
cekaganihi khinasavamahatherehi tad anfiehi ca atthasatthisa- 
hassehi bhikkhuhi parivuto pathamakattikapavaranadivase 
Thuparamaviharamajjhe satthu karunagunaparidipakam bha- 
gavato anusitthikaranam kayakammavacikammavipphandi- 
tavinayanam Vinayapitakam pakasesi. Pakasetva ca yavat 
ayukam titthamano bahunnam vacetva bahunnam hadaye 
patitthapetva anupadisesaya nibbanadhatuya parinabbayi. 
Te pi kho Mahamahindappamukha ^ tasmim samagame : 

[104] Atthasatthi mahathera dhuraggaha samagata 
paccekaganino sabbe dhammarajassa savaka. 
Khinasava vasippatta tevijja iddhikovida 
uttamattham abhinnaya anusasimsu rajino. 
Alokam dassayitvana obhasetva mahim imam 
jalitva aggikkhandha va parinibbimsu * mahesayo. 
Tesam parinibbanato aparabhage anne pi tesam theranam 
antevasika Tissadatta-Kalasumana-Dighasumanadayo ca 
Maha-aritthattherassa antevasika antevasikanam antevasika 
cati evam pubbe vuttappakara acariyaparampara imam 
Vinayapitakam yava ajjatana anesum. Tena vuttam : tatiya- 
sangahato pana uddham imam dipam Mahindadihi abhatam. 
Mahindato uggahetva kailci kalam Aritthattheradihi abhatam, 
tato yava ajjatana tesam antevasikaparamparabhutaya acari- 
yaparamparaya abhatan ti.^ 

107. Katthappatitthitan ti. Yesam palito ® ca atthato ca 
anunam vattati manighate pakkhittatelam iva isakam pi na 
paggharati, evanipesu adhimattasatigatidhitimantesu lajji- 
kukkuccakesu ' sikkhakamesu puggalesu patitthitan ti veditab- 
bam. Tasma vinayapatitthapanattham vinayapariyattiya 
anisamsam sallakkhetva sikkhakamena bhikkhuna vinayo 

1 T.O. -viravitam, ^ T.O. Mahindattherapamukhehi. 

3 T.O. Mahamahindattherapamukha. 

* E. nibbayimsu ; T.O.parinibbayimsu. ^ O. ends here. 

^ T. palito. ' P. lajjisu kukkuccakesu. 

214 Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddne 

pariyapunitabbo. Tatrayam vinayapariyattiya anisamso : 
vinayapariyattikusalo hi puggalo sasane patiladdhasaddhanam 
kulaputtanam matupitutthaniyo ^ hoti, tad ayatta hi nesam 
pabbajja upasampada vattanuvattapatipatti acaragocarakusa- 
lata. Api c'assa vinayapariyattim nissaya attano silakkhandho 
sugutto hoti surakkhito, kukkuccapakatanam patisaranam 
hoti, visarado sanghamajjhe voharati, paccatthike sahadham- 
mena suniggahitam nigganhati, [105] saddhammatthitiya 
patipanno hoti. Tenaha bhagava : pane 'ime bhikkhave 
anisamsa vinayadhare puggale : attano silakkhandho sugutto 
hoti surakkhito -pe- saddhammatthitiya patipanno hotiti. Ye 
capi samvaramulaka kusala dhamma vutta bhagavata, vina- 
yadharo puggalo tesam dayado vinayamulakatta tesam 
dhammanam. Vuttam pi h'etam bhagavata : vinayo sam- 
varatthaya samvaro avippatisaratthaya avippatisaro pamuj- 
jatthayapamujjampit'atthayapiti passaddh'atthaya passaddhi 
sukhatthaya sukham samadh'atthaya samadhi yathabhiita- 
nanadassanatthaya yathabhutananadassanam nibbid'atthaya 
nibbida viragatthaya virago vimutt'atthaya vimutti vimut- 
tiiianadassanatthaya vimuttifianadassanarn anupada parinib- 
banatthaya ; etad attha katha etad attha mantana ^ etad 
attha upanisa etad attham sotavadhanam, yad idam anupada 
cittassa vimokkho ti. Tasma vinayapariyattiya ayogo 
karaniyo ti. 

Ettavata ca ya sa vinayasamvannanattham matika thapita, 
tattha : 

Vuttam yena yada yasma dharitam yena cabhatam, 
yatthappatitthitaii c'etam etarn vatva vidhim tato ti, 

imissa tava gathaya attho pakasito. Vinayassa ca bahiranidana- 
vannana yathadhippayam samvannita hotiti. 

Bahiranidanavannana nitthita. 

1 P.E.V. matapitu-. 

2 T.O.E. mantana. 


The numbers refer to paragraphs. For proper names see the Index of 
Proper Names. 

akkhaka, see dakkhin'akkhaka 

akkharappabheda, 42 

akkhipuja, 45 

aggim paricarati, 55 

ankura, 99 

anga, 30, 49 

anga (asinnavarigasatthusasana), 16, 

31, 38, 49 
ajjhacara, 21, 25 
aiinatitthiya, 62 
anjalikamma, 87 

atthakatha. 1, 2, 43 ; sa-attha-, 52 
atta, att'attha, 22 ; -paiicama, 64 ; 

-bhava, 72 ; -sattama, 75 
attha, 26, 27, 107; -patisambhida. 

27 ; -vannana, 2 
adasakanisldana (kappa), 38 
aditthasahayaka, 78 
adhamma, 4 ; -vadi, 4, 38 
adhikarana, 38-40, 55, 60, 61 
adhikaranasamatha, 14 
adhikara, 50 

adhiccasamuppannika, 62 
adhitthana, 95, 97 ; pafica-maha, 97 ; 

adhitthasi, 42, 60, 77, 82 
anayavyasana, 90-2 
anavajjasanfil, 29 
anagami, 36, 37 
anathavasa (v.l., -vassa), 87 
anapatti, 14, 32 
analaya, 38 

anasava, 11, 38 ; see khinasava 
aniccata, 8 
aniyata, 14 
anuttara dhamma, 23 
anupannatti, 14, 21 
anupada, 11, 107 
anupadisesa, 3, 17, 106 
anupubbavipassana, 103 
anupubbavihara, 3 
anumati, 5 
anumatikappa, 38 
anumodana, 48 
anuvyanjana, 45 
anusandhi, 32 
anusaya, 26 
anusasanta, 17 
anusitthikara, 106 
anekanusandhika, 32 
antarapatti, 32 

antaraya, 1, 29 

antarayika dhamma, 29 

antanantika, 62 

antepura, 46, 48, 85 ; -purika, 95, 96, 

antevasi, 52 ; -ika, 59, 106 ; -ika 

parampara, 63 
appamada, 11, 19, 48, 53 
abbuda, 39, 55 

abbhutadhamma, the anga, 28, 31 
abhinna, 3, 29 ; -padaka, 60, 82 
abhidhamma, 23, 24, 29, 32 ; see 

Abhidhammapitaka, Proper Names 
abhivadana, 87 
abhivinaya, 23 
abhisanda, 1 
abhisamaya, 27 ; see also dhamma- 

abhiseka. 44, 52, 53, 56, 74, 76, 79, 

98, 99, 103 ; -atthaya pannakara, 

78 ; -sattaha, 99 ; pattabhiseka- 

rajano, 98 ; rajjabhiseka, 74 ; 

anabhisitta, 44, 89 
amacca, 48, 49, 55-8, 61, 77, 83-6, 

95, 97, 101 
amata, 89 ; -pada, 40, 48 ; see 

amathitakappa, 38 
amanussa, 77 
amaravikkhepika, 62 
amba, -pakka, 104 ; -rukkha, 80 
arahatta, 11, 12, 43, 47, 52, 86, 103 
arahanta, 4, 37, 46. 47, 79, 86 
ariyasangha, 1, 98 
alagadda, 28 ; alagaddiipama pari- 

yatti, 28 
avijja, 1 

avinaya, 4 ; -vadi, 4 
avippatisara, 107 
asaniiivada, 62 
asatthaghataraha, 97 
asadisa mahathupa, 104 
asiggahaka, 59 
asura, 99 

asekha dhamma, 23 
asekhapatisambhida, 5 

agataphala, 81 

acariya, 42, 43, 47, 48, 52 

acariyaparampara, 35, 37, 63, 106 



Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddnam 

acaragocarakusalata, 107 

acinnakappa, 38 

ajlvaka, 46 

ana, 25 ; anacakka, 10 ; anadesana, 

adiccam anuparivattati, 55 

adiraja, 76 

anupubblkatha, 47, 64 

anubhava, 12, 37, 45, 47. 49, 56, 102 ; 
theranubhava, 93, 97 ; devatanu-, 
92, 93; punnanu-, 45, 78; Bud- 
dhanu-, 90, 93 ; rajanu-, 105 ; 
vigata-, 65 

apatti, 14 

amisapannakara, 78 

ayusankhara, 53 

arakkha, 58, 60, 62, 72 

arammana, rupa-, sadda-, 23 

arama, 84 

avasakappa, 38 

avasatthana, 84 

asava, 1, 11 ; asavakkhaya, 19 

asana, 42, 48, 83 ; asanapannatti, 83 

upadinnaphassa, 29 

uparambha, 28 

upasaka, 38, 73, 74 

upasika, 47 

uposatha, 38, 54, 55, 57, 61, 62, 74, 

87 ; -agara, 104 ; -divasa, 87, 99 
uppadapathaka (v.l., uppata-), 83 
uppabbajeti, 62 
ummada, 29 

ekaccasassatika, 62 
ekabhattika, 72 
ekamatika, 44, 55 
ekanusandhika, 32 
etadagga, 4, 13 


oparajja, see uparaja 
ovada, 48, 85 

itivada, 28 

itivuttaka, the anga, 28, 31 

itihasa, 42 

iddhi, 44, 49 ; iddhikovida, 106 ; 
iddhanubhava, 65, 89 ; iddhip- 
patta, 79 ; iddhibala, 79 ; mah'id- 
dhika, 66, 67, 72, 74 ; -tara, 65 

indriya, 48 

iriyapatha, 11, 46-8 

isi, 69, 70, 106; isivataparivata, 65, 


uccasayanamahasayana, 83 

ucchedavada, 62 

uttarasanga, 56 

udakapata, 84 

udakasatika, 92 

udana, the anga, 28, 31 

udanagatha, 19, 23 

uddana, 23 

uddhacca, 11 

upajjhaya. 36, 37, 43, 47, 48, 52, 73 

upanissayasampatti, 51 

upanisa, 107 

uparaja, 51, 56 ; oparajja, 51, 56 

upasama, 41, 46 

upasampada, 48, 107 ; -kamma, 64 

-sima, 52 ; upasampanna, 52 
upassaya, 95 


kahkha, 60 

kataha, 97 ; see suvannakataha 

kantaka, 55 

katha, 67, 69, 81-3 ; -bheda, 25 

kappa, 1, 45; kappa (dasa), 38; 

kappiya, 10 
kammatthana, 43 
karakavassa, 65 
karunaguna, 106 
kalahaviggaha, 92 
kalyanadhamma, 72 
kahapana, 38 
kamavacaradevaloka, 39 
kayakamma, 21, 106 
kayagatasati, 11 
kayabandhana, 83, 91 
kalapakkha, 99 
kasayani vatthani, 54, 94 
kasavapajjota, 65, 79 
kilesa, 1, 26, 28 
kukkucca, 61 ; -pakata, 107 ; kuk- 

kuccayita, 56 
kutumbikakula, 100 
kumbhanda, 65 
kusalatthika, 1 
kusaladhippaya, 57 
kusalasambhara, 27 
ketubha, 42 
ketumala, 45 
kojavaka, 83 

Index to Pali Text 



khandaphullapatisankharana, 8, 9 
khattiya, -ya, 96 ; -kula, 68 ; -jana, 

khandha, 19 ; see parinnatakkhandha 

and silakkhandha 
khaya, 19 
khinasava, 4, 28, 36-8, 40, 49, 50, 

79, 106 ; -mahathera, 106 
khuragga, 47, 86 

chatakaroga, 91 
chinnabhinnapatadhara, 65, 77 

janapada, 64, 73, 74 

jalogi (kappa), 38 

jataka, 69 

jataka, the anga, 28, 31 

jataruparajata (kappa), 38 

jati, 19 

jurihapakkha, 99 

gana, 33, 55 ; -kamma, 54 ; -pamok- 
kha, 98 ; -sajjhaya, 14 ; see also 
pancavagga gana and paccekagni 

gandhakalala, 98, 103 

gandhakuti, 8 

gandhabba, 65 

gabbha, 74 ; see paripunnagabbha 

gambhirabhava, 24, 26, 21 

gahakaraka, 19 

gahakuta, 19 

gatha, the anga, 28, 31 

gamantarakappa, 38 

geyya, the anga, 28, 31 

gocara, 6 

gopakula, 100 


ghasacchadana, 54 

cakkavala, 99 ; -gabbha, 99 

cankama, 11 

candala, jetthaka-, 47 ; -gama, 47 

cammakhanda, 58 

catumasini punnama, 89 

citta, 9, 42, 57, 61 ; -kkhepa, 29 ; 

-varabhajana, 32 ; cittassa vimok- 

kha, 107 ; samahita-, 82 
civara, 43, 56, 83 
cetiya, 48, 54, 83, 90-3 ; paribhoga 

cetiya, 90, 93 
cetopariyakovida, 79 
cel'ukkhepa, 98 



jhana, 3 ; catutthaj-, 60, 82 ; patha- 
maj-, 3 

natti, 6 

nana, 1 ; -dassana, 107 

iiataka, 61, 73, 80 

tattika, 83 

tanha, 26 

tathagata, see Proper Names 

tantikkama, 1 

tarunabodhirukkha, 103 

tikapariccheda, 32 

tikabhajana, 32 


titthiya, 9, 39, 54, 55, 62 ; -vada, 9 

tipitaka, 4, 62 ; -dhara, 38, 40, 43, 

44 ; -pariyattidhara, 62 ; -sanga- 

hita, 52 ; tipetaka, 63 
tejodhatu, 53 
tevijja, 4, 62, 106 


thera, 1-12, 13, 15, 33-5, 37-43, 47- 
87, 90-5, 103-7 ; see Elder, General 
Index ; thera vada, 1 , 52 ; thera- 
sana, 10, 14, 55 ; therika, 33 ; 
theri,51,73,95,96, 101,103 

thupa, 87, 88, 93, 94, 104, 105; 
-patitthana, 87 ; see also mani- 

Ghana, 56, 74, 77 
chanda, 5 
chaiabhifina, 35, 74 

dakkhin'akkhaka, 87, 88, 93, 97 
dakkhinadatha, 87, 88 


Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddnam 

dakkhinasakha, 97, 98 

dandakamma, 40 

dasabala, 5. 8, 33. 38. 39, 50, 84, 93, 

dasabhatika-rajakula, 86 

dasabhatuka-rajano, 76 

damarika. 76 

ditthadhammanibbanavada, 62 

diiihasacca, 74 

ditthi, 25. 26, 39 ; -gata, 54 ; -vini- 
vethanakatha, 25 

dipa, 63. 72. 75-7, 84, 90-2. 94. 95. 
102, 103. 106 ; -'ntara, 1 ; -vara, 
75 ; -vasi, 103 

dukabhajana, 32 

dukkha, 19 

duggahita. 57 

duppatipanna. 29 

dubbhikkha. 91 

dubbutthika, 91 

dussassa, 91 

dussilabhava. 29 

deyyadhamma. 50 

deva, 10. 17, 45, 89, 94, 98, 100; 
-kula, 100 ; -duta, 66 ; -raja, 87, 
88 ; -loka, 39, 89 ; devanaminda, 
75, 87, 88 ; devata, 44, 47, 82, 92, 
93, 99, 106; -sannipata, 82; 
sa-devaka, 65 

desana, 24, 26, 27, 84 

dosa, 5 

dvangulakappa. 38 

dvattimsakara. 43 

dve}liakajata, 58 


dhamma (the Dhamma), 1, 3-6, 9, 13, 
15, 18, 26. 28. 29. 32. 33. 35. 38. 49, 
52, 55, 62, 78. 81, 90-2, 107; 
-abhisamaya, 65, 67, 72. 82-4. 
90-2 ; -amata, 68 ; -asana. 10, 
13-15, 106 ; -katha, 65 ; -kathika, 
58 ; -karaka, 90 ; -kkhandha, 16, 
32, 33, 38, 49; -cakka. 10; 
-cakkhu. 66 ; -citta, 29 ; -desana, 
83; -dhaja, 103; -dhara, 54; 
-patisambhida, 27 ; -pannakara, 
78 ; -pufija, 25 ; -ratana-vassa, 
83; -raja (Asoka). 78, 87. 88. 
101 ; (Buddha). 77, 79. 106 ; 
-vara, 1 ; -vadi. 4 ; -vinaya, 3, 16, 
18, 33, 43, 55 ; -vinaya-sangaha, 
10 ; -sangaha. 10 ; -sangahaka. 
35 ; -sangiti. 5, 64 ; -sabha, 12 ; 
-savana, 82 

dhamma (phenomena), 23, 27 

dhamma (principles), 48 

dhammi katha, 65 

dhatu, 87-9, 93, 94, 97 ; -cangotaka, 
89 ; -patitthana, 93, 94 ; -pati- 
hariya, 94 ; puja, 7, 94 ; -maha, 
93 ; -sarira, 87, 94 

dhura, 13, 15 ; -ggaha, 37, 106 


nakkhatta, 77 

navakamma, 49 

navanga, 33, 49 ; -satthusasana, 4 

naga, 17, 45, 65, 78. 82. 94. 100, 101 ; 

-kula, 101 ; -bala, 65 ; bhavana, 

44. 101 ; -raja, 44, 45, 65, 94 ; 

-rajja, 101 
naga (elephant), 93 
naga (sage), 63, 74, 88 ; see also 

mahanaga, samananaga 
nagalata, 44 
natha, 1 

namarupa, 25 ; -paricchedakatha, 25 
nikaya, 15, 16, 30, 38, 63 
nigantha. 46 
nigrodharukkha, 47 
nighandu, 42 
nijjhana, 28 
nidana, 2, 14, 15, 34 
nipata, 33 
nibbana, 3, 7-9 passim ; -dhatu, 3, 

17, 106 
nibbida, 107 

nirodha, 28 ; -samapatti, 94, 102 
nissaggiyapacittiya, 14 
nissaranattha (pariyatti), 28 
n'evasafininasannivada, 62 

pakatannuta, 36, 37 

pakarana, 63 

paccanta. 55. 89 ; -imajanapada. 64 

paccaya. 28, 51, 53, 87 ; -dayaka, 50, 

51 ; catupaccaya, 49, 54 
paccayakara. 19 
paccutthana. 87 
paccekagani, 106 
pacchasamana, 8 
pajjaraka, 90 
pancatapa, 55 
pancavagga gana, 64 
paiicavannani pupphani, 83, 102 
pancasata, 33 
pancasila, 48 
pannatti, 14, 27 
paiina, 1, 26 ; -sampada, 29 

Index to Pali Text 


patipatti, 55 

pativedha, 26, 27 

patividdhakuppa, 28 

patisanthara, 41 

patisambhida, 1, 4, 27, 29, 38-40, 42, 

52 ; -ppatta, 42 ; pabhinna-pati- 

sambhida, 40, 62 
pathavi, 51, 52, 83, 84 ; -kampa, 84 ; 

-kampana, 60 ; padesapathavi- 

kampana, 60 
pandaranga, 46 
pandita, 63 
panna, 49 ; -akara, 78 
pannasaka, 33 
patta, 48, 83, 88 ; -civara, 8, 9, 12, 

43, 47, 56, 87 
padakkhina, 43, 98 
padabhajaniya, 32 
padhana, 1 1 ; -ghara, 56 
pabbajati, 39, 51, 54, 56, 65-72, 81. 

86, 94-6, 103, 105 
pabbajja, 42, 43, 48, 51, 54, 107 ; 

-apekkha, 81 ; -purekkhara, 96 
pabbajita, 41 

pabbajeti, 42, 43, 51, 52, 86, 95, 96 
pamadalekha, 1 
par'attha, 22 
parappavada, 62 
paramatthadesana, 25 
parikamma, 43 
parikkhara, 38 
pariccaga, 50, 51 
parinfiatakkhandha, 28 
parinibbana, 3, 7, 8, 9, 19, 44, 76, 97, 

107 ; -nibbayati, 53, 76, 106 ; 

nibbuta, 3, 9, 35, 38, 40, 76, 87, 93, 

paripunnagabbha, 47 
paribbajaka, 46, 48 
pariyatti, 4, 13, 24, 28, 29 ; -bheda, 

pariyutthana, 26 
parivena, 9, 43, 105 
pallanka, 42, 45, 48, 53, 65 ; raja- 

pallanka, 48 
pavarana, 54, 55 ; -divasa, 99, 106 
pavareti, 87 
pasannacitta, 83 
pasada, pothujjanika, 48 
pasarana, 48 
passaddhi, 107 
paharanavutthi, 65 
pahana, 24, 26, 27 
pahinakilesa, 28 
pacittiya, 14 
patidesaniya, 14 
patipadadivasa, 19, 99, 101, 102 

patihariya, 50, 60, 61, 93, 94, 98, 

99, 103, 106; see yamakapati- 

patihira, 98 
panatipata, 72 
papa, 57, 61 
pamokkha, 52 

pamujja, 56, 107 ; pamojja, 51 
parajika, 14, 21, 34 
pali, 13, 26, 107 ; -nayanurupa, 1 
pavacana, 3 
pasanda, 46 ; bahira-, 46 ; brah- 

manajatiya-, 46 
pasanathambha, 105 
pitaka, 16, 20-9, 33, 38, 63 
pisaca, 72 
piti, 48, 89, 98, 107 ; -pamojja, 50, 89, 

puggala, 14, 15, 34 
punna, 1 1 ; -anubhava ; see anubhava ; 

katapunfia, 48. 
puthujjana, 4, 36, 37 
pupphagghiya, 102 
pubbacariya, 1 
pujasamaya, 65 
pema, 48 

peyyalasangaha, 33 
pokkharani, 53, 56 
pokkharavassa, 89 
porana, 63, 74, 75 


phassa, 23 

phasuka, 19 

phasuvihara, 55 

phala, pathama-, 65 ; magga-, 69, 

70, 71 ; sotapatti-, 43, 83 ; (maha- 

bodhissa), 99, 103 


bandhana, 65, QQ 

bahussuta, 54, 63 

Buddha, see Proper Names ; -anu- 
bhava, 91 ; -kicca, 3 ; -cakkhu, 
75, 90-2 ; -dhamma, 93 ; -manta, 
42 ; -vacana, 15, 16, 18, 19, 29-33, 
39-41,43,82; -vesa, 97 ; -sasana, 
13, 39, 46, 48, 50, 87, 98; see 
sambuddha and sammasambuddha 

Buddha, purimaka tayo, 93 ; see 

bubbulaka, 98 

Bodhi, see Proper Names 


Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddnam 

Brahma, see Proper Names ; -kayika 
deva. 98 ; -loka, 39. 41, 42. 51, 82. 
99, 102 ; -vimana, 10 

brahmana, 41-3, 46, 48 ; -kula, 100 ; 
-bhatta, 46 

Bhagava. see Proper Names ; s.v. 

Exalted One 
bhndagarikapariyatti, 28 
bhandukasavavasana. 65, 77 
bhatta, 81, 97; -kicca, 41, 48, 83, 

97 ; -vissagga, 41 ; dhuvabhatta, 

bhadra, 61 
bhaya (agati), 5 
bhayabherava, 61 
bhavabhava, 1 
bhavitamagga, 28 
bhasantara, 1 
bhimsanaka, 65 
bhikkha, 74 
bhikkhacaravatta, 53 
bhikkhu, 1, 4-10, 13-15, 38. 40. 48. 

50. 54. 56, 57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 

72, 75, 78, 79, 90-2, 94, 97; 

-sangha, 7, 8, 10, 11. 15. 38. 44. 

48. 49-51, 53, 55, 62, 73, 84, 90. 

97. 98 
bhummatthaka deva, 98 
bhumicala, see mahabhumicala 


magga, -kovida, 63 ; -phala, 69-72 ; 

see also bhavitamagga 
mangalahatthi. 83. 87-9 
maccu, 48 
majjapana. 72 
mianithupa, 88 
mandapa, 10, 83, 105 
mandala, Mahisaka-, 64, 66 
madhurapamsu, 103 
manussavasa, 76 
manta, 39, 42 
mantana. 107 
marana. paricchinna-, 56 ; assasapas- 

sasupanibaddha-, 56 
mala, 1, 55 
mahakathi, 63 
mahathera. atthasatthi. 106 
mahanaga. 74, 88 
mahapafina. 63 
mahapathavi. 103. 104, 106 ; maha- 

puthuvi, 99 
mahaparinibbanamafica, 97 
mahapurisalakkhana, 45 

Mahabodhi, see Proper Names, s.v. 
Bodhi ff. ; -gahana, 97 ; -tthana, 
99, 103 ; -patitthapana, 97 ; -patit- 
thitatthana, 94 ; -patihariya, 103 ; 
-pQja, 99 ; -manda. 100 ; -rak- 
khana. 100 ; -rukkhatthana. 93 ; 
tarunamahabodhi, 99 

mahabhumicala. 89. 94, 104 

mahavivada. 92 

mahavira (dhatu). 89 

mahasamana. 3 

matika. 2, 21,32, 34, 107 

matugama, 95. 103 

matulabhagineyya (nagarajano), 94 

manavaka, 15, 42 

masaka, 38 

migava, 56, 77 

micchaditthita, 29 

mundaka, 65 

mundeti, 54 

mutta (attha), 78 

metta, 23, 65 

methunadhamma, 14 

medhavi. 63 

moha (agati). 5 

yakkha. 17. 45. 65. 94, 99 ; -damana, 

94 ; -sena. 71 ; yakkhini, 65 
yathadhammanusasana, 25 
yathanulomasasana, 25 
yathaparadhasasana, 25 
yathabuddham, 12 
yathabhutananadassana, 107 
yamakapatihariya. 93. 97 
yava ajjatana. 63. 65. 106 
yuvaraja. 56 
yojana. 44, 60, 88, 98, 101 


ramsi, chabbanna-, 97, 99, 102, 103 

sarasa-, 101, i02 
rakkhasa, 65, 72 ; rakkhasl. 72 
rakkha. 94 
rajjasampadana. 100 
ratanattaya. 1, 74 
rasa, 16, 17. 33 
rajakakudhabhnda. 78 
rajavamsa, 76 
rajavatthu, 102 
rupa, 61 ; -uppatti, 23 
rohitamiga, 77 

lajjikukkuccaka, 107 
laddhi, 62 ; -ika, 62 

Index to Pali Text 


labhasakkara, 39, 54 
lena, 86 

loka, -natha, 50 ; -vivarana, 50 
lokuttara dhamma, 23, 48 

vagga, 30, 33 
vacikamma, 21, 106 
vajja-vajja, 48 

vaddhamanakacchaya, 88, 102 
vatta, 8 ; -anuvattapatipatti, 107 ; 

see also bhikkhacaravatta 
vatthu (Vinaya), 14, 15, 32, 34, 38 
vatthu (general), 61, 78 
vatthu (site), 93, 102 
vanacara, 56 
vayadhamma, 19 
vassa, 6, 86, 87 ; -upanayika, 8 ; 

-upanayikakala, 85 ; -upanayikat- 

thana, 85 ; avassika, 43 
vaha, 44 

vikkhittacitta, 48 
vighata, 29 

vijitavi, 63 

vijja, 1,29 

vifinatasasana, 81 

vitakka, 56 

vittharamagga, 1 

vinaya, 1-6, 9. 13-15, 18, 20, 23, 24, 
29, 32-8, 52, 54, 55, 62, 63. 105-7 ; 
-iifiu, 63 ; -tanti, 36 ; -dhara, 13, 
107 ; -dhare anisamsa, 107 ; -ni- 
dana, 106 ; -patitihapana, 107 ; 
pariyatti, 13, 107 ; -pariyattiya 
anisamso, 107 ; -paveni, 36 ; -vam- 
sa, 36 ; -vadi, 4 ; -sangaha, 14 ; 
-sangiti, 38 ; vinaye visarada, 63 ; 
avinaya, avinayavadi, 4 ; see also 
Vinayapitaka, Proper Names. 

vinicchaya, 1 

vipatti, 24, 28, 29 

vippatipanna, 56, 57 

vipphandita, 106 

vibhajjavada, 62 

vimutti, 1, 107; -rasa, 17; -nanadas- 
sana, 107 

viraga, 107 

viriya, 11 

vivada, 92 

visankharagata, 19 

visarada, 63 

visesa, 11 

vihara, 8-11, 48-51, 54-7, 61, 67, 74 ; 
-tthana, 84 ; -maha, 49, 50 

vijani, 10, 13-15 
vihirasisadisa, 93 
venuyatthi, 78 
Veda, 42 
vedalla, the anga, 28, 31 
veyyakarana, the anga, 23, 31 
vohara, 49 ; -desana, 49 

samvannana, 1, 2 

samvara, 25, 107 ; -mulaka, 107 ; 

samvara-samvarakatha, 25 
samsara, 19 
sakadagami, 4, 36, 37 
sakaraniya, 5, 11 
sankaravirahita, 23 
sankhara, 19 
sangaha, 14, 20. 30, 33, 35, 38, 40, 

63 ; tatiya-, 63, 106 
sangayana, 3 
sangiti, 5, 33, 38, 52, 62; tatiya-, 

35, 37, 62-4 ; dutiya-, 38, 39 ; 

pathama-, 20 
sahgha, 1-6, 13, 15, 38, 49, 52, 54, 

62, 78, 97, 98, 104 ; -kamma, 54 ; 

-tthera, 3, 74 ; -majjha, 107 ; see 

also ariyasangha and bhikkhu- 

sanghadisesa, 14 
saccakiriya, 98 ; saccavacanakiriya, 

sacchikatanirodha, 28 
safinivada, 62 
sattha, 3, 4, 7-9, 48, 106 
satthusasana, 55 ; see also navanga- 

satthusasana, sasana and Buddha- 

saddhamma, 1, 3, 38, 40, 107; 

vamsakovida, 63 ; -varacakka- 

vatti, 45 
saddha, 78 

saddhiviharika, 36-8, 64 
sannipata, 11 ; -tthana, 104 
sannivasa, 48 
sabbaniiubhava, 19 
sabha, adhikarana, 54 
samana, 42, 56, 72, 77, 78 ; -naga, 

59 ; -brahmana, 46 
samaya, 62 
samadhi, 1, 26, 29, 107 ; -sampada, 

samapatti, 102 
sambuddha, 1, 76 
sampatti, 24, 28, 29 


Samantapdsddikdya Bdhiraniddnam 

sammasambuddha, 13, 45, 62, 75, 
76, 87, 89, 94, 102 ; purimaka tayo 
sammasambuddha, 90, 92, 95, 102 

sammasambodhi, 17 

sammifijana, 48 

sarana, 48, 65, 72, 78, 81, 82, 87 

sassa, -ghata, -paka, 65 

sassatavada, 62 

sanipakara, 62 

sadhukilana, 7 

samanera, 43, 47, 48, 73, 74, 82, 87-9 

samicikamma, 87 

sariradhatu, 87, 94 

savaka, 13, 77-9, 90, 106 

sasana (the Dispensation), 1, 3, 11, 
13, 25, 30, 33, 38-40, 43, 48, 50, 51. 
54, 56, 58, 60-4, 67-73, 78, 81, 
84, 94, 105, 107; -pavatti, 79; 
-mala, 62 ; sasanassa dayada, 50, 
51 ; sasanassa mulani, 105 ; see 
also Buddhasasana and Satthu- 

sasana (admonition), 24, 27 

sasana (message), 58, 83, 95, 96, 101 

sikkha, 1, 24, 26, 27; kama, 107; 
adhicitta-, adhipanfia-, adhisila-, 

sihgilonakappa, 38 

sivika, 58, 78 

sima, 38, 52 

sila, 1, 48, 65, 72, 95; -anga, 49; 
-kkhandha, 28, 83, 107 ; -vanta, 
72 ; -sampatti, 29 

sQiapafijara, 46-8 

sukkhavipassaka, 4 

sukha, 107 

sutta, the anga, 5, 28, 31 

sutta, 1, 20, 22, 24, 28-33, 65, 66, 81 ; 
-nta, 30, 31, 82 ; -ntika, 1 ; see also 
Suttapitaka, Proper Names. 

supanna, 82, 101 

supina, 59 ; -ajjhayaka, 59 

suppatipanna, 29 

subhikkha, 91 

suvannakataha, 97-9, 103 

suvannabhinkara, 84 

sekha, 5, 11; -patisambhida, 5; 
sekha dhamma, 23 

sekhiya, 14 

setakani vatthani, 62 

setacchatta, 45, 48, 87-9, 103 

senasana, 6 

sotapattiphala, 43, 83 

sotapanna, 4, 36, 37 

solasaj atisampannakula , 1 02 


hatthikumbha, 89, 93 
hatthinaga, 56, 59, 89, 93 
hatthisala, 83, 93 
himagabbha, 103 ; -sattaha, 99 
himavalahaka, 99 ; -gabbha, 97, 99 
hetu, 27 ; -phala, 27 


Sacred books of the Buddhists